List of territorial disputes


List of territorial disputes

This is a list of ongoing territorial disputes around the world. Bold indicates one claimant's full control; italics, one or more claimants' partial control;

Contents

Disputes between recognized sovereign states

Africa

Territory Claimants Notes
Abyei  Sudan
 South Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area. Takeover by north May 2011
Bassas da India, Europa Island and Juan de Nova Island  France
 Madagascar[1]
Badme  Ethiopia
 Eritrea[1]
Bakassi  Cameroon
 Nigeria
This area was handed over by Nigeria to Cameroon following an International Court of Justice ruling, but the Senate of Nigeria has decreed the handover of territory was illegal.
Banc du Geyser  Madagascar
 Comoros
 France
Bir Tawil None
 Egypt administrated
De jure no man's land. Egypt and Sudan both claim different borders in which they would have the Hala'ib Triangle, leaving the Bir Tawil to the other. As both claim the Hala'ib Triangle, neither claims Bir Tawil.
Bure  Ethiopia
 Eritrea[2]
Caprivi Strip boundary tripoints/quadripoint  Botswana
 Namibia
 Zambia
 Zimbabwe
Ceuta[3]  Spain
 Morocco
Chagos Archipelago  United Kingdom
 Mauritius
 Seychelles
United Kingdom administers as part of British Indian Ocean Territory
Part of Gicumbi District, Northern Province  Rwanda
 Uganda
Glorioso Islands  France
 Madagascar
 Seychelles
 Comoros
Hala'ib Triangle  Egypt
 Sudan[4]
Previously under joint administration; Egypt now maintains full de facto control
Perejil Island  Spain
 Morocco
After the 2002 incident, both countries agreed to return to the status quo previous to the incident.[5]
Islas Chafarinas  Spain
 Morocco
Ilemi Triangle  Kenya
 South Sudan
Part of Kabale District  Uganda
 Rwanda
Kafia Kingi  South Sudan
 Sudan
Both Sudan and South Sudan claim the area. [6]
Kangawane Swazi homelands in parts of Mpumalanga and KwaZulu-Natal  South Africa
 Swaziland
Sindabezi Island  Zambia
 Zimbabwe[citation needed]
Part of the Katemba region  Angola
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Koualou village  Burkina Faso
 Benin
Area near Logoba/Moyo District  South Sudan
 Uganda
Lunchinda-Pweto province  Zambia
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mayotte  France
 Comoros[1]
Under the 2009 referendum, the population supported becoming an overseas department of France, and so became one on March 31, 2011.
Mbañie Island, Cocotiers, and Congas Island  Gabon
 Equatorial Guinea[7]
Islands in Mbamba Bay, Lake Nyasa  Tanzania
 Malawi
Melilla[3]  Spain
 Morocco
Migingo Island vicinity, and, farther north, the vicinity of the islands of Lolwe, Oyasi, Remba, Ringiti and Sigulu, all a maritime rights dispute in Lake Victoria.  Kenya
 Uganda
Several islands in the Ntem River  Cameroon
 Equatorial Guinea
Several villages near the Okpara River  Benin
 Niger
Peñón de Alhucemas  Spain
 Morocco
Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera  Spain
 Morocco
Ras Doumeira and Doumeira Island  Eritrea
 Djibouti
Rukwanzi Island and the Semliki River valley  Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Uganda
the Rufunzo Valley and Sabererwa  Rwanda
 Burundi
Exclusive Economic Zone surrounding the Savage Islands  Portugal
 Spain
Socotran Archipelago  Yemen
 Somalia
Somalia, while not formally claiming the archipelago, asked for the United Nations to look into "the status" of the Socotran archipelago (i.e., whether or not it "should" belong to Yemen or rather Somalia).[8]
South East Algeria  Algeria
 Libya
Tromelin Island  France
 Mauritius
 Seychelles
Tsorona-Zalambessa  Ethiopia
 Eritrea[2]
Wadi Halfa Salient  Egypt
 Sudan
Yenga (border hamlet), and left bank of the Makona and Moa rivers  Sierra Leone
 Guinea

Asia and the Pacific

Territory Claimants Notes
Aasal, Al-Qaa, Al-Qasr, Deir Al-Aashayer, Kfar Kouq and Tufail  Lebanon
 Syria
Abu Musa  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Part of Akrotiri Sovereign Base Area  United Kingdom
 Cyprus
Aksai Chin (part of Jammu and Kashmir, see below)[1]  People's Republic of China
 India
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
South Tibet  People's Republic of China
 India
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Bhutanese enclaves in Tibet, namely Cherkip Gompa, Dho, Dungmar, Gesur, Gezon, Itse Gompa, Khochar, Nyanri, Ringung, Sanmar, Tarchen and Zuthulphuk  People's Republic of China
 Bhutan
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
Boraibari  Bangladesh
 India
Boraibari falls under the adverse possession category with the map suggesting that it should be within India but it was being controlled by Bangladesh authority since 1971.
Daikhata-Dumabari  India
 Bangladesh
Various areas: Dak Jerman/Dak Duyt, Dak Dang/Dak Huyt, the La Drang area and the islands of Baie/Koh Ta Kiev, Milieu/Koh Thmey, Eau/Koh Ses, Pic/Koh Thonsáy and the Northern Pirates/Koh Po  Cambodia
 Vietnam
David Gareja monastery complex boundary dispute  Georgia
 Azerbaijan
Demchok, Chumar, Kaurik, Shipki Pass, Jadh, and Lapthal  People's Republic of China
 India
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Disputed areas located between Aksai Chin and Nepal, all occupied by India except for most of the Demchok parcel.
Part of Dhekelia Sovereign Base Area  United Kingdom
 Cyprus
Doi Lang  Burma
 Thailand
Fasht Ad Dibal and Qit'at Jaradeh  Bahrain
 Qatar
These were not included, in the 2001 International Court of Justice judgement, as low-tide elevations.
several areas in the Fergana Valley  Kyrgyzstan
 Tajikistan
 Uzbekistan
Greater and Lesser Tunbs  Iran
 United Arab Emirates
Hibernia Reef  Australia
 Indonesia
Ieodo Island/Suyan Rock (aka Socotra Rock)  South Korea
 People's Republic of China
Also possibly claimed by:
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
 North Korea[note 2]
Imia/Kardak  Greece
 Turkey
Indo-Bangladesh enclaves  India
 Bangladesh
Isfara Valley  Kyrgyzstan
 Tajikistan
Kachatheevu Island  India
 Sri Lanka
Given to Sri Lanka by India in 1974.
Karang Unarang  Indonesia
 Malaysia
Jammu and Kashmir[1]  India
 Pakistan
Some areas are controlled by the People's Republic of China (see "Aksai Chin" above and "Trans-Karakoram Tract" below).
Kalapani region, the smaller Susta River dispute and the smaller still Antudanda and Nawalparasi disputes  India
 Nepal
Khuriya Muriya Islands  Oman
 Yemen
Korea  North Korea
 South Korea
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea administers North Korea, but Article 1 of the Constitution of North Korea reads: "The Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is an independent socialist State representing the interests of all the Korean people." The Republic of Korea administers South Korea, but Article 3 of the Constitution of South Korea reads: "The territory of the Republic of Korea shall consist of the Korean peninsula and its adjacent islands."
Kula Kangri and mountainous areas to the west of this peak, plus the western Haa District of Bhutan  People's Republic of China
 Bhutan
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
South Kuril Islands (Northern Territories)[1]  Russia
 Japan
Lathitila  India
 Bangladesh
Liancourt Rocks (Dokdo in Korean, Takeshima in Japanese)[1][note 2][note 3]  South Korea
 North Korea
 Japan
Ligitan and Sipadan  Malaysia
 Indonesia
The 2002 International Court of Justice ruling awarded both islands to Malaysia, but left unsettled the maritime boundary immediately southwest and west of the islands between Malaysia and Indonesia.
Macclesfield Bank  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
 Vietnam
 Philippines
Matthew and Hunter Islands[1]  Vanuatu
 France
Minerva Reefs  Tonga
 Fiji
Fiji claims that the entire reef is submerged at high tide, negating use of Minerva as a basis for any sovereignty or maritime EEZ claim by Tonga under the rules of UNCLOS.
Muhurichar river island  India
 Bangladesh
Certain islands in the Naf River  Bangladesh
 Burma
Small areas of Oecusse District  East Timor
 Indonesia
Okinotorishima  Japan
 People's Republic of China
The PRC does not claim ownership of the islet; rather, it argues that it is not large enough to entitle Japan to the EEZ of the surrounding ocean.
Paracel Islands[1]  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
 Vietnam
"Point 20"; a small area of land reclaimed from the sea by Singapore  Singapore
 Malaysia
Malaysia claims the land was reclaimed in its territorial waters
Part of Poipet commune  Thailand
 Cambodia
Prachinburi area  Thailand
 Cambodia
Preah Vihear Temple (Khao Phra Wihan) and adjacent ruins  Thailand
 Cambodia
Temple complex awarded to Cambodia by an International Court of Justice ruling in 1962, but Cambodian–Thai border dispute continues over areas immediately adjacent to the temple.
Pulau Batek/Fatu Sinai  Indonesia
 East Timor
Ceded by Timor-Leste to Indonesia in August 2004.
Pyrdiwah  India
 Bangladesh
Qarooh and Umm Al Maradim  Kuwait
 Saudi Arabia
Sabah (North Borneo)  Malaysia
 Philippines
 Philippines lays a dormant claim on Sabah on the basis that it is a historical part of the Sulu Sultanate (see North Borneo dispute).
Scarborough Shoal  Philippines
 People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Philippines defends the atoll with naval activity; tensions continue over sovereignty of the atoll, fishing rights in surrounding waters, placement of a survey marker by China, etc.

 Philippines
has released a law that proclaims the islands as a "regime of islands".

Senkaku Islands (Diaoyu Tai)[1]  Japan
 People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Shaksgam Valley  People's Republic of China
 India
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
Shatt al-Arab  Iran
 Iraq
Siachen Glacier and Saltoro Ridge area  India
 Pakistan
Sir Creek  India
 Pakistan
South Talpatti/New Moore/Purbasha Island  India
 Bangladesh
This former dispute over a small island never more than two meters above sea level was contested from the island's appearance in the 1970s to its disappearance in the first decade of the 2000s. While land disputes here no longer exist, the maritime boundary is yet to be defined.[9]
Spratly Islands  Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
 People's Republic of China
 Vietnam
 Philippines (part)
 Malaysia (part)
 Brunei (part)
 Philippines
has released a law that proclaims the islands as a "regime of islands".[1]
Swains Island[1]  United States
 Tokelau
This claim is unsupported by  New Zealand, of whom Tokelau is a dependency. New Zealand formally recognises the USA's sovereignty over Swains Island.[10]
Exclusive Economic Zone near the Tasman Sea  Australia
 Japan
Japan continues to do whaling operations in the area. For more info see Whaling in Japan
Parts of Three Pagodas Pass  Burma
 Thailand
Trans-Karakoram Tract  People's Republic of China
 India
Tumen River (disputed sovereignty of certain islands)[1][note 2]
Possibly also the ROC.[note 1]
 People's Republic of China
 North Korea
 South Korea
The islands of Ukatny, Zhestky and the disputed 'island' of Malozhemchuzny[11]  Russia
 Kazakhstan
Vozrozhdeniya Island (now a peninsula)  Kazakhstan
 Uzbekistan
Wake Island[1]  United States
 Marshall Islands
Yalu River (disputed sovereignty of certain islands)[1][note 2]  People's Republic of China
 North Korea
 South Korea
The allocation to North Korea of all of the large islands in the lower Yalu River, including Pidan and Sindo at the mouth, is now clear.[12] The river's maritime rights remain shared between the two nations.
Golan Heights  Israel
 Syria
Syrian territory occupied by Israel since 1967 (the Six-Day War.) This includes a 10 mi wide strip along the northeast side of the Sea of Galilee (Lake Kinneret).
Shebaa Farms  Israel
 Lebanon
Saudi Arabia – United Arab Emirates border dispute  United Arab Emirates
 Saudi Arabia

Europe

Territory Claimants Notes
Aegean dispute  Greece
 Turkey
Broad number of delimitation disputes about a.o. national airspace, territorial waters and exclusive economic zones. Includes Imia/Kardak dispute.
Mont Blanc summit dispute  France
 Italy
Carlingford Lough boundary dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
Some areas by the Danube
Parts of Osijek and Sombor districts
 Croatia
 Serbia
Eastern coast of Narva river and Petseri County  Russia
 Estonia
Russia recognized them as a part of Estonia with Treaty of Tartu, 1920. After the fall of the Soviet Union, Russia continued administering it.
Ems estuary and Dollart Bay (western part)  Netherlands
 Germany
Settled in 1960s (agreeing to disagree)
Gibraltar  United Kingdom
 Spain[1]
Spain claims territory under the Treaty of Utrecht conditions.
Gulf of Piran  Slovenia
 Croatia
An agreement was signed (and ratified by Croatia's parliament on Nov. 20, 2009) to pursue binding arbitration to both the land and maritime portions of this ongoing dispute
Isthmus between Gibraltar and Spain  United Kingdom
 Spain
Spain claims territory as illegally occupied since it was not included into the Treaty of Utrecht.
Imia/Kardak  Greece
 Turkey
Part of Aegean dispute
Kosa Tuzla Island  Ukraine
 Russia
Karki exclave of Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan  Armenia
 Azerbaijan
Armenia occupied this Azerbaijani exclave in January 1990 as part of the wider Nagorno-Karabakh (NK) conflict, although Karki is not in the vicinity of the NK.
Nagorno-Karabakh and seven adjacent districts  Armenia
 Azerbaijan
The Azerbaijani districts adjacent to NK that are also occupied by Armenia are: Aghdam, Fizuli, Lachin, Kelbajar, Qubatli, Jabrayil and Zangilan. Armenian land border with Turkey remains closed over this occupation since 1993[1]
Lake Constance  Austria
 Germany
 Switzerland
Lough Foyle boundary dispute  Ireland
 United Kingdom
An area near Montalmus peak  Andorra
 Spain[citation needed]
Olivenza (including the municipality of Táliga)  Spain
 Portugal
In 1801, during the War of the Oranges, Spain, with French military support, occupied the territory of Olivenza (in Portuguese Olivença). By the Treaty of Vienna (1815), Spain should return the territory to Portugal but, until today, it never complied with the terms of the agreement.
Pichvni [13]  Georgia
 Russia
Prevlaka  Croatia
 Montenegro
Maritime border in the Adriatic[citation needed]  Croatia
 Montenegro
Rockall  United Kingdom
 Ireland
 Denmark
 Iceland
Only the UK claims the rock itself. Ireland and Britain have agreed upon a demarcation of the surrounding sea-bed. Denmark and Iceland claim that the Rockall trough limits the Irish and British claims to the waters surrounding the rock and to the Rockall Bank.
Sastavci  Serbia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Island of Šarengrad  Serbia
 Croatia
Military complex near Sveta Gera, in the area of Žumberak/Gorjanci  Slovenia
 Croatia
Maritime border with Poland Foreign relations of Denmark#International disputes  Denmark
 Poland
Small 3m-by-60m strip along the Passetto di Borgo in the vicinity of the Vatican City  Holy See
 Italy
Veliki Školj and Mali Školj (near Neum)  Croatia
 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Island of Vukovar  Croatia
 Serbia

Northern America

Territory Claimants Notes
Hans Island  Canada
 Denmark
Claimed by both Canada and Denmark (on behalf of Greenland).
Continental shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles  Cuba
 Mexico
 United States
Overlap on the eastern gap of the Gulf of Mexico between an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from Cuba, an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from Mexico and an area of continental shelf extending beyond 200 nautical miles from the United States. (The case of the western gap was solved by a treaty between Mexico and the United States of America on the delimitation of the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Mexico beyond 200 nautical miles, of June 9, 2000.)[14]

Territory disputed between Canada and the United States

Territory Canada Canadian Claimant United States U.S. Claimant
Machias Seal Island  New Brunswick  Maine
North Rock  New Brunswick  Maine
Strait of Juan de Fuca  British Columbia  Washington
Dixon Entrance  British Columbia  Alaska
Portland Canal  British Columbia  Alaska
Beaufort Sea  Yukon  Alaska
Northwest Passage and some other Arctic waters Canadian territorial waters U.S. claims navigation rights

Central America and the Caribbean

Territory Claimants Notes
Isla Aves  Venezuela
 Dominica
Dominica abandoned the claim to the island in 2006, but continues to claim the adjacent seas.
Southern half of Belize  Belize
 Guatemala
Guatemala formerly claiming all Belize.
Bajo Nuevo Bank  Colombia
 Nicaragua
 United States
 Jamaica
Honduras has recognised the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not.
Calero Island  Costa Rica
 Nicaragua
Conejo Island  Honduras
 El Salvador
Navassa Island [1]  United States
 Haiti
San Andrés and Providencia  Colombia
 Nicaragua
Honduras de facto recognises Colombian claim.
Sapodilla Cay  Belize
 Guatemala
 Honduras
Guatemala formerly claiming all Belize.
Serranilla Bank  Colombia
 Honduras
 Nicaragua
 United States
Jamaica has recognised the sovereignty of Colombia; other claimants have not.

South America

Territory Claimants Notes
Not specified  Chile
 Bolivia
Bolivia claims and demands sovereign sea access, lost during the War of the Pacific 1879.
Ankoko Island/Isla de Anacoco  Venezuela
 Guyana
Arroyo de la Invernada or Rincón de Artigas and Vila Albornoz  Brazil
 Uruguay
Dispute in the 235 km2 (91 sq mi) Invernada River region near Masoller, over which tributary represents the legitimate source of the Quaraí River/Cuareim River
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)[1]  United Kingdom
 Argentina
See Falkland Islands sovereignty dispute
French Guiana west of the Marouini River  France
 Suriname
Guaíra Falls/Sete Quedas  Brazil
 Paraguay
The disputed islands were submerged by the reservoir of Itaipú.
Guyana east of the Upper Courantyne River  Guyana
 Suriname
Guyana west of the Essequibo River (Guayana Esequiba)  Guyana
 Venezuela
Isla Brasilera/Ilha Brasileira  Brazil
 Uruguay
Uruguayan officials claim that the island falls under their Artigas Department
Isla Suárez/Ilha de Guajará-mirim  Bolivia
 Brazil
Los Monjes Archipelago[1]  Venezuela
 Colombia
Colombia no longer claims the islands, only the surrounding waters.
Pacific Ocean Sea border  Chile
 Peru
This arguably covers 19,000–35,000 square metres of sea near border marker number one.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands[1]  United Kingdom
 Argentina
Including Shag Rocks. See South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands sovereignty dispute
Southern Patagonian Ice Field between
Monte Fitz Roy and Cerro Daudet
 Argentina
 Chile
Parts of the border still officially undefined.

Disputes between recognized sovereign states and other states

Territory Claimants Notes
Abkhazia  Republic of Abkhazia
 Georgia
Village of Aigba and surrounding area[15][16]  Republic of Abkhazia
 Russia
Eastern part of Bhutan  Bhutan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
North Cyprus  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 Cyprus
Mainland China, Hainan, and other islands controlled by the PRC.  People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Moldovan-controlled area of Dubăsari district  Moldova
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
East Jerusalem  Israel
 Palestinian Authority
A small area of Gilgit-Baltistan  Pakistan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 4]
Kokkina/Erenköy exclave  Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
 Cyprus
This area is separated from the rest of the land controlled by North Cyprus by land controlled by the Republic of Cyprus.
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(eastern half)
 Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 4]
Split by the People's Republic of China and Russia in 2004
Heixiazi / Bolshoy Ussuriysky Island
(western half)
 People's Republic of China
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 4]
Split by the People's Republic of China and Russia in 2004
Kachin State  Myanmar
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1][note 4]
North part west of the Gaoligong Mountains (高黎貢山) in western Yunnan, China, and the Division of Sagaing: Jiangxinpo (江心坡) and Nankan (南坎).
106.40 square kilometres of formerly Chinese territory in Kazakhstan  Kazakhstan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Kosovo  Serbia
 Kosovo
Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.
Kutuzov Island  Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Outer Mongolia  Mongolia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Outer Mongolia has been excluded from Enforcement Rules for the Act Governing Relations between Peoples of the Taiwan Area and the Mainland Area since 2002. However, Outer Mongolia remains part of the ROC in the Constitution of the Republic of China.
Pamir Mountains (west of Xinjiang)[note 1][note 4]
(Northern and central parts)
 Tajikistan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Pamir Mountains (west of Xinjiang)[note 1][note 4]
(Southern part)
 Afghanistan
 Republic of China (Taiwan)
Part of the Rasŏn administrative division  North Korea
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Sixty-Four Villages East of the Heilongjiang River  Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 4]
Somaliland  Somaliland
 Somalia
South Ossetia  Republic of South Ossetia
 Georgia
'Border' checkpoint near Strovilia  United Kingdom
 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
UK's claim in regard to its Sovereign Base Areas
Technically, of course, this also involves  Cyprus; the checkpoint is partially on UN-administered land, and Cyprus claims all of the island. (See: Europe)
Taiwan
Penghu
Jinmen
Matsu Islands
Pratas Islands
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[17]
 People's Republic of China[18]
See also:
Anti-Secession Law
Legal status of Taiwan
Transnistria  Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
 Moldova
Tuva  Russia
 Republic of China (Taiwan)[note 1]
Varnita, Copanca and Bendery (also known as Tighina or Bender)  Moldova
 Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic
The West Bank (called Judea and Samaria in Israel)  Israel
 Palestinian Authority
See Israeli–Palestinian conflict
Western Sahara  Morocco
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
The United Nations keeps the Western Sahara in its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories and considers the sovereignty issue as unresolved pending a final solution. To that end, the UN sent a mission in the territory to oversee a referendum on self-determination in 1991, but it never happened. Administration was relinquished by Spain in 1976.

Disputes between a state and its subnational entities, or between subnational entities

Territory Country Internal Claimants Notes
Belgaum  India  Karnataka
 Maharashtra
Kasaragod  India  Kerala
 Karnataka
Lubicon traditional territory between the Peace River and Athabasca River and north of Lesser Slave Lake  Canada  Alberta
 Lubicon Lake Indian Nation (Cree)
Northern Alberta
Southern edge of Labrador  Canada  Newfoundland and Labrador
 Quebec
This was formerly an international dispute between Canada, which includes Quebec, and the Dominion of Newfoundland, at the time a separate country. Although Canada accepted the current border, Quebec never did.
A wide section from the 35th parallel north to one-mile south.  United States  Tennessee
 Georgia
Due to an inaccurate measurement in 1818, Georgia claims the correct 35th latitude north, and does so in a chance of a drought, it would have access to the Tennessee River.[19][dead link][20]

Antarctica

The Antarctic Treaty System, formed on 1 December 1959 and entered into force on 23 June 1961, establishes the legal framework for the management of Antarctica and provides administration for the continent, which is carried out through consultative member meetings. It freezes the territorial claims of all signatories (all claimants have acceded) for as long as the treaty is in force. However, it is not a final settlement; parties can choose to withdraw from the System at any time. Furthermore, only a minority of states have signed it, and it is not formally sanctioned by the United Nations. Thus, Antarctica remains the only part of the planet any (non-signatory) state can still lay claim to as terra nullius (on the grounds of it not having been part of any existing state's legal and effective territory).

Historical Disputes, since been settled

Territory Former Claimants Dispute Started Dispute Settled Notes
Sakhalin Island  Russian Empire
 Empire of Japan
1845 1875 Japan unilaterally proclaimed sovereignty over the whole island in 1845, but its claims were ignored by the Russian Empire. The 1855 Treaty of Shimoda acknowledged that both Russia and Japan had joint rights of occupation to Sakhalin, without setting a definite territorial demarcation. As the island became settled in the 1860s and 1870s, this ambiguity led to increasing friction between settlers. Attempts by the Tokugawa shogunate to purchase the entire island from the Russian Empire failed, and the new Meiji government was unable to negotiate a partition of the island into separate territories.

In the Treaty of Saint Petersburg (1875), Japan agreed to give up its claims on Sakhalin in exchange for undisputed ownership of the Kuril Islands.

Alaska Boundary Dispute  United States
 Canada
1821 1903 Disputed between the United States and Canada (then a British Dominion with its foreign affairs controlled from London). The dispute had been going on between the Russian and British Empires since 1821, and was inherited by the United States as a consequence of the Alaska Purchase in 1867. It was resolved by arbitration in 1903 with a delegation that included 3 Americans, 2 Canadians, and 1 British delegate that became the swing vote. By a 4 to 2 vote, the final resolution favored the American position. Canada did not get an outlet from the Yukon gold fields to the sea. The disappointment and anger in Canada was directed less at the United States, and more at the British government for betraying Canadian interests in pursuit of a friendly relationship between Britain and the United States.
Isla Martín García  Argentina
 Uruguay
1879 1973 After the Conquest of the Desert was formally launched in 1879, many indigenous leaders captured were confined there. The island was transferred to Argentine Navy jurisdiction in 1886. The island's distance from the Uruguayan territory is less than two miles, and its jurisdictional status was formallty established by the Treaty of Río de la Plata between Uruguay and Argentina on November 19, 1973.
Tenedos  Greece
 Turkey
1920 1923 In 1920, following World War I, the Treaty of Sèvres with the defeated Ottoman Empire granted the island to Greece, who joined the war in Allies' side in May 1917. The new Turkish Government of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, based in Ankara, which was not party to the treaty, overthrew the Ottoman government, which signed but did not ratify the treaty. After the Turkish War of Independence ended in Greek defeat in Anatolia, and the fall of Lloyd George and his Middle Eastern policies, the western powers agreed to the Treaty of Lausanne with the new Turkish Republic, in 1923. This treaty made Tenedos and Imbros part of Turkey, and it guaranteed a special autonomous administrative status there to accommodate the Greeks.
Clipperton Island  Mexico
 France
1897 1931 Disputed between France and Mexico. On January 28, 1931, King Victor Emanuel finally declared Clipperton to be a French possession, and has remained relatively undisputed ever since.
Shaksgam Valley  Pakistan
(still claimed by:
 India
 People's Republic of China)
1947 1963 Pakistan gave its claim to China (PRC), and possibly claimed by the ROC.
Northern Ireland  Ireland
 United Kingdom
1920 1999 Formerly disputed between Ireland and the United Kingdom since partition in 1920, it was settled by the Good Friday Agreement in 1999, when Ireland renounced its claim. However, both countries acknowledged that the territory can rejoin the rest of Ireland if separate referendums in both Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland approve of the former's cession.
Hawar Islands  Qatar
 Bahrain
1971 2001 Formely disputed between Qatar and Bahrain, it was settled by the International Court of Justice (ICJ) in The Hague. In the June 2001 decision, Bahrain kept the Hawar Islands and Qit'at Jaradah but dropped claims to Janan Island and Zubarah on mainland Qatar, while Qatar retained significant maritime areas and their resources. The agreement has furthered the goal of definitively establishing the border with Saudi Arabia and Saudi-led mediation efforts continue.
Pytalovo (Abrene in Latvia)  Latvia
 Russia
1991 2007 Pytalovo was part of independent Latvia as Abrene until Latvia was occupied and annexed by the Soviet Union. Latvia disputed Russian jurisdiction over the region until signing a border treaty with Russia in 2007.

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x The Republic of China (ROC), now based in Taiwan, is involved in territorial disputes with many governments bordering China. Due to the One-China policy, it has no formal diplomatic relations with any of these states. The ROC recognises neither the People's Republic of China (PRC) nor its border agreements or treaties with any other countries. Article 4 of the Constitution of the Republic of China states that "The territory of the Republic of China according to its existing national boundaries shall not be altered except by resolution of the National Assembly." Section 5 of Article 4 of the Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China now overrides this provision.
  2. ^ a b c d The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea) do not recognize each other.
  3. ^ Japan does not recognize the statehood of North Korea.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g . Relinquished by the People's Republic of China but still claimed by the Republic of China.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Field Listing - Disputes - international, The World Factbook
  2. ^ a b African Affairs - Sign In Page
  3. ^ a b Zapatero stirs anger of Morocco - International Herald Tribune
  4. ^ "Why are Egypt and Sudan in dispute over the Hala'ib Triangle?(Quizzical)(Brief Article)". http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3120/is_200407/ai_n7779206. [dead link]
  5. ^ Comunicados y notas de prensa de la OID
  6. ^ Google Earth
  7. ^ Compte rendu du déplacement d'une délégation du groupe interparlementaire France-Afrique centrale au Gabon, en Guinée équatoriale et à Sao Tomé-et-Principe, parliamentary report of the Senate of France, 2003.
  8. ^ http://www.hiiraan.com/news2/2010/oct/for_first_time_in_history_somalia_claims_socotra_as_its_own.aspx
  9. ^ "Bay of Bengal island 'disappears'". BBC News. 2010-03-24. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8584665.stm. 
  10. ^ "Treaty on the delimitation of the maritime boundary between Tokelau and the United States of America (with map). Signed at Atafu on 2 December 1980. Authentic texts: English and Tokelauan. Registered by the United States of America on 25 July 1991." (in English and Tokelauan) (PDF). July 25, 1991. http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/28/17/00054814.pdf. Retrieved August 28, 2011. 
  11. ^ КАСПИЙСКИЙ САММИТ НЕ СОСТОЯЛСЯ
  12. ^ Even official Chinese maps award these islands to North Korea, such as the provincial map on p. 41 in the 2005 Chinese atlas “Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo Jiaotong Dituji” ISBN 7-80104-652-8, (www.starmap.com.cn)
  13. ^ The Globe and Mail, Geoffrey York, 29 May 2000, Tension mounts in Georgia as Chechen war spills over Russia's capture
  14. ^ "Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf". http://www.un.org/depts/los/clcs_new/submissions_files/submission_cub_51_2009.htm
  15. ^ "Moscow, Sokhumi Dispute Village in 'Border Talks'". Civil.ge. 2 April 2011. http://www.civil.ge/eng/article.php?id=23306. 
  16. ^ "Russia e Abkhazia litigano per i confini". AgoraVox Italia. 23 May 2011. http://www.agoravox.it/Russia-e-Abkhazia-litigano-per-i.html. 
  17. ^ Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China, Article 9, Section 2
  18. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Preamble
  19. ^ "Lawmakers Say Part Of Tenn. Belongs To Ga.", WSMV-TV, February 11, 2008
  20. ^ Shaila Dewan, Georgia Claims a Sliver of the Tennessee River, The New York Times, February 22, 2008

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