PTEN (gene)


PTEN (gene)

PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) gene is a human gene that acts as a tumor suppressor gene, (i.e. the protein encoded by this gene helps regulate the cycle of cell division, preventing cells from growing and dividing too rapidly). Mutations of this gene contribute to the development of multiple advanced cancers.

Function and structure

The corresponding PTEN protein is found in almost all tissues in the body. PTEN protein acts as a phosphatase to dephosphorylate phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PtdIns (3,4,5)"P"3). The product of this enzymatic reaction is PtdIns(4,5)P2. This dephosphorylation is important because it results in inhibition of the AKT signaling pathway.

The structure of PTEN (solved by X-ray crystallography) reveals that it consists of a phosphatase domain, and a C2 domain: the phosphatase domain contains the active site which carries out the enzymatic function of the protein, whilst the C2 domain allows PTEN to bind to the phospholipid membrane so it is able to de-phosphorylate (PtdIns (3,4,5)"P"3) When the PTEN enzyme is functioning properly, it acts as part of a chemical pathway that signals cells to stop dividing and causes cells to undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis) when necessary. These functions prevent uncontrolled cell growth that can lead to the formation of tumors. There is also evidence that the protein made by the PTEN gene may play a role in cell movement (migration) and sticking (adhesion) of cells to surrounding tissues.

Clinical significance

PTEN is one of the most commonly lost tumour suppressors in human cancer. During tumor development, mutations and deletions of PTEN occur that inactivate its enzymatic activity leading to increased cell proliferation and reduced cell death. Frequent genetic inactivation of PTEN occurs in glioblastoma, endometrial cancer, prostate cancer, and reduced expression is found in many other tumor types such as lung and breast cancer.

PTEN mutation also causes a variety of inherited predispositions to cancer.

Cowden syndrome: Researchers have found more than 70 mutations in the PTEN gene in people with Cowden syndrome. These mutations can be changes in a small number of base pairs or, in some cases, deletions of a large number of base pairs. Most of these mutations cause the PTEN gene to make a protein that does not function properly or does not work at all. The defective protein is unable to stop cell division or signal abnormal cells to die, which can lead to tumor growth, particularly in the breast, thyroid or uterus.

Other disorders: Mutations in the PTEN gene cause several other disorders that, like Cowden syndrome, are characterized by the development of noncancerous tumors called hamartomas. These disorders include Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, Proteus syndrome, and Proteus-like syndrome. Together, the disorders caused by PTEN mutations are called PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes, or PHTS. Mutations responsible for these syndromes cause the resulting protein to be nonfunctional or absent. The defective protein allows the cell to divide in an uncontrolled way and prevents damaged cells from dying, which can lead to the growth of tumors.

ee also

* Multiple hamartoma syndrome

Further reading

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* cite journal | author=Simpson L, Parsons R | title=PTEN: life as a tumor suppressor
journal=Exp Cell Res | year=2001 | pages=29–41 | volume=264 | issue=1 | pmid=11237521 | doi=10.1006/excr.2000.5130

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External links

* [http://macromoleculeinsights.com/pten.php The PTEN Protein]
* [http://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp?PTEN GeneCard]
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* [http://www.alzforum.org/res/com/gen/alzgene/geneoverview.asp?geneid=351 Alzgene]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • PTEN (gene) — PTEN (gène) Le gène PTEN pour Phosphatase and TENsin homolog, a pour véritable nom phosphatase and tensin homolog mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1. Ce gène comprend neuf exons et s étend sur 120 000 paires de base. Sa séquence codante… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Pten (gène) — Le gène PTEN pour Phosphatase and TENsin homolog, a pour véritable nom phosphatase and tensin homolog mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1. Ce gène comprend neuf exons et s étend sur 120 000 paires de base. Sa séquence codante produit une… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • PTEN (gène) — Le gène PTEN pour Phosphatase and TENsin homolog, a pour véritable nom phosphatase and tensin homolog mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1. Ce gène comprend neuf exons et s étend sur 120 000 paires de base. Sa séquence codante produit une… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Gène PTEN — PTEN (gène) Le gène PTEN pour Phosphatase and TENsin homolog, a pour véritable nom phosphatase and tensin homolog mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1. Ce gène comprend neuf exons et s étend sur 120 000 paires de base. Sa séquence codante… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • PTEN — Структура фосфатазы PTEN человека. Синим показан N концевой фосфатазный домен, красным С концевой С2 домен Обозначения Сим …   Википедия

  • PTEN — may mean: * Patterson UTI Energy, Inc., which trades on the NASDAQ stock market under the symbol PTEN * Prime Time Entertainment Network * PTEN (gene), a human tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 10 …   Wikipedia

  • PTEN — Bändermodell nach PDB 1D5R …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • PTEN — (= phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten; MMAC1/PTEN; TEP 1) A protein tyrosine phosphatase with homology to tensin, is a tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 10q23. Somatic mutations in PTEN occur in multiple tumours, most… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • Syndrome des hamartomes par mutation du gene PTEN — Syndrome des hamartomes par mutation du gène PTEN Le syndrome des hamartomes par mutation du gène PTEN comprend le syndrome de Cowden, le syndrome de Bannayan Riley Ruvalcaba , le syndrome de Protée et le syndrome de Protée like. Le syndrome de… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Syndrome des hamartomes par mutation du gène pten — Le syndrome des hamartomes par mutation du gène PTEN comprend le syndrome de Cowden, le syndrome de Bannayan Riley Ruvalcaba , le syndrome de Protée et le syndrome de Protée like. Le syndrome de Cowden est un syndrome avec de multiples hamartomes …   Wikipédia en Français


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