- Aventine Secession (20th century)
Secessionis the common reference to an Italian movement reuniting parties in opposition to Fascismand Benito Mussolini's regime. It was named after the Aventine Secession in ancient Rome. After the Acerbo Lawwas passed in 1923, the largest party, providing it had at least 25% of the vote, gained 2/3 of the parliamentary seats. Following the elections in April 1924, Mussolini secured this 66.3% plurality of seats. After his outspoken accusation of the Fascist Party's underhand methods of political corruptionand voter intimidation, Giacomo Matteottiwas discovered murdered by Amerigo Duminiand various henchmen answering to Mussolini.
The resulting uproar after the Matteotti's murder left Mussolini vulnerable, having been forced to dismiss numerous members of his entourage, including General De Bono, Chief of Police and Head of the MVSN. In late July 1924, the bulk of Mussolini's opposition began a boycott of parliament, with the aim of forcing the King to dismiss Mussolini. However, King Victor Emmanuel III was disinclined to invoke further violence from the Fascist squads, and thus allowed Mussolini to keep his position as Prime Minister.
The Secession served only to aid Mussolini in his consolidation of power, as it eliminated all parliamentary opposition, and deprived the King of any excuse to dismiss him. From this position, Mussolini faced only the obstruction of the King in the fortification of his role as the sole leader of Italy.
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