- Bernardo Houssay
name = Bernardo Houssay
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caption = Bernardo Houssay
April 10, 1887
Buenos Aires, Argentina
September 21, 1971
Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine(1947) Bernardo Alberto Houssay ( April 10, 1887– September 21, 1971) was an Argentine physiologistwho in 1947 with Carl Ferdinand Coriand Gerty Corireceived Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicinefor their discovery of the role played by pituitary hormonesin regulating the amount of blood sugar ( glucose) in animals. He is the first Argentine and Latin American Nobel laureate in the Sciences.
Bernardo Alberto Houssay was born in
Buenos Aires, to emigrees from France, Albert and Clara Houssay. A precocious youngster, he was admitted to the Pharmacy School at the University of Buenos Airesat 14 years of age and subsequently to the Medical School of the same University from 1904 to 1910, beginning when he was only 17 years old. While a third year medical student, Houssay took up a post as a research and teaching assistant in the Chair of Physiology.
After graduating, he quickly developed and presented his
M.D.thesis on the physiological activities of pituitaryextracts, published in 1911, a theme he would pursue for the rest of his scientific career. Since 1908 he was already an assistant lecturer in the same department, and immediately after his doctorate he took up the post of Professor of Physiology in the University's School of Veterinary Medicine. Simultaneously, he started a private practice and as assistant physicianat the municipal hospital of Buenos Aires. In 1913 he became Chief Physician at the Alvear Hospital, and, in 1915, Chief of the Section of Experimental Pathologyat the National Public Health Laboratories in Buenos Aires.
In 1919 Houssay was appointed to the chair of physiology at the
University of Buenos AiresMedicine School, and, until 1943, he transformed and directed it into a highly respected research department in experimental physiology and medicine of international class. In that year, however, the military dictatorship deprived him of his university posts, due to his liberal political ideas and Houssay was forced to re-establish his research lines and staff at a privately funded Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental. This situation, reinforced by a second dismissal by the Peronista government in 1945, was prolonged until 1955, when Peron was ousted from power and Houssay was reinstated in the University of Buenos Aires, where he remained till he died. His retirement. After this he was also director of the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, from 1957 on.
Houssay’s worked in many fields of physiology, such as the nervous, digestive, respiratory and circulatory systems, but his main contribution, which was recognized by the
Nobel Prizein Physiology or Medicine of 1947, was on the experimental investigation of the role of the anterior hypophysis gland in the metabolismof carbohydrates, particularly in diabetes mellitus. Houssay demonstrated in the 1930s the diabetogenic effect anterior hypophysis extracts and the decrease in diabetes severity with anterior hypophysectomy. These discoveries stimulated the study of hormonal feedback control mechanisms which are central to all aspects of modern endocrinology.
Houssay’s many disciples along his years of activity became also influential by themselves as they spread around the world; such as
Eduardo Braun-Menéndez, and Miguel Rolando Covian(who went to become the "father" of Brazilian neurophysiology, as chairman of the Department of Physiology of the Medical Faculty of Ribeirão Preto of the University of São Paulo). Houssay wrote with them the most influential textbook of Human Physiology in Latin America, in Spanish and Portuguese (the latter was translated by Covian and collaborators), which, since 1950 has been published in successive editions and used in almost all medical schools of the continent. Houssay published more than 600 scientific papers and several specialized books. Besides the Nobel, Houssay won many distinctions and awards from the Universities of Harvard, Cambridge, Oxfordand Parisand 15 other universities, as well as the Dale Medalof the London Society for Endocrinologyin 1960.
Houssay was also very active as a scientific leader and promoter of the advancement of scientific research and medical education, in Argentina as well as in Latin America.
Houssay died in Buenos Aires at age 84. He is buried in the
La Chacarita Cemetery.
* Functions of the Pituitary Gland. Boston, 1936.
* The Hypophysis and Secretion of Insulin. "Journal of Experimental Medicine", New York, 1942, 75: 547-566.
* Escritos y Discursos. Buenos Aires, 1942.
* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1947/houssay-lecture.html The Role of the Hypophysis in Carbohydrate Metabolism and in Diabetes] . Nobel Prize lecture, 1947.
* Fisiologia Humana. Buenos Aires, 1950.
title=Remembrances of contributions of Philip Smith and Bernardo Houssay to the development of neuroendocrinology.
publication-date=1968 Sep 1
title= [Nobel prize for Carl Ferdinand Cori and Gerta Theresa Cori in 1947 for discovery of the course of catalytic metabolism of glycogen. Prize for Alberto Bernardo Houssay For discovery on the role of the hypophysis in carbohydrate metabolism]
* [http://www.houssay.org.ar/ Official site of his life and works] (In Castilian)
* [http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/1976.html Bernardo Alberto Houssay] . WhoNamedIt.
* [http://nobelprize.org/medicine/laureates/1947/houssay-bio.html Bernardo Alberto Houssay Biography] . Nobel Foundation.
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Bernardo Houssay — Bernardo Alberto Houssay (10 avril 1887 à Buenos Aires 21 septembre 1971 à Buenos Aires) est un physiologiste argentin. Il a reçu la moitié du prix Nobel de physiologie ou médecine de 1947 … Wikipédia en Français
Bernardo Alberto Houssay — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Bernardo Houssay Bernardo Alberto Houssay … Wikipedia Español
Bernardo Alberto Houssay — Bernardo Houssay Bernardo Houssay Bernardo Alberto Houssay (Buenos Aires, 10 avril 1887 idem, 21 septembre 1971) est un physiologiste argentin. Il a reçu le Prix Nobel de physiologie … Wikipédia en Français
Houssay — may refer to:* Bernardo Houssay, Argentine Nobel prize winner * Houssay, Loir et Cher, a commune in the Loir et Cher department, France * Houssay, Mayenne, a commune in the Mayenne department, France … Wikipedia
Bernardo — may refer to: * Bernardo O Higgins, libertador of Chile * Bernardo Pasquini, Italian composer * Bernardo de Gálvez, Spanish military leader, aided the United States in its quest for independence in the American Revolutionary War * Bernardo… … Wikipedia
Bernardo A. Houssay — Bernardo Alberto Houssay Bernardo Alberto Houssay (* 10. April 1887 in Buenos Aires, Argentinien; † 21. September 1971 ebenda) war ein argentinischer Physiologe. Houssay lieferte wesentliche Arbeiten über Zuckerkrankheit und Zuckerstoffwechsel… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bernardo Alberto Houssay — (* 10. April 1887 in Buenos Aires, Argentinien; † 21. September 1971 ebenda) war ein argentinischer Physiologe. Houssay lieferte wesentliche Arbeiten über Zuckerkrankheit und Zuckerstoffwechsel sowie über die innere Sekretion. Er erhielt 1947 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Houssay — ist der Name folgender Orte: Houssay (Loir et Cher), Loir et Cher, Frankreich Houssay (Mayenne), Departement Mayenne, Frankreich Houssay ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887−1971), argentinischer Physiologe… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Bernardo Alberto Houssay — Bernardo A. Houssay (1887 1971), farmacéutico, médico y fisiólogo nacido en Buenos Aires, Argentina, galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Medicina en 1947. Gracias a su trabajo, la fisiología fue la disciplina médica que mayor vigor y desarrollo… … Enciclopedia Universal
Bernardo — ist eine Form von Bernhard und der Vorname von Bernardo Alberto Houssay (1887–1971), argentinischer Physiologe Bernardo Atxaga (* 1951), baskischer Schriftsteller Bernardo Bellotto (1722–1280), venezianischer Maler Bernardo Bembo (1433–1519),… … Deutsch Wikipedia