- Battle of Köse Dağ
conflict=Battle of Köse Dağ
partof=the Mongol invasion of
June 26 1243
place=Köse Dağ in present day
Sultanate of Rüm,
strength1= unknown (perhaps 15,000 to 20,000)
strength2= unknown (far larger than the Mongols)
casualties2=The Battle of Köse Dağ was fought between the
Seljuk Turksof Rum and the Mongols on June 26 1243at the defile of Köse Dağ, a location between Erzincanand Gümüşhanein northeast Turkey, [Anthony Bryer and Richard Winfield, "The Byzantine Monuments and Topography of the Pontos", vol. 1, (Washington D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks, 1985) 172, 353.] ["Köy Köy Türkiye Yol Atlası" (Istanbul: Mapmedya, 2006), map 61.] and ended in a decisive Mongol victory.
Under the leadership of the commander
Bayju, the Mongols attacked the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum in the winter of 1242-43 and seized the city of Erzurum. Sultan Kaykhusraw IIimmediately called on his neighbours to contribute troops to resist the invasion. The Empire of Trebizondsent a detachment and the sultan engaged a group of "Frankish" mercenaries. [Claude Cahen, "Pre-Ottoman Turkey: a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history", trans. J. Jones-Williams, (New York: Taplinger, 1968) 137.] A few Georgian nobles such as Shamadavle of Akhaltsikhe also joined him, but the majority of the Georgians were compelled to fight alongside their Mongol allies.
The decisive battle was fought at Köse Dağ on June 26, 1243. The primary sources do not record the size of the opposing armies but suggest that the Mongols faced a numerically superior force. [Claude Cahen, “Köse Dagh” "Encyclopaedia of Islam", ed. by P. Bearman, et al. (Brill 2007).] The Mongols routed the Seljuks and their allies and took control of the cities of Sivas and
Kayseri. The sultan fled to Antalyabut was subsequently forced to make peace with Bayju and pay a substantial tribute to the Mongol Empire.
The defeat resulted in a period of turmoil in
Anatoliaand led directly to the decline and disintegration of the Seljuk state. The Empire of Trebizondbecame a vassal of Mongol empire.
* [http://www.turkishhan.org/history.htm History of Anatolian Seljuks]
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