Food science


Food science

Food science is a discipline concerned with all technical aspects of food, beginning with harvesting or slaughtering, and ending with its cooking and consumption. It is considered one of the agricultural sciences, and is usually considered distinct from the field of nutrition.

Examples of the activities of food scientists include the development of new food products, design of processes to produce these foods, choice of packaging materials, shelf-life studies, sensory evaluation of the product with trained expert panels or potential consumers, as well as microbiological and chemical testing. Food scientists at universities may study more fundamental phenomena that are directly linked to the production of particular food product and its properties. In the U.S., food science is typically studied at land-grant universities.

Food science is a highly interdisciplinary applied science. It incorporates concepts from many different fields including microbiology, chemical engineering, biochemistry, and many others.

Some of the subdisciplines of food science include:

* Food safety - the causes, prevention and communication dealing with foodborne illness
* Food microbiology - the positive and negative interactions between micro-organisms and foods
* Food preservation - the causes and prevention of quality degradation
* Food engineering - the industrial processes used to manufacture food
* Product development - the invention of new food products
* Sensory analysis - the study of how food is perceived by the consumer's senses
* Food chemistry - the molecular composition of food and the involvement of these molecules in chemical reactions
* Food packaging - the study of how packaging is used to preserve food after it has been processed and contain it through distribution.
* Molecular gastronomy - the scientific investigation of processes in cooking, social & artistic gastronomical phenomena
* Food technology - the technological aspects
* Food physics - the physical aspects of foods (such as viscosity, creaminess, and texture)

The main organization in the United States regarding food science and food technology is the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), headquarted in Chicago, Illinois, which is the US member organisation of the International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST). The European national organisations are organised into the European Federation of Food Science and Technology (EFFoST), based at Wageningen University, the Netherlands.

Some popular books on some aspects of food science or kitchen science have been written by Harold McGee and Howard Hillman.

In the October 2006 issue of "Food Technology", IFT President Dennis R. Heldman noted that the IFT Committee on Higher Education gave the current definition of food science as follows: "Food Science is the discipline in which the engineering, biological, and physical sciences are used to study the nature of foods, the causes of deterioration, the principles underlying food processing, and the improvement of foods for the consuming public." [Heldman, Dennis R. "IFT and the Food Science Profession." "Food Technology." October 2006. p. 11.]

References

* [http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/bookdescription.cws_home/705600/description#description Emerging Technologies for Food Processing] , Elsevier, 792 pp., ISBN 978-0-12-676757-5 (2005)

See also

* Detox diet
* Food and Nutrition Service

External links

* [http://www.food-info.net Food-Info] Largest consumer oriented information on food science and technology in many languages
* [http://www.foodscience.csiro.au Food Science Australia]
* [http://www.ift.org/ Institute of Food Technologists] - United States
* [http://www.ifst.org/ Institute of Food Science and Technology] - United Kingdom
* [http://www.saafost.org.za/ South African Association of Food Scientists and Technologists] South Africa
* [http://www.iufost.org/ International Union of Food Science and Technology] - headquartered in Canada
* [http://www.ansto.gov.au/ansto/bragg/projects/food_science.html Food Science Programme at the Bragg Institute] - Australia
* [http://www.effost.org European Federation of Food Science and Technology]
* [http://www.foodscience.psu.edu/outreach/fun_food_science.html Penn State Food Science Experiments and Learning Opportunities for Students of All Ages!]
* [http://www.ncsu.edu/foodscience/ Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences at North Carolina State University]
* [http://www.foodsci.purdue.edu/ Food Science Department at Purdue University]
* [http://www.cpe.rutgers.edu/programs/food_science_food_safety.html Rutgers NJAES Food Science Continuing Education Courses]
* [http://en.ifv.life.ku.dk/ Department of Food Science at Copenhagen University]
* [http://sfs.wsu.edu/ Bi-state School of Food Science, Washington State University and University of Idaho]
* [http://foodsci.wisc.edu/ Department of Food Science, University of Wisconsin-Madison]


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