Timeline of Sheffield history

Timeline of Sheffield history

This timeline of Sheffield history summarises key events in the history of Sheffield, a city in England. The origins of the city can be traced back to the founding of a settlement in a clearing beside the River Sheaf in the second half of the 1st millennium AD. The area had seen human occupation since at least the last ice age, but significant growth in the settlements that are now incorporated into the city did not occur until the industrial revolution.

Pre-Norman invasion

:Iron Age: Brigantes constructed forts at Wincobank and Carl Wark, and the Roman Rig dyke. [cite book |last=Wood |first=Michael |authorlink=Michael Wood |title=In Search of England: Journeys into the English Past |chapter=Chapter 11. Tinsley Wood |pages=p. 212 |year=2001 |publisher=University of California Press |location=Berkeley |id=ISBN 0-520-23218-6 ] :c70: A Roman fort was constructed at Templeborough. [cite book |title=A Key to English Antiquities: With Special Reference to the Sheffield and Rotherham District |last=Armitage |first=Ella S. |year=1897 |publisher=William Townsend |location=Sheffield |pages=p. 48 ] :Early 9th century: The Sheffield Cross, an Anglo-Saxon cross was carved. It is thought that this was erected on the (future) site of Sheffield Cathedral. [cite web |url=http://www.sheffield-cathedral.co.uk/txtimg_1.asp?articleID=60 |title=History |accessdate=2008-02-28 |work=Sheffield Cathedral website ] :829: According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, King Egbert of Wessex received the submission of King Eanred of Northumbria at the hamlet of Dore (now a suburb of Sheffield). [There is an error of two years in most entries from 754 to 845. Thus, this entry is dated 827 in the chronicle. See cite book |last= Swanton|first= Michael|title= The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle|year= 1996| location=New York|publisher= Routledge|isbn=0-415-92129-5 |pages=p. 46, note 6] :942: Edmund I of England re-conquered the Midlands, and advanced as far as Dore. [According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle 'Here Edmund King, ruler of Angles, protector of clansmen, Mercia obtained, dear deed-doer, as Dor divideth: gate of the white well, and Humber's river, broad sea stream.' See "The Geographical or Ethnological Position of Sheffield as regards Dialect" in Addy "A Glossary of Words Used in the Neighbourhood of Sheffield", pp. xxviii–xxxiv and cite journal |last=Beaven |first=Murray LR |year=1918 |month=January |title=King Edmund I and the Danes of York |journal=The English Historical Review |volume=33 |issue=129 |pages=1–9 |doi=10.1093/ehr/XXXIII.CXXIX.1 ]


:1046: A chapel was built on "Carter Knowle" at Ecclesall. [Vickers, "Old Sheffield Town", p. 58] :1069/70: Any settlements in the Sheffield area were likely destroyed in the harrying of the North. [Hunter, "Hallamshire", p. 20] :1076: Waltheof, 1st Earl of Northampton and Lord of the manor of Hallam, was executed. [Hunter, "Hallamshire", p. 22]


:c. 1102: Hallamshire passes to Roger de Lovetot, along with the Honour of Tickhill.David Hey, "Medieval South Yorkshire"] :c. 1130: William de Lovetot founded a church on the (future) site of Sheffield Cathedral.Harman & Minnis, "Sheffield", pp. 45–56] Around this time, Sheffield becomes a parish, having previously been part of the parish of Ecclesfield.:c. 1150: William de Lovetot built a castle in Sheffield. He also had the first Lady's Bridge built, established a corn mill and hospital in the town, and founded St Mary's church at nearby Handsworth (now a suburb of the city).:1176 (or 1183): Beauchief Abbey was established, 4 miles southwest of the town of Sheffield, in Beauchief. [cite book |last=Tanner |first=Thomas |title=Notitia monastica: A short history of the religious houses in England and Wales |year=1695 ] [cite book |last=Pegge |first=Samuel |title=History of Beauchief Abbey |year=1801 ]


:c. 1250: Church House at Handsworth (now the "Cross Keys" public house) was built.:1266: A party of barons, led by John de Eyvill, marching from north Lincolnshire to Derbyshire passed through Sheffield and destroyed the town, burning the church and castle.:1270: Thomas de Furnival is given licence to crenellate and subsequently builds a large stone castle to replace the wooden castle destroyed in 1266.:c. 1280: A new church was consecrated by William II Wickwane the Archbishop of York.:1279 - 81: In the Quo Warranto enquiries, Thomas de Furnival claims the right to hold a market in Sheffield, to hunt, and to enforce the death penalty.:1293 - 94: In further Quo Warranto enquiries, Thomas de Furnival claims the right to hold a Sunday market and a fair on the eve and day of Holy Trinity.:1296: On 12 November, Sheffield is granted a royal charter to hold a weekly market and a three-day annual fair around Holy Trinity. The first reference to Sheffield's Town Mill appears.:1297: "Robert the Cutler" is recorded in a tax return, the earliest surviving reference to the manufacture of cutlery in Sheffield.:1297: Thomas de Furnival grants a charter to the people of Sheffield establishing the Burgery of Sheffield. []


:1387: Geoffrey Chaucer in The Reeve’s Tale from his book "The Canterbury Tales" gave an early reference to Sheffield and the metal industry for which the town would become famous.


:1430: The 1280 parish church was pulled down and replaced with a new building, the core of the present cathedral.:c1434: "Barker's Pool", Sheffield's first reservoir, was constructed. Once a month the reservoir gates were opened allowing water to wash the filth from the town's streets (with open sewers along their centres) into the River Don.:c1480: The "The hawle at the Poandes" (now the Old Queen's Head public house) was built.:1485: Lady's Bridge was replaced with a new stone-built bridge, [According to an agreement from 1485 quoted in Hunter, "Hallamshire", pp.193–194 the Vicar of Sheffield, Sir John Plesaunce, and William Hill, who was a master mason, both agreed to build a bridge of stone "over the watyr of Dune neghe the castell of Sheffeld"] still in existence.


:c. 1500: Bishops' House built. [Harman & Minnis, "Sheffield", p. 242] :c. 1510: George Talbot, 4th Earl of Shrewsbury, built the Manor Lodge outside the town. [cite web |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/details/default.aspx?id=455550 |title=Manor House (remains) |accessdate=2008-03-21 |work=Images of England |publisher=English Heritage ] :1520: The Shrewsbury Chapel was added to Sheffield Parish Church.:1530: Cardinal Wolsey, following his arrest, was detained at the Manor Lodge for eighteen days.:1537: Beauchief Abbey was dissolved, the estate becoming the property of Sir Nicholas Strelley.:1554: A charter establishes the Twelve Capital Burgesses and Commonality of the Town and Parish of Sheffield."Clyde Binfield et al, The History of the City of Sheffield 1843-1993: Volume I: Politics"] :1570: Mary Queen of Scots began her 14-year imprisonment at Sheffield Castle and the Manor Lodge, under the guard of George Talbot, 6th Earl of Shrewsbury:1584: Shepherd Wheel passed to the sons of William Beighton in his will.


:1621: Carbrook Hall was built.:1624: The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire was formed to oversee the cutlery trade in the town.:1630: Attercliffe Chapel was built.:1638: The Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire erect the first Cutlers' Hall.:1642–1651: The English Civil Wars::*1642: The people of Sheffield seized Sheffield Castle for the Parliamentarians :*1643: The castle was taken by Royalist forces.:*1648: After a long siege the castle was once again taken by Parliamentarian forces, and an Act of Parliament passed for its demolition. [Vickers, "Old Sheffield Town", p. 13]


:1700: Upper Chapel, the first non-conformist chapel in the city, was built.:1721: St Paul's Church is built as a chapel-of-ease to the parish church.:1736: The first buildings in Paradise Square are constructed.:1740s: Benjamin Huntsman, a clock maker in Handsworth invented a form of the crucible steel process for making a better quality of steel than had previously been available.:1743: Thomas Boulsover, working in Sheffield, invented "Sheffield plate".:1751: River Don Navigation extended to Tinsley.:1756: An Act of Parliament undertakes to turnpike the road south from Sheffield, to Chesterfield and London.:c1769: Britannia metal was invented in Sheffield, originally being known as "Vickers white metal".:1771: Paradise Square is completed.:1773: Sheffield was given a silver assay office.:c1775: The Duke of Norfolk commissioned plans for a new quarter, to be constructed on Alsop Fields.:1779: John Wesley preached in Paradise Square on 15 July.:1789: 769 Sheffield metalworkers submit a petition to Parliament advocating the abolition of slavery.Alison Twells, " [http://www.bbc.co.uk/southyorkshire/content/articles/2007/02/27/abolition_alison_twells_sheffield_feature.shtml Abolition in Sheffield] "] :1793: A petition against slavery with 8,000 names is submitted from Sheffield to Parliament.:1797: Sheffield Royal Infirmary opened.


:1805: A new nave was added to the parish church.:1808: The small town hall that had stood near the parish church was replaced with a new building at the corner of Waingate and Castle Street.:1818: The Sheffield Improvement Act 1818 established an Improvement Commission to maintain cleaning, lighting and watching within three-quarters of a mile of the parish church, and also the Sheffield Gas Light Company.:1819: Sheffield Canal opened.:1832: A cholera epidemic claimed 402 lives in the town, later commemorated by the Cholera Monument.:1832: Sheffield gained representation in the House of Commons as a Parliamentary Borough. The first election is marred by rioting.:1836: Sheffield Botanical Gardens and Sheffield General Cemetery opened.:1838: A new Cutlers' Hall was built, forming the core of the current building.:1838: The first railway station in Sheffield, Sheffield Wicker station, opened on 31 October as the southern terminus of the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway. [cite book |title=Drake's Road Book of the Sheffield and Rotherham Railway; with a visiter's guide to the towns of Sheffield and Rotherham |last=Drake |first=James |year=1840 |publisher=Hayward and More |location=London |pages=p. 4 ] :1843: Sheffield was incorporated as a municipal borough.:1848: The Roman Catholic Church of St Marie (later a cathedral) was completed. [Harman & Minnis, "Sheffield", p. 57] :1848: The Wicker Arches were constructed. [cite web |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=457493 |title=Wicker Arch and adjoining viaduct |accessdate=2008-02-28 |work=Images of England |publisher=English Heritage ] :1848: The parish of Sheffield was subdivided into smaller parishes.:1851: Sheffield Victoria Station opened on 15 September. [Batty, "Rail Centres: Sheffield", p. 30] :1855: Bramall Lane opened as a cricket ground.:1857: Sheffield F.C., the oldest football club in the world among those that have played, or do play, Association football (soccer), was founded.:1858: Sheffield Trades and Labour Council founded as the "Sheffield Association of Organised Trades".:1860: Hallam F.C. was founded.:1864: The Great Sheffield flood devastated large parts of the town, killing 270 people.:1864: By-laws were passed prohibiting the construction of back-to-back houses in the town.:1866: The United Kingdom Alliance of Organised Trades, a forerunner of the Trades Union Congress (TUC), was founded in Sheffield .:1867: The Sheffield Football Association founded:1867: Sheffield Wednesday F.C. was founded.:1870: Midland Main Line extension from Chesterfield to Sheffield opened, with the new terminus at Sheffield Midland station. [Batty, "Rail Centres: Sheffield", pp. 38–40] :1873: The first trams ran in Sheffield.:1878: The first ever floodlit football match was played at Bramall Lane on 14 October.:1885: The Mappin Art Gallery opened.:1889: Sheffield United F.C. was founded.:1893: A Royal Charter granted the municipal borough of Sheffield the style and title of "city".:1897: The University of Sheffield was established.:1897: A new town hall was opened on Pinstone Street, the old building subsequently being used as the county court. [cite web |url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/Details/Default.aspx?id=455954 |title=Town Hall |accessdate=2008-02-28 |work=Images of England |publisher=English Heritage ] :1897: The Lyceum Theatre opened. [Harman & Minnis, "Sheffield", p. 103] :1899: Hillsborough Stadium opened.


:1913: Stainless steel was invented by Harry Brearley whilst working at the Brown Firth Laboratories in Sheffield.:1914: Sheffield became a diocese of the Church of England, and the parish church became a cathedral.:1919: Sheffield City Council began building council houses, mostly to the north and east of the city centre.:1926: The Labour Party first took control of the city council.:1934: Sheffield City Hall completed. [Harman & Minnis, "Sheffield", p. 67] :1934/35: Districts formerly in Derbyshire including Beauchief, Dore, Totley, Norton, and Woodseats were annexed by Sheffield.:1938: St Paul's Church was demolished to make way for an extension to the Town Hall. The extension was never built, and the site subsequently became the Peace Gardens.:1940: The "Sheffield Blitz"—heavy bombing over the nights of 12 December and 15 December led to the loss of over 660 lives, and the destruction of numerous buildings.:1955–1961: Park Hill flats were built.:1955–1962: The Gleadless Valley estate was built.:1965 The University of Sheffield Arts Tower was completed. [Harman & Minnis, "Sheffield", p. 82] :1971: The Crucible Theatre opened.:1974: The Local Government Act of 1972 led to the formation of the Metropolitan borough of Sheffield.:1974: Sheffield Parkway was opened.:1977: The "eggbox" extension to the Town Hall was built.:1979: The Royal Hallamshire Hospital opened.:1980: The Roman Catholic Diocese of Hallam was created with the Church of St Marie as its Cathedral.:1988: The Sheffield Development Corporation was established.:1989: The Hillsborough disaster—96 Liverpool F.C. fans were crushed to death at Hillsborough Stadium.:1990: The Meadowhall shopping centre opened.:1990: The Don Valley Stadium opened.:1991: Sheffield Arena and Ponds Forge opened.:1991: Sheffield hosted the World Student Games.:1994: The first section of the Sheffield Supertram network was opened.:1997: The Gatecrasher nightclub moved to Sheffield.:1997: The film "The Full Monty" (set in Sheffield) was released.


:2001: The Millennium Galleries opened.:2003: The Winter Gardens opened on the former site of the 1977 Town Hall "Egg Box" extension.:2007: The Gatecrasher nightclub burnt down. [cite news |title=Nightclub collapses in city fire |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/south_yorkshire/6765331.stm |work=BBC News |publisher=BBC |date=2007-06-18 |accessdate=2008-03-01 ] :2007: Flooding in June caused millions of pounds worth of damage to buildings in the city and led to the loss of two lives. [cite news |title=Two die in Sheffield flood chaos |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/south_yorkshire/6239000.stm |work=BBC News |publisher=BBC |date=2007-06-25 |accessdate=2008-02-24 ]


*cite book |last=Addy |first=Sidney Oldall |title=A Glossary of Words Used in the Neighbourhood of Sheffield. Including a Selection of Local Names, and Some Notices of Folk-Lore, Games, and Customs |year=1888 |publisher=Trubner & Co. for the English Dialect Society |location=London ()
*cite book |last=Batty |first=Stephen R. |title=Rail Centres: Sheffield |year=2005 |publisher=Booklaw Publications |location=Nottingham |id=ISBN 1-901945-21-9
*cite book |last=Harman |first=R. |coauthors=Minnis, J. |title=Pevsner City Guides: Sheffield. |year=2004 |publisher=Yale University Press |location=New Haven & London |id=ISBN 0-300-10585-1
*cite book |last=Hey |first=David |title=Medieval South Yorkshire |year=2003 |publisher=Landmark Publishing Limited |id=ISBN 1843060809
*cite book |last=Hunter |first=Joseph |authorlink=Joseph Hunter (antiquarian) |title=Hallamshire. The History and Topography of the Parish of Sheffield in the County of York |year=1819 |publisher=Lackington, Hughes, Harding, Mayor & Jones |location=London ()
*cite book |last=Vickers |first=J. Edward MBE |title=Old Sheffield Town. An Historical Miscellany |edition=2nd |year=1999 |publisher=The Hallamshire Press Limited |location=Sheffield |id=ISBN 1-874718-44-X

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