A limousine (or limo) is a longer than normal
luxury car. The chassis may have been extended by the manufacturer or by an independent coach builder, traditionally blackor whitein color. Limousines are most commonly driven by chauffeurs and until the mid-1990s were most often associated with the wealthy. They are also used for special occasions such as weddings, parties and sight-seeing tours.
While some limousines are owned by individuals, many are owned by governments to transport senior politicians, by large companies to transport executives, or by broadcasters to transport guestsFact|date=August 2007. Most limousines, however, operate as livery vehicles, providing upmarket competition to
The first automobile limousine, built in 1902, was designed so the driver sat outside under a covered compartment. [ [http://www.stretching-it.com/LimoPages/origins.htm The Origins of the Limousine] ] The word "limousine" is derived from the name of the French region Limousin, because this covered compartment physically resembled the cloak hood worn by the shepherds there. An alternate
etymologyhas the chauffeur wearing a Limousin-style cloak in the open driver's compartment, for protection from the weather."The Random House College Dictionary" p. 777 Random House, Inc., 1975 ISBN 0-394-43600-8] [ [http://www.big-limos.com/a-history-of-limousines A history of limousines] /] [ [http://www.lancashirelimos.co.uk/limo_history.htm Limousine History] ]
The first “Stretch Limousine” was created in
Fort Smith, Arkansasaround 1928 by a coach company named Armbruster. These cars were primarily used to transport famous “big band” leers, such as Glenn Millerand Benny Goodman, and their bands and equipment. These early stretch limousines were often called “big band buses”. [ [http://www.lancashirelimos.co.uk/limo_history.htm Limousine History] ]
A limousine has a divider separating the driver from the rear passenger compartment. This partition usually contains a sliding (often soundproof) glass window so that conversations between passengers in the rear compartment may be kept private from the chauffeur. Communication with the driver is possible either by opening the window in the partition or by using an intercom system.
Traditionally, the limousine has been an extension of a large sedan. A longer frame and wheelbase allow the rear passenger compartment to contain the usual forward facing passenger seat but with a substantial amount of footroom — more than is actually needed. Usually then two "jump seats" are mounted, facing rearward behind the driver. These seats fold up when not in use. In this way, up to five persons can be carried in the aft compartment in comfort, and up to two additional persons carried in the driver's compartment, for a total capacity of seven passengers in addition to the driver. This type of seat configuration has however become less popular in recent limousines.
Newer limousines such as the Maybach 62,
Audi A8L, Mercedes-Benz S-Class, Hummer H2, Leyland Miracle, BMW 760Li , Lincoln Town Car;L Edition,and the Cadillac DTSdo not feature such seats since stretch limousines are usually used to transport more than three passengers, excluding the driver. In production American limousines however, the jump seats almost always faced forward. The last production limousine, by Cadillac, with forward facing jump seats was in 1987, the last Packard in 1954, and the last Lincoln in 1939, though Lincoln has offered limos through their dealers as special order vehicles from time to time. Vehicles of this type in private use may contain expensive audio players, televisions, video players, and bars, often with refrigerators.
It is simpler and more straightforward to determine the effects of altering a separate chassis than it is to determine the effects of altering a load-bearing unit body. For this reason, the automobile of choice for conversion into stretch limousines is the
Lincoln Town Car, whose Panther platform is one of the last remaining automotive platforms using a separate load-bearing chassis.Fact|date=February 2007 However, coachbuilders have recently built many new models based on SUVs with separate load-bearing chassis, including Hummer H2s and H3s.
Another type of vehicle modified for multiple passenger use is the motorized stage, applied to the same tasks as the earlier
stagecoach. It is not considered a true limousine but rather in its design and application is between a sedan and a bus. While a bus will have a central interior aisle for access to seating, a stage has multiple doors that allow access to transverse forward facing seats. Examples of the type were constructed not only from sedans (e.g., Chrysler New Yorker, Cadillac DeVille), but also from station wagons; many of the station wagon conversions sported a large rack, running the length of the roof, for carrying the passengers' baggage.
This type of vehicle was once rather common in some locations. An example of its use was in the transport of travelers arriving by
railroadat Merced, Californiato Glacier National Park and Yosemite National Park in the first half of the 20th century. In Glacier National Park, these were referred to as "Jammers" in reference to the nickname of their gear-jamming drivers. In Yosemite, passengers would then stay in rustic platform tent camps or more expensive lodges and hike or rent bicycles for movement around the park.
A modern version of the stage is seen in some novelty stretch
Hummeror Hummer H2vehicles. Some funeral homes maintain six-door stages to carry the family of the deceased between the church and the cemetery. These are usually not used for private hire.
Sometimes a coach builder or car designer will develop the "ultimate" stretch limo, adding amenities that are somewhat impractical but which make a significant design statement. One such design includes double rear axles to support the weight of an operational
Coach builders can perform aftermarket extensions on luxury sedans and SUVs. These extensive limousine conversions have been performed on several luxury marques, including:
Audi, Bentley, BMW, Cadillac, Chrysler, Ford, Holden, Hummer, Infiniti, Jaguar, Lexus, Lincoln, Mercedes-Benz, Rolls-Royce and Volkswagen. In the United States the most popular vehicles for stretch limousines conversion are the Lincoln Town Car, Cadillac DTS, Cadillac Escalade, Chrysler 300C, Hummer H2, Ford Excursion, and the Lincoln Navigator. There are even instances of Corvettes and VW Beetles being stretched to accommodate up to 10 passengers.
Most custom coach builders are located in the United States and Europe and cater mainly to limousine companies. Few such vehicles are available for public hire. A typical price to buy a Lincoln Town Car sedan and have it stretched to hold 6 passengers is approximately USD $85,000 (at 2006 prices) depending on the additional features added into the vehicle. In addition to luxuries, security features such as armoring and bulletproof glass are available.
Car body style
List of flagship vehicles by manufacturer
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limousine — [ limuzin ] n. f. • 1836; de limousin 1 ♦ Vieilli Pèlerine d étoffe grossière que portent les bergers. Le berger « se dépouille de sa lourde limousine de bure » (Giono). 2 ♦ (1903) Automobile à quatre portes et six glaces. « La limousine noire [ … Encyclopédie Universelle
Limousine — Sf geschlossenes Fahrzeug erw. fach. (20. Jh.) Entlehnung. Entlehnt aus frz. limousine m./(f.), ursprünglich: eine Art Mantel . Ebenso nndl. limousine, ne. limousine, nfrz. (obs.) limousine, nschw. limousin, nnorw. limousin. Das französische… … Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache
Limousine — Li mou*sine , n. [Cf. F. limousine a kind of cloak, fr. Limousin, an old province in central France.] an elongated, luxurious automobile, designed to be driven by a chauffeur and often having a glass partition between the driver s seat and the… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
limousine — (n.) 1902, enclosed automobile with open driver s seat, from Fr. limousine, from Limousin, region in central France, originally an adjective referring to its chief city, Limoges, from L. Lemovices, name of a people who lived near there, perhaps… … Etymology dictionary
Limousine — Limousine: Die Bezeichnung für einen Personenkraftwagen mit festem Verdeck (oder Schiebedach) wurde um 1900 aus gleichbed. frz. limousine entlehnt. Das frz. Wort bedeutet eigentlich »weiter, großer Schutzmantel« (wie ihn ursprünglich besonders… … Das Herkunftswörterbuch
Limousine — Limousine,die:⇨Auto(1) … Das Wörterbuch der Synonyme
limousine — ► NOUN ▪ a large, luxurious car. ORIGIN French, originally denoting a caped cloak worn in the region of Limousin; the car originally had an outside driving seat and an enclosed passenger compartment that was likened to the cloak … English terms dictionary
limousine — [lim΄ə zēn′, lim′ə zēn΄] n. [Fr, lit., cloak, cape: from the costume worn in LIMOUSIN] 1. a former kind of automobile with a closed compartment seating three or more passengers and the top extended forward over the driver s seat 2. any large,… … English World dictionary
Limousine — Tatra 700 Limousine mit vier Türen BMW 3er (E30) … Deutsch Wikipedia
Limousine — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sur les autres projets Wikimedia : « Limousine », sur le Wiktionnaire (dictionnaire universel) La limousine, une race bovine. La limousine … Wikipédia en Français