Ruthenium (pronEng|ruːˈθiːniəm) is a
chemical elementthat has the symbol Ru and atomic number44. A rare transition metalof the platinum groupof the periodic table, ruthenium is found associated with platinumores and used as a catalystin some platinum alloys.
A polyvalent hard white metal, ruthenium is a member of the
platinum group, has four crystal modifications and does not tarnish at normal temperatures, but does oxidize readily on exposure to air to form ruthenium tetroxide, RuO4, a strong oxidising agent with properties analogous to those of osmium tetroxide. Ruthenium dissolves in fused alkalis, is not attacked by acids but is attacked by halogens at high temperatures. Small amounts of ruthenium can increase the hardness of platinumand palladium. The corrosionresistance of titaniumis increased markedly by the addition of a small amount of ruthenium.
This metal can be plated either by
electrodepositionor by thermal decomposition methods. One ruthenium- molybdenum alloyhas been found to be superconductive at 10.6 K. The oxidation states of ruthenium range from +1 to +8, and -2 is known, though oxidation states of +2, +3, and +4 are most common.
Due to its ability to harden platinum and palladium, ruthenium is used in platinum and palladium
alloys to make wear-resistant electrical contacts. It is sometimes alloyed with gold in jewelry. 0.1% ruthenium is added to titaniumto improve its corrosion resistance a hundredfold. [cite web | url = http://education.jlab.org/itselemental/ele044.html | title = It's Elemental - Ruthenium]
Ruthenium is also used in some advanced high-temperature single-crystal
superalloys, with applications including the turbine blades in jet engines. Fountain pennibs are frequently tipped with alloys containing ruthenium. From 1944 onward, the famous Parker 51fountain pen was fitted with the "RU" nib, a 14K gold nib tipped with 96.2% ruthenium and 3.8% iridium.
Ruthenium is also a versatile catalyst.
Hydrogen sulfidecan be split by light by using an aqueous suspension of CdS particles loaded with ruthenium dioxide. This may be useful in the removal of H2S from oil refineries and from other industrial processes.
Ruthenium is a component of mixed-metal oxide (MMO) anodes used for cathodic protection of underground and submerged structures, and for electrolytic cells for chemical processes such as generating chlorine from saltwater.
Organometallicruthenium carbeneand allenylidenecomplexes have recently been found as highly efficient catalysts for olefin metathesiswith important applications in organic and pharmaceutical chemistry.
Some ruthenium complexes absorb light throughout the visible spectrum and are being actively researched in various, potential,
solar energytechnologies. Ruthenium-based dyes have been used as the electron providers in dye-sensitized solar cells, a promising new low-cost solar cellsystem.
fluorescenceof some ruthenium complexes is quenched by oxygen, which has led to their use as optodesensors for oxygen. Ruthenium red, [(NH3)5Ru-O-Ru(NH3)4-O-Ru(NH3)5] 6+, is a biological stainused to stain polyanionic molecules such as pectinand nucleic acidsfor light microscopyand electron microscopy.
The beta-decaying isotope 106 of ruthenium is used in radiotherapy of eye tumors, mainly
malignant melanomae of the uvea.
Ruthenium-centered complexes are being researched for possible anticancer properties. [cite journal
last = Richards
first = A.D.
coauthor = Rodger, A.
year = 2007
url = http://www.rsc.org/publishing/journals/CS/article.asp?doi=b609495c
title = Synthetic metallomolecules as agents for the control of DNA structure
journal = Chem. Soc. Rev.
volume = 36
pages = 471–483.
doi = 10.1039/b609495c] Ruthenium, unlike traditional platinum complexes, show greater resistance to hydrolysis and more selective action on tumors. NAMI-A and KP1019 are two drugs undergoing clinical evaluation against metastatic tumors and colon cancers.
Applications of ruthenium thin films in microelectronics
Relatively recently, ruthenium has been suggested as a material that could beneficially replace other metals and silicides in microelectronics components. Ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) is highly volatile, as is ruthenium trioxide (RuO3). [cite journal
first = P.
coauthor = Desu, S. B.
title = Reactive ion etching of RuO2 films: the role of additive gases in O2 discharge
journal = Physica Status Solidi A
year = 1997
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doi =10.1002/1521-396X(199705)161:1<201::AID-PSSA201>3.0.CO;2-U] By oxidizing ruthenium (for example with an oxygen plasma) into the volatile oxides, ruthenium can be easily patterned. [cite journal
last = Lesaicherre
first = P. Y.
coauthor = Yamamichi, S.; Takemura, K.; Yamaguchi, H.; Tokashiki, K.; Miyasaka, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Ono, H.
title = A Gbit-scale DRAM stacked capacitor with ECR MOCVD SrTiO3 over RIE patterned RuO2/TiN storage nodes
journal = Integrated Ferroelectrics
year = 1995
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issue = 1–4
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title = Reactive Ion Etching of RuO2, Thin-Films Using the Gas-Mixture O2 Cf3cfh2
journal = Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B
year = 1994
volume = 12
issue = 6
pages = 3208–3213
doi = 10.1116/1.587501] [cite journal
last = Vijay
first = D. P.
coauthor = Desu, S. B.; Pan, W.,
title = Reactive Ion Etching of Lead-Zirconate-Titanate (PZT) Thin-Film Capacitors
journal = Journal of the Electrochemical Society
year = 1993
volume = 140
issue = 9
pages = 2635–2639
doi = 10.1149/1.2220876] [cite journal
last = Saito
first = S.
coauthor =Kuramasu, K.
title = Plasma etching of RuO2 thin films
journal = Japanese Journal of Applied Physics
year = 1992
volume = 31
issue = 1
pages = 135–138
doi = 10.1143/JJAP.31.135] The properties of the common ruthenium oxides make ruthenium a metal compatible with the semiconductor processing techniques needed to manufacture microelectronics.
In order to continue miniaturization of microelectronics, new materials are needed as dimensions change. There are three main applications for thin ruthenium films in microelectronics. The first is using thin films of ruthenium as electrodes on both sides of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) or barium strontium titanate ((Ba, Sr)TiO3, also known as BST) in the next generation of three-dimensional
dynamic random access memories( DRAMs). [Aoyama, T.; Eguchi, K., Ruthenium films prepared by liquid source chemical vapor deposition using bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1999, 38, (10A), 1134-6.] [Iizuka, T.; Arita, K.; Yamamoto, I.; Yamamichi, S., (Ba,Sr)TiO3 thin film capacitors with Ru electrodes for application to ULSI processes. NEC Research and Development 2001, 42, (1), 64-9.] [Yamamichi, S.; Lesaicherre, P. Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Takemura, K.; Sone, S.; Yabuta, H.; Sato, K.; Tamura, T.; Nakajima, K.; Ohnishi, S.; Tokashiki, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Kato, Y.; Miyasaka, Y.; Yoshida, M.; Ono, H., A stacked capacitor technology with ECR plasma MOCVD (Ba,Sr)TiO3 and RuO2/Ru/TiN/TiSix storage nodes for Gb-scale DRAM's. IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 1997, 44, (7), 1076-1083.] Ruthenium thin film electrodes could also be deposited on top of lead zirconate titanate (Pb(ZrxTi1-x)O3, also known as PZT) in another kind of RAM, ferroelectric random access memory ( FRAM). [Bandaru, J.; Sands, T.; Tsakalakos, L., Simple Ru electrode scheme for ferroelectric (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O3 capacitors directly on silicon. Journal of Applied Physics 1998, 84, (2), 1121-1125.] [Maiwa, H.; Ichinose, N.; Okazaki, K., Preparation and properties of Ru and RuO2 thin film electrodes for ferroelectric thin films. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1994, 33, (9B), 5223-6.] Platinum has been used as the electrodes in RAMs in laboratory settings, but it is difficult to pattern. Ruthenium is chemically similar to platinum, preserving the function of the RAMs, but in contrast to Pt patterns easily. The second is using thin ruthenium films is as metal gates in p-doped metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (p-MOSFETs). [Misra, V.; Lucovsky, G.; Parsons, G., Issues in high-kappa gate stack interfaces. MRS Bulletin 2002, 27, (3), 212-216.] When replacing silicidegates with metal gates in MOSFETs, a key property of the metal is its work function. The work function needs to match the surrounding materials. For p-MOSFETs, the ruthenium work function is the best materials property match with surrounding materials such as HfO2, HfSiOx, HfNOx, and HfSiNOx, to achieve the desired electrical properties. The third large-scale application for ruthenium films is as a combination adhesion promoter and electroplating seed layer between TaN and Cu in the copper dual damascene process. [Chan, R.; Arunagiri, T. N.; Zhang, Y.; Chyan, O.; Wallace, R. M.; Kim, M. J.; Hurd, T. Q., Diffusion Studies of Copper on Ruthenium Thin Film. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 2004, 7, (8), G154-G157.] [Cho, S. K.; Kim, S.-K.; Kim, J. J.; Oh, S. M., Damascene Cu electrodeposition on metal organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Ru thin film barrier. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology B 2004, 22, (6), 2649-2653.] [Chyan, O.; Arunagiri, T. N.; Ponnuswamy, T., Electrodeposition of Copper Thin Film on Ruthenium. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2003, 150, (5), C347-C350.] [Kwon, O.-K.; Kwon, S.-H.; Park, H.-S.; Kang, S.-W., PEALD of a Ruthenium Adhesion Layer for Copper Interconnects. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2004, 151, (12), C753-C756.] [Kwon, O.-K.; Kim, J.-H.; Park, H.-S.; Kang, S.-W., Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium Thin Films for Copper Glue Layer. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2004, 151, (2), G109-G112.] Copper can be directly electroplated onto ruthenium [Moffat, T. P.; Walker, M.; Chen, P. J.; Bonevich, J. E.; Egelhoff, W. F.; Richter, L.; Witt, C.; Aaltonen, T.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M.; Josella, D., Electrodeposition of Cu on Ru Barrier Layers for Damascene Processing. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2006, 153, (1), C37-C50.] , in contrast to tantalum nitride. Copper also adheres poorly to TaN, but well to Ru. By depositing a layer of ruthenium on the TaN barrier layer, copper adhesion would be improved and deposition of a copper seed layer would not be necessary.
There are also other uses suggested. In 1990,
IBMscientists discovered that a thin layer of ruthenium atoms created a strong anti-parallel coupling between adjacent ferromagneticlayers, stronger than any other nonmagnetic spacer-layer element. Such a ruthenium layer was used in the first giant magnetoresistive read element for hard disk drives. In 2001, IBM announced a three-atom-thick layer of the element ruthenium, informally referred to as pixie dust, which would allow a quadrupling of the data density of current hard disk drive media. [Brian Hayes, [http://www.americanscientist.org/template/AssetDetail/assetid/14750 Terabyte Territory] , " American Scientist", Vol 90 No 3 (May-June 2002) p. 212]
Ruthenium was discovered and isolated by Russian scientist Karl Klaus in
1844in Kazan University, Kazan. Klaus showed that ruthenium oxide contained a new metal and obtained 6 grams of ruthenium from the part of crude platinumthat is insoluble in aqua regia. Jöns Berzeliusand Gottfried Osannnearly discovered ruthenium in 1827. The men examined residues that were left after dissolving crude platinumfrom the Ural Mountainsin aqua regia. Berzelius did not find any unusual metals, but Osann thought he found three new metals and named one of them ruthenium.
The name derives from
Ruthenia, the Latin word for Rus', a historical area which includes present-day western Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and parts of Slovakiaand Poland. Karl Klaus named the element in honour of his birthland, as he was born in Tartu, Estonia, which was at the time a part of the Russian Empire.
It is also possible that Polish chemist
Jędrzej Śniadeckiisolated element 44 (which he called "vestium") from platinum ores in 1807. However his work was never confirmed, and he later withdrew his claim of discovery.
This element is generally found in ores with the other platinum group metals in the
Ural Mountainsand in North and South America. Small but commercially important quantities are also found in pentlanditeextracted from Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, and in pyroxenitedeposits in South Africa. The native ruthenium is very rare mineral (Ir replaces part of Ru in its structure).
Ruthenium is exceedingly rare and is the 74th most abundant metal on earth [Nature's Building Block, John Emsley, Oxford University Press,2001] . Roughly 12Mt of Ru is mined each year with world reserves estimated to be 5000Mt [Nature's Building Block, John Emsley, Oxford University Press,2001] .
This metal is commercially isolated through a complex chemical process in which
hydrogenis used to reduce ammoniumruthenium chloride yielding a powder. The powder is then consolidated by powder metallurgy techniques or by argon- arc welding.
From used nuclear fuels
It is also possible to extract ruthenium from
used nuclear fuel. Each kilo of fission products of 235U will contain 63.44 grams of ruthenium isotopes with halflives longer than a day. Since a typical used nuclear fuel contains about 3% fission products, one ton of used fuel will contain about 1.9 kg of ruthenium. The 103Ru and 106Ru will render the fission ruthenium very radioactive. If the fission occurs in an instant then the ruthenium thus formed will have an activity due to 103Ru of 109 TBq g-1 and 106Ru of 1.52 TBq g-1. Ru 103 has a half life of about 39 days meaning that within 390 days it will have effectively decayed to ground state, well before any reprocessing is likely to occur. Ru 106 has a half life of about 373 days meaning that if the fuel is let to cool for 5 years before reprocessing only about 3% of the original quantity will remain, the rest will have decayed to ground state.
"See also ."
Ruthenium compounds are often similar in properties to those of
osmiumand exhibit at least eight oxidation states, but the +2, +3, and +4 states are the most common. Examples are ruthenium(IV) oxide(Ru(IV)O2, oxidation state +4), dipotassium ruthenate (K2Ru(VI)O4, +6), potassium perruthenate (KRu(VII)O4, +7) and ruthenium tetroxide(Ru(VIII)O4, +8). Compounds of ruthenium with chlorine are ruthenium(II) chloride(RuCl2) and ruthenium(III) chloride(RuCl3).
"See also ."
Naturally occurring ruthenium is composed of seven stable
isotopes. Additionally, 34 radioactive isotopes have been discovered. Of these radioisotopes, the most stable are 106Ru with a half-lifeof 373.59 days, 103Ru with a half-life of 39.26 days and 97Ru with a half-life of 2.9 days.
Fifteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with
atomic weights ranging from 89.93 u (90Ru) to 114.928 u (115Ru). Most of these have half-lives that are less than five minutes except 95Ru (half-life: 1.643 hours) and 105Ru (half-life: 4.44 hours).
decay modebefore the most abundant isotope, 102Ru, is electron captureand the primary mode after is beta emission. The primary decay productbefore 102Ru is technetiumand the primary mode after is rhodium.
Ruthenium is a versatile metal that can easily form compounds with carbon ruthenium bonds, as these compounds tend to be darker and react more quickly than the
osmiumcompounds. Recently, Professor Anthony Hill and his co-workers have been making compounds of ruthenium in which a boronatom binds to the metal atom [ [http://rsc.anu.edu.au/research/hill.php - Professor Anthony Hill] - Current Research] .
organometallicruthenium compound that is easiest to make is RuHCl(CO)(PPh3)3. This compound has two forms (yellow and pink) that are identical once they are dissolved but different in the solid state.
organometalliccompound similar to ruthenocene, bis(2,4-dimethylpentadienyl)ruthenium, is readily synthesized in near quantitative yields and has applications in vapor-phase deposition of metallic ruthenium, as well as in catalysis, including Fischer-Tropsch synthesisof transportation fuels.
catalysts based on ruthenium are Grubbs' catalystand Roper's complex.
Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium
A unique challenge arises in trying to grow impurity-free films of a catalyst. Ruthenium metal activates C-H and C-C bonds, which aids C-H and C-C bond scission. This creates a potential catalytic decomposition path for all metal-organic CVD precursors that is likely to lead to significant carbon incorporation. Platinum, a chemically similar catalyst, catalyzes dehydrogenation of five- and six-member cyclic hydrocarbons into benzene. [Manner, W. L.; Girolami, G. S.; Nuzzo, R. G., Sequential Dehydrogenation of Unsaturated Cyclic C5 and C6 Hydrocarbons on Pt(111). J. Phys. Chem. B 1998, 102, (50), 10295-10306.] The d-bands of ruthenium lie higher than those in platinum, generally predicting stronger ruthenium-adsorbate bonds than on platinum.21 Therefore, it is likely that ruthenium also catalyzes dehydrogenation of five- and six-member hydrocarbon rings to benzene. Benzene dehydrogenates further on ruthenium surfaces into hydrocarbon fragments similar to those formed by acetylene and ethene on ruthenium surfaces. [Jakob, P.; Menzel, D., The adsorption of benzene on Ru(001). Surface Science 1988, 210, 503-530.] [Jakob, P. Adsorption und thermische Evolution von aromatischen Molekülen auf Ru(001): Benzol, Benzol+O, CO, H und Pyridin. Doctoral, Technische Universität München, München, 1989.] In addition to benzene, acetylene and ethene, pyridine also decomposes on ruthenium surfaces, leaving bound fragments on the surface. [Jakob, P. Adsorption und thermische Evolution von aromatischen Molekülen auf Ru(001): Benzol, Benzol+O, CO, H und Pyridin. Doctoral, Technische Universität München, München, 1989.]
Ruthenium is unusually well studied in the surface science and catalysis literature due to its industrial importance as a catalyst. There are many studies of individual molecular behavior on ruthenium in surface science. However, understanding the behavior of each ligand on its own is not equivalent to understanding their behavior when co-adsorbed with each other and with the precursor. While there is no significant pressure difference between surface science studies and CVD, there is often a temperature gap between temperatures reported in surface science studies and CVD growth temperatures. Despite these complications, ruthenium is a promising candidate for understanding chemical vapor deposition and precursor design of catalytic films.
Ligands that are stable compounds in their own right, short ligand-ruthenium contact times and moderate substrate temperatures help minimize unwanted ligand decomposition on the surface. [Schneider, A.; Popovska, N.; Jipa, I.; Atakan, B.; Siddiqi, M. A.; Siddiqui, R.; Zenneck, U., Minimizing the carbon content of thin ruthenium films by MOCVD precursor complex design and process control. Chemical Vapor Deposition 2007, 13, (8), 389-395.] [Schneider, A.; Popovska, N.; Holzmann, F.; Gerhard, H.; Topf, C.; Zenneck, U., [(1,5-Cyclooctadiene)(toluene)ruthenium(0)] : A Novel Precursor for the MOCVD of Thin Ruthenium Films. Chemical Vapor Deposition 2005, 11, (2), 99-105.] [Schneider, A. Metallorganische Chemische Dasphasenabscheidung (MOCVD) von Übergangsmetallen am Beispiel von Eisen, Ruthenium und Wolfram. Doctoral, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, 2006.] The C-H and C-C bond activation is temperature-dependent. Product desorption is also temperature-dependent, if the products are not bound to the ruthenium surface. This suggests that there is some optimum temperature, at which most independently stable ligands have just enough thermal energy to desorb from the ruthenium film surface before C-H activation can occur. For example, benzene starts decomposing on ruthenium at 87°C. However, the dehydrogenation reaction does not go to fragments until 277°C, and compete fragmentation is not seen at low surface coverages. This suggests that provided adsorbed benzene molecules are not close to one another on the surface and temperatures are below 277°C, the vast majority of benzene molecules may not contribute to carbon incorporation in films. Therefore, a key consideration in growing CVD films of catalytic metals such as ruthenium is combining molecule design and the kinetic aspects of growth in a favorable way.
Before metal-organic precursors were explored, triruthenium dodecacarbonyl (Ru3(CO)12) was tested as a CVD precursor. [Green, M. L.; Gross, M. L.; Papa, L. E.; Schnoes, K. J.; Brasen, D., Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium and Ruthenium Dioxide Films. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 1985, (132), 2677.] [Wang, Q.; Ekerdt, J. G.; Gay, D.; Sun, Y.-M.; White, J. M., Low-temperature chemical vapor deposition and scaling limit of ultrathin Ru films. Applied Physics Letters 2004, 84, (8), 1380-1382.] While this precursor gives good-quality films, the vapor pressure is poor, complicating its practical use in a CVD process. Ruthenocene [Trent, D. E.; Paris, B.; Krause, H. H., Vapor Deposition of Pure Ruthenium Metal from Ruthenocene. Inorg. Chem. 1964, 3, (7), 1057-1058.] [Park, S. E.; Kim, H. M.; Kim, K. B.; Min, S. H., Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition of Ru and RuO2 using ruthenocene precursor and oxygen gas. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2000, 147, (1), 203-209.] and bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium(II) [Aoyama, T.; Eguchi, K., Ruthenium films prepared by liquid source chemical vapor deposition using bis-(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 1999, 38, (10A), 1134-6.] [Kang, S. Y.; Choi, K. H.; Lee, S. K.; Hwang, C. S.; Kim, H. J., Thermodynamic Calculations and Metallorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition of Ruthenium Thin Films Using Bis(ethyl-pi-cyclopentadienyl)Ru for Memory Applications. Journal of The Electrochemical Society 2000, 147, (3), 1161-1167.] [Matsui, Y.; Hiratani, M.; Nabatame, T.; Shimamoto, Y.; Kimura, S., Characteristics of Ruthenium Films Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Bis(ethylcyclopentadienyl)ruthenium Precursor. Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters 2002, 5, (1), C18-C21.] [Nabatame, T.; Hiratani, M.; Kadoshima, M.; Shimamoto, Y.; Matsui, Y.; Ohji, Y.; Asano, I.; Fujiwara, T.; Suzuki, T., Properties of ruthenium films prepared by liquid source metalorganic chemical vapor deposition using Ru(EtCp)2 with tetrahydrofuran solvent. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2000, 39, (11B), 1188-90.] and beta-diketonate ruthenium(II) compounds [Kadoshima, M.; Nabatame, T.; Hiratani, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Asano, I.; Suzuki, T., Ruthenium Films Prepared by Liquid Source Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition Using Ru(dpm)3 Dissolved with Tetrahydrofuran Solvent. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2002, 41Part 2, (3B), L347-L350.] [Lai, Y.-H.; Chen, Y.-L.; Chi, Y.; Liu, C.-S.; Carty, A. J.; Peng, S.-M.; Lee, G.-H., Deposition of Ru and RuO2 thin films employing dicarbonyl bis-diketonate ruthenium complexes as CVD source reagents. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2003, 13, 1999-2006.] [Lee, J.-H.; Kim, J.-Y.; Rhee, S.-W.; Yang, D.; Kim, D.-H.; Yang, C.-H.; Han, Y.-K.; Hwang, C.-J., Chemical vapor deposition of Ru thin films by direct liquid injection of Ru(OD)3 (OD=octanedionate). Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A 2000, 18, (5), 2400-2403.] have been fairly extensively explored. Although these precursors also can give pure films of low resistivity when reacted with oxygen, the growth rates are very low or not reported. One high-growth precursor, cyclopentadienyl-propylcyclopentadienylruthenium(II) (RuCp(i-PrCp)), has been identified. [Kang, S. Y.; Lim, H. J.; Hwang, C. S.; Kim, H. J., Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition of Ru films using cyclopentadienyl-propylcyclopentadienylruthenium(II) and oxygen. Journal of the Electrochemical Society 2002, 149, (6), C317-C323.] (RuCp(i-PrCp) has achieved growth rates of 7.5nm/min to 20 nm/min as well as low resistivities. However, it does not nucleate on oxides, ruling out its use in all applications but copper interconnect playing layers.
A new zero-valent, single-source precursor design paradigm was launched by Schneider et al with (1,5-cyclooctadiene)(toluene)Ru(0) ((1,5-COD)(toluene)Ru) [Schneider, A.; Popovska, N.; Holzmann, F.; Gerhard, H.; Topf, C.; Zenneck, U., [(1,5-Cyclooctadiene)(toluene)ruthenium(0)] : A Novel Precursor for the MOCVD of Thin Ruthenium Films. Chemical Vapor Deposition 2005, 11, (2), 99-105.] and (1,3-cyclohexadiene)(benzene)Ru(0) ((1,3-CHD)(benzene)Ru) [Schneider, A.; Popovska, N.; Jipa, I.; Atakan, B.; Siddiqi, M. A.; Siddiqui, R.; Zenneck, U., Minimizing the carbon content of thin ruthenium films by MOCVD precursor complex design and process control. Chemical Vapor Deposition 2007, 13, (8), 389-395.] , also independently tested by Choi et al. [Choi, J.; Choi, Y.; Hong, J.; Tian, H.; Roh, J.-S.; Kim, Y.; Chung, T.-M.; Woo Oh, Y.; Kim, Y.; Kim, C. G.; No, K., Composition and Electrical Properties of Metallic Ru Thin Films Deposited Using Ru(C6H6)(C6H8) Precursor. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics 2002, 41, (11B), 6852-6856.] Using (1,5-COD)(toluene)Ru, Schneider found that C-H bonds were readily activated in 1,5-COD. Although carbon incorporation levels were low (1-3%), the growth rates were only around 0.28nm/min at best. Using (1,3-CHD)(benzene)Ru, the 1,3-CHD was dehydrogenated to benzene as expected, but the large variety of possible surface reactions involving the two ligands resulted in a narrow process window in which carbon concentrations were low.
ruthenium tetroxide, RuO4, similar to osmium tetroxide, is volatile, highly toxicand may cause explosions if allowed to come into contact with combustible materials. [ [http://www.springerlink.com/content/n265k571444pw788/ Ruthenium Tetroxide and Other Ruthenium Compounds?] ] Ruthenium plays no biological role but does strongly stain human skin, may be carcinogenic [ [http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4142243 INHALATION OF RADIONUCLIDES AND CARCINOGENESIS] ] and bio-accumulates in bone.
* [http://periodic.lanl.gov/elements/44.html Los Alamos National Laboratory – Ruthenium]
* [http://www.brightsurf.com/news/headlines/32014/Nano-layer_of_ruthenium_stabilizes_magnetic_sensors.html Nano-layer of ruthenium stabilizes magnetic sensors]
* [http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/Ru/index.html WebElements.com – Ruthenium]
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