Genetic counseling


Genetic counseling

Genetic counseling is the process by which patients or relatives, at risk of an inherited disorder, are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning in order to prevent, avoid or ameliorate it. This complex process can be seen from diagnostic (the actual estimation of risk) and supportive aspects.

What do genetic counselors do?

A genetic counselor is a medical genetics expert with a master of science degree. In the USA they are certified by the American Board of Genetic Counseling [http://www.abgc.net] . Most enter the field from a variety of disciplines, including biology, genetics, nursing, psychology, public health and social work.

Genetic counselors work as members of a health care team and act as a patient advocate as well as a genetic resource to physicians. Genetic counselors provide information and support to families who have members with birth defects or genetic disorders, and to families who may be at risk for a variety of inherited conditions. They identify families at risk, investigate the problems present in the family, interpret information about the disorder, analyze inheritance patterns and risks of recurrence and review available testing options with the family.

Genetic counselors are present at high risk or specialty prenatal clinics that offer prenatal diagnosis, pediatric care centers, and adult genetic centers. Genetic counseling can occur before conception (i.e. when one or two of the parents are carriers of a certain trait) through to adulthood (for adult onset genetic conditions such as Huntington's disease or hereditary cancer syndromes).

Who receives genetic counseling

A woman may be referred for genetic counseling if pregnant and undergoing prenatal testing or screening. Genetic counselors educate the patient about their testing options and inform them of their results. If a prenatal screening or test is abnormal, the genetic counselor evaluates the risk of an affected pregnancy, educates the patient about these risks and informs the patient of their options.

A person may also undergo genetic counseling after the birth of a child with a genetic condition. In these instances, the genetic counselor explains the condition to the patient along with recurrence risks in future children. In all cases of a positive family history for a condition, the genetic counselor can evaluate risks, recurrence and explain the condition itself.

Other roles in genetic counseling

Genetic counselors provide supportive counseling to families, serve as patient advocates and refer individuals and families to community or state support services. They serve as educators and resource people for other health care professionals and for the general public. Some counselors also work in administrative capacities. Many engage in research activities related to the field of medical genetics and genetic counseling. The field of genetic counseling is rapidly expanding and many counselors are taking on "non-traditional roles" which includes working for genetic companies and laboratories.

Controversy

(Main articles Genetics and abortion, Fetal rights and Eugenics)

See also

* List of counseling topics
*Disability rights
*Social model of disability
*Nothing About Us Without Us
*Pre-conception counseling

External links

* [http://www.nsgc.org National Society of Genetic Counselors]
* [http://www.abgc.net American Board of Genetic Counseling]
* [http://www.cagc-accg.ca Canadian Association of Genetic Counsellors]
* [http://www.eurogentest.org EuroGentest]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • genetic counseling — n. the medical counseling of prospective parents regarding the existence of genetic abnormalities in a fetus or the possible transmission of genetic defects …   English World dictionary

  • Genetic counseling — An educational counseling process for individuals and families who have a genetic disease or who are at risk for such a disease. Genetic counseling is designed to provide patients and their families with information about their condition and help …   Medical dictionary

  • genetic counseling — A communication process between a specially trained health professional and a person concerned about the genetic risk of disease. The person s family and personal medical history may be discussed, and counseling may lead to genetic testing …   English dictionary of cancer terms

  • genetic counseling — the counseling of individuals with established or potential genetic problems, concerned with inheritance patterns and risks to future offspring. [1965 70] * * * …   Universalium

  • genetic counseling — genet′ic coun′seling n. med gen the counseling of persons with established or potential genetic problems in regard to inheritance patterns and risks to future offspring • Etymology: 1965–70 …   From formal English to slang

  • genetic counseling — noun guidance for prospective parents on the likelihood of genetic disorders in their future children • Hypernyms: ↑guidance, ↑counsel, ↑counseling, ↑counselling, ↑direction …   Useful english dictionary

  • genetic counseling — noun Date: 1955 guidance relating to genetic disorders that is provided by a medical professional typically to individuals with an increased risk of having a child with such a disorder …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Genetic counseling — Conseil génétique En général, le conseil génétique désigne un conseil prénatal appliqué lorsqu un problème génétique est suspecté au cours de la grossesse. Un conseiller génétique est un professionnel de la santé spécialisé et expérimenté dans le …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Journal of Genetic Counseling — is a medical journal.It is published by Springer Science+Business Media.External links* http://www.springer.com/biomed/human+genetics/journal/10897 …   Wikipedia

  • Genetic testing — (also called DNA based tests) is among the newest and most sophisticated of techniques[1] used to test for genetic disorders which involves direct examination of the DNA molecule itself. Other genetic tests include biochemical tests for such gene …   Wikipedia


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