Brazilian National Anthem


Brazilian National Anthem
Hino Nacional Brasileiro
English: Brazilian National Anthem

National anthem of
 Brazil

Lyrics Osório Duque-Estrada, 1909
Music Francisco Manuel da Silva, 1831
Adopted 1831 during Brazilian Empire and 1890 in Brazilian Republic
Music sample
Hino Nacional Brasileiro (Instrumental)

The Brazilian national anthem (Portuguese: Hino Nacional Brasileiro) was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva in 1831 and had been given at least two sets of unofficial lyrics before a 1922 decree by President Epitácio Pessoa gave the anthem its definitive, official lyrics, by Osório Duque-Estrada, after several changes were made to his proposal, written in 1909.

Contents

History

The melody of the Brazilian national anthem was composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva and was presented to the public for the first time in April 1831.[1] On 7 April 1831 the first Brazilian Emperor, Pedro I abdicated the Crown and left for Europe, leaving behind the then five year old Emperor Pedro II.

From the Proclamation of the Independence of Brazil in 1822 until the 1831 abdication, an anthem that had been composed by Pedro I himself, celebrating the country's independence (and that now continues to be an official patriotic song, the Independence Anthem), was used as the National Anthem. In the immediate aftermath of the abdication of Pedro I, the Anthem composed by him fell in popularity.

Francisco Manoel da Silva then seized this opportunity to present his composition, and the Anthem written by him was played in public for the first time on 13 April 1831.[2] On that same day, the ship carrying the former Emperor left the port of Rio de Janeiro. The date of April 13 now appears in official calendars as the Day of the Brazilian National Anthem.

As to the actual date of composition of the music presented in April 1831, there is controversy among historians. Some hold that Francisco Manuel da Silva composed the music in the last four months of 1822 to commemorate Brazil's independence (declared on 7 September 1822), others hold that the hymn was written in early 1823 and others consider the evidence of composition dating back to 1822 or 1823 unreliable, and hold that the Anthem presented on 13 April 1831 was written in 1831, and not before.[3] In any event, the Anthem remained in obscurity until it was played in public on 13 April 1831.

In style, the music resembles early Romantic Italian music such as that of Gioachino Rossini.

Initially, the music composed by Francisco Manuel da Silva was given lyrics by judge Ovídio Saraiva de Carvalho e Silva not as a National Anthem, but as a hymn commemorating the abdication of Pedro I and the accession of Pedro II to the Throne. It was known during this early period as "April 7 Hymn".[4]

The lyrics by Ovídio Saraiva soon fell out of use, given that they were considered poor, and even offensive towards the Portuguese. The music, however, continued enjoying sustained popularity, and by 1837 it was played, without lyrics, in all public ceremonies.[5]

Although no statute was passed during the imperial period to declare Francisco Manuel da Silva's musical composition as the National Anthem, no formal enactment was considered necessary for the adoption of a National Anthem. A National Anthem was seen as resulting from praxis or tradition. Thus, by 1837, when it was played in all official solemnities, Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition was already the Brazilian National Anthem.

A new set of lyrics was proposed in 1841, to commemorate the coming of age and Coronation of Emperor Pedro II; those lyrics, popular but also considered poor, were soon abandoned too, this time by order of Emperor Pedro II, who specified that in public ceremonies the Anthem should be played with no lyrics. Emperor Pedro II directed that Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition, as the National Anthem of the Empire of Brazil, should be played, without lyrics, on all occasions when the monarch presented himself in public, and in solemnities of military or civilian nature; the composition was also played abroad in diplomatic events relating to Brazil or when the Brazilian Emperor was present.[6]

After the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889, the new rulers made a competition in order to choose a new anthem, and the competition was won by Leopoldo Miguez. After protests against the adoption of the proposed new anthem, however, the Head of the Provisional Government, Deodoro da Fonseca, formalized Francisco Manuel da Silva's composition as the National Anthem, while Miguez's composition was deemed the Anthem of the Proclamation of the Republic. Dedoro himself was said to prefer the old anthem to the new composition that became the Anthem of the Proclamation of the Republic. The Decree of the Provisional Government (Decree 171 of 1890) confirming Francisco Manuel da Silva's music, that had served as the National Anthem of the Empire of Brazil, as the National Anthem of the new Republic, was issued on 20 January 1890.

In the early days of the new Federal Republic, the National Anthem continued without official lyrics, but several lyrics were proposed, and some were even adopted by different states of Brazil. The lack of uniform, official lyrics would only be terminated in 1922, during the celebrations of the first centennial of the Proclamation of Independence, when an adapted version of Joaquim Osório Duque Estrada's lyrics, first proposed in 1909, were deemed official.

The official lyrics of the Brazilian National Anthem were proclaimed by decree of President Epitácio Pessoa (Decree 15.761 of 1922), issued on 6 September 1922, at the hight of the celebrations of the Independence Centennial. This presidential decree was issued in execution of a legislative decree adopted by Congress on 21 August 1922.

The National Anthem is considered by the current Constitution of Brazil, adopted in 1988, one of the four national symbols of the country, along with the Flag, the Coat of Arms and the National Seal. The legal norms currently in force concerning the National Anthem are contained in a statute passed in 1971 (Law 5.700 of 1 September 1971), regulating the national symbols.

The music of the National Anthem was originally intended to be played by symphonic orchestras; for the playing of the National Anthem by bands, the march composed by Antão Fernandes is included in the instrumentation. This adaptation, long in use, was made official by the 1971 statute regulating national symbols. This same statute also confirmed as official the traditional vocal adaptation of the lyrics of the National Anthem, in F major, composed by Alberto Nepomuceno.

Lyrics

The song consists of two consecutive choruses. Brazilian law stipulates that only one chorus must be played in instrumental renditions of the anthem, but both must be sung in vocal performances. The second chorus is thus often dropped when played at sporting events. The opening line's mention of the Ipiranga river refers to the stream near São Paulo where Emperor Dom Pedro declared Brazilian independence from Portugal.[7]

Portuguese lyrics English translation Tupi translation (unofficial)
First chorus

Ouviram do Ipiranga as margens plácidas
De um povo heróico o brado retumbante,
E o sol da Liberdade, em raios fúlgidos,
Brilhou no céu da Pátria nesse instante.

Se o penhor dessa igualdade
Conseguimos conquistar com braço forte,
Em teu seio, ó Liberdade,
Desafia o nosso peito a própria morte!

Ó Pátria amada,
Idolatrada,
Salve! Salve!

Brasil, um sonho intenso, um raio vívido,
De amor e de esperança à terra desce,
Se em teu formoso céu, risonho e límpido,
A imagem do Cruzeiro resplandece.

Gigante pela própria natureza,
És belo, és forte, impávido colosso,
E o teu futuro espelha essa grandeza.

Terra adorada
Entre outras mil
És tu, Brasil,
Ó Pátria amada!

Dos filhos deste solo
És mãe gentil,
Pátria amada,
Brasil!

The placid banks of Ipiranga heard
the resounding cry of a heroic people
and in shining rays, the sun of liberty
shone in our homeland's skies at this very moment.

If the assurance of this equality
we achieved by our mighty arms,
in thy bosom, O freedom,
our chest shall defy death itself!

O beloved,
idolized homeland,
Hail, hail!

Brazil, an intense dream, a vivid ray
of love and hope descends to earth
if in thy lovely, smiling and clear skies
the image of the (Southern) Cross shines resplendently.

Giant by thine own nature,
thou art beautiful, thou art strong, an intrepid colossus,
and thy future mirrors thy greatness.

Beloved Land
amongst a thousand others
art thou, Brazil,
O beloved homeland!

To the sons of this land
thou art a gentle mother,
beloved homeland,
Brazil!

Embeyba Ypiranga sui, pitúua,
Ocendu kirimbáua sacemossú
Cuaracy picirungára, cendyua,
Retama yuakaupé, berabussú.

Cepy quá iauessáua sui ramé,
Itayiuá irumo, iraporepy,
Mumutara sáua, ne pyá upé,
I manossáua oiko iané cepy.

Iassalssú ndê,
Oh moetéua
Auê, Auê !

Brasil ker pi upé, cuaracyáua,
Caissú í saarússáua sui ouié,
Marecê, ne yuakaupé, poranga.
Ocenipuca Curussa iepé !

Turussú reikô, ara rupí, teen,
Ndê poranga, i santáua, ticikyié
Ndê cury quá mbaé-ussú omeen.

Yby moetéua,
Ndê remundú,
Reikô Brasil,
Ndê, iyaissú!

Mira quá yuy sui sy catú,
Ndê, ixaissú, Brasil!

Second chorus

Deitado eternamente em berço esplêndido,
Ao som do mar e à luz do céu profundo,
Fulguras, ó Brasil, florão da América,
Iluminado ao sol do Novo Mundo!

Do que a terra mais garrida
Teus risonhos, lindos campos têm mais flores,
"Nossos bosques têm mais vida",
"Nossa vida" no teu seio "mais amores". (*)

Ó Pátria amada,
Idolatrada,
Salve! Salve!

Brasil, de amor eterno seja símbolo
O lábaro que ostentas estrelado,
E diga o verde-louro dessa flâmula
- Paz no futuro e glória no passado.

Mas se ergues da justiça a clava forte,
Verás que um filho teu não foge à luta,
Nem teme, quem te adora, a própria morte.

Terra adorada
Entre outras mil
És tu, Brasil,
Ó Pátria amada!

Dos filhos deste solo
És mãe gentil,
Pátria amada,
Brasil!

Eternally laid on a splendid cradle,
by the sound of the sea and the light of the deep sky,
thou shinest, O Brazil, garland of America,
illuminated by the sun of the New World!

Than the most elegant land abroad,
thy smiling, pretty prairies have more flowers
"Our meadows have more life",
"our life" in thy bosom "more love". (*)

O beloved,
idolized homeland,
Hail, hail!

Brazil, of eternal love be the symbol
the starred banner thou showest forth
and proclaim the laurel-green of thy pennant
'Peace in the future and glory in the past.'

But if thou raisest the strong gavel of Justice,
thou wilt see that a son of thine flees not from battle,
nor does he who loves thee fear his very own death.

Beloved Land,
amongst a thousand others
art thou, Brazil,
O beloved homeland!

To the sons of this land
thou art a gentle mother,
beloved homeland,
Brazil!

Ienotyua catú pupé reicô,
Memê, paráteapú, quá ara upé,
Ndê recendy, potyr America sui.
I Cuaracy omucendy iané !

Inti orecó purangáua pyré
Ndê nhu soryssára omeen potyra pyré,
ìCicué pyré orecó iané caaussúî.
Iané cicué, ìndê pyá upé, saissú pyréî.

Iassalsú ndê,
Oh moetéua
Auê, Auê !

Brasil, ndê pana iacy-tatá-uára
Toicô rangáua quá caissú retê,
I quá-pana iakyra-tauá tonhee
Cuire catuana, ieorobiára kuecê.

Supí tacape repuama remé
Ne mira apgáua omaramunhã,
Iamoetê ndê, inti iacekyé.

Yby moetéua,
Ndê remundú,
Reicô Brasil,
Ndê, iyaissú !

Mira quá yuy sui sy catú,
Ndê, ixaissú,
Brasil!

(*) The passages in quotation marks were extracted from Gonçalves Dias' poem "Canção do exílio".

Footnotes

See also

External links


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