The fujara is a large folk shepherd's fipple flute of unique design, originating from Slovakia. It is typically 150-170 cm long, tuned in G (A and F are also available). It has three tone holes located on the lower part of the main body. Even though on almost all fujaras the fundamental frequency can be played, [cite web |title=Fujara fingering technique |url=http://www.fujara.sk/play/fingering_technique.htm |accessdate=2006-09-28] the normal playing technique is based on overblowing the instrument, and because of its size the overtones create the possibility to play a diatonic scale using only three tone holes. The sound is produced by a fipple on the upper end of the main body of the fujara. The air is led to the fipple by a smaller parallel pipe, called a "vzduchovod" (Slovak for "air channel"), mounted on the main body of the instrument. This smaller parallel pipe enables that the player to reach the three tone holes. The fujara is played standing, with the instrument held vertically, usually braced against the right thigh.

The atypical design provides for a deep, meditative timbre. Ornaments are traditionally added to the base melodies, which usually occur in the mixolydian mode. Two common types of ornaments are prefuk (a rapid overblow of one note, from the _sk. prefukovať, to overblow) and rozfuk (a descending cascade of overtones, from the _sk. rozfúkať, "to scatter").

Traditionally, the fujara was played for recreation, usually by shepherds. Today, though, the fujara has moved from the fields to the stage at folklore festivals in Východná and Detva, both in Slovakia. Also, the instrument has left Slovakia and is played all over the world, especially Western Europe and North America. Be this as it may, the fujara has yet to gain popularity or "radio play" outside of Slovakia. It is known, in America and Western Europe, only to somewhat esoteric groups of "native flute" players. Most often this is a solo instrument, but ensembles of two or three fujaras have been known to exist, such as the famous Kubinec Family (Juraj, Martin, and František) or the "Javorová húzva" Fujara Trio: Michal Fiľo, Daniel Mudrák, and Ján Kulfas.

The fujara was included in the UNESCO list of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005. [cite book |last=Smeets |first=Rieks |title=Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity |url=http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001473/147344e.pdf |accessdate=2008-07-01 |year=2006 |publisher=UNESCO |pages=86 |chapter=The Fujara and its Music
UNESCO has also provided a web page showing only the information about the fujara, but it "has no official status":
*cite web |url=http://www.unesco.org/culture/ich/index.php?cp=SK |title=Proclamation 2005: "The Fujara and its Music" |accessdate=2008-07-01 |last=Minasyan |first=Anahit |date=2006-03-24 |work=Slovakia - Information related to Intangible Cultural Heritage |publisher=UNESCO


ee also

* Tabor pipe for other 3-hole folk flutes
* Willow flute for another overtone-based folk flute
* Koncovka, another Slovakian overtone flute
* Kalyuka, russian overtone flute

External links

* [http://www.fujara.sk/ www.fujara.sk, also contains samples]
* [http://www.fujara.ch/ www.fujara.ch, also contains samples]
* [http://www.fujara.name/ www.fujara.name, also contains samples]
* [http://www.fujara.ru/ www.fujara.ru, contains video and audio]
* [http://www.asza.com/ifujara.shtml ASZA.com: Fujara] - Photo and description
* [http://www.geocities.com/bohuslavrychlik/ Gateway to Fujara Groups] - Audio, Photo, Drawings, Links
* [http://www.usd.edu/smm/Exhibitions/Muzika/MuzikaFujara.html Fujara page]
* [http://vvpg.net/bratislava/Uluv3.htm Fujara Players at The Craftmen's Days by ULUV]
* [http://shop.nadishana.com/#fujara Modern PVC Fujara]

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