Red tide


Red tide

"Red tide" is a common name for a phenomenon known as an algal bloom, an event in which estuarine, marine, or fresh water algae accumulate rapidly in the water column, or "bloom". These algae, more specifically phytoplankton, are microscopic, single-celled protists, plant-like organisms that can form dense, visible patches near the water's surface. Certain species of phytoplankton contain photosynthetic pigments that vary in colour from green to brown to red, and when the algae are present in high concentrations, the water appears to be discoloured or murky, varying in colour from purple to almost pink, normally being red or green. Not all algal blooms are dense enough to cause water discolouration, and not all discoloured waters associated with algal blooms are red. Additionally, red tides are not typically associated with tidal movement of water, hence the preference among scientists to use the term algal bloom.

Some red tides are associated with the production of natural toxins, depletion of dissolved oxygen or other harmful impacts, and are generally described as harmful algal blooms. The most conspicuous effects of red tides are the associated wildlife mortalities among marine and coastal species of fish, birds, marine mammals and other organisms. In the case of Florida red tides, these mortalities are caused by exposure to a potent neurotoxin called brevetoxin which is produced naturally by the marine algae "Karenia brevis".

Word usage

"Red tide" is a colloquial term used to refer to a natural phenomenon known as a "harmful algal bloom" or "HAB." Since 1) a wide variety of algal species can cause a red tide, 2) red tides are not necessarily red, and many have no discolouration at all, 3) are unrelated to movements of the tides, and 4) a wide variety of algal species are known bloom-formers, the term "red tide" is being phased out among researchers in favour of the more appropriate "harmful algal bloom" for harmful species, or simply "algal bloom" for non-harmful species.

The term "red tide" is often used in the United States of America to describe a particular type of algal bloom common to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and is also called "Florida red tide." This type of bloom is caused by a species of dinoflagellate known as "Karenia brevis", and these blooms occur almost annually along Florida waters. The density of these organisms during a bloom can exceed tens of millions of cells per litre of seawater, and often discolour the water a deep reddish-brown hue.

The term "red tide" is also commonly used to describe harmful algal blooms on the northern east coast of the United States, particularly in the Gulf of Maine. This type of bloom is caused by another species of dinoflagellate known as "Alexandrium fundyense". These blooms of organisms cause severe disruptions in fisheries of these waters as the toxins in these organism cause filter-feeding shellfish in affected waters to become poisonous for human consumption due to saxitoxin.

Causes of red tide

It is unclear what causes red tides; their occurrence in some locations appears to be entirely natural [Adams NG, Lesoing M, Trainer VL (2000) Environmental conditions associated with domoic acid in razor clams on the Washington coast. J Shellfish Res 19:1007–1015] , while in others they appear to be a result of human activities [Lam CWY, Ho KC (1989) Red tides in Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong. In: Okaichi T, Anderson DM, Nemoto T (eds) Red tides. biology, environmental science and toxicology. Elsevier, New York, pp 49–52.] The frequency and severity of algal blooms in some parts of the world have been linked to increased nutrient loading from human activities. In other areas, algal blooms are a seasonal occurrence resulting from coastal upwelling, a natural result of the movement of certain ocean currents [Trainer VL, Adams NG, Bill BD, Stehr CM, Wekell JC, Moeller P, Busman M, Woodruff D (2000) Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June (1998). Limnol Oceanogr 45:1818–1833] . The growth of marine phytoplankton is generally limited by the availability of nitrates and phosphates, which can be abundant in agricultural run-off as well as coastal upwelling zones. Coastal water pollution produced by humans and systematic increase in sea water temperature have also been implicated as contributing factors in red tidesFact|date=August 2008. Other factors such as iron-rich dust influx from large desert areas such as the Saharan desert are thought to play a major role in causing red tides [Walsh et al (2006). Red tides in the Gulf of Mexico: Where, when, and why? Journal of Geophysical Research 111, C11003, doi:10.1029/2004JC002813] . Some algal blooms on the Pacific coast have also been linked to occurrences of large-scale climatic oscillations such as El Niño events. While red tides in the Gulf of Mexico have been occurring since the time of early explorers such as Cabeza de Vaca [Cabeza de Vaca, Álvar Núnez. La Relación (1542). Translated by Martin A. Favata and José B. Fernández. Arte Público Press, Houston, Texas (1993)] . It is unclear what initiates these blooms, and how large a role anthropogenic and natural factors play in their development. It is also debated whether the apparent increase in frequency and severity of algal blooms in various parts of the world is in fact a real increase or is due to increased observation effort and advances in species identification methods [cite journal
last=Sellner
first=K.G.
coauthors=Doucette G.J., and Kirkpatrick G.J.
year=2003
title=Harmful Algal blooms: causes, impacts and detection
journal=Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology
volume=30
issue=7
pages=383–406
doi=10.1007/s10295-003-0074-9
url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/ptybc0qg8y4klr5c/
] [cite journal
last=Van Dolah
first=F.M.
year=2000
title=Marine Algal Toxins: Origins, Health Effects, and Their Increased Occurrence
journal=Environmental Health Perspectives
volume=108
issue=suppl.1
pages=133–141
url=http://www.ehponline.org/docs/2000/suppl-1/133-141vandolah/abstract.html
doi=10.2307/3454638
] .The dinoflagella is a symbiont with many coral species. Biologist Tyler Campbell hypothesizes that they may be "moving", or leaving their mutualistic host coral population, either seasonally, or for more favorable living conditions.

Associated illnesses

Marine and fresh waters teem with life, much of it microscopic, and most of it harmless; in fact, it is this microscopic life on which all aquatic life ultimately depends for food. While most of these species of phytoplankton and cyanobacteria are harmless, there are a few dozen that create potent toxins given the right conditions. Harmful algal blooms may cause harm through the production of toxins or by their accumulated biomass, which can affect co-occurring organisms and alter food-web dynamics. Impacts include human illness and mortality following consumption of or indirect exposure to HAB toxins, substantial economic losses to coastal communities and commercial fisheries, and HAB-associated fish, bird and mammal mortalities. To the human eye, blooms can appear greenish, brown, and even reddish- orange depending upon the algal species, the aquatic ecosystem, and the concentration of the organisms.

Notable occurrences

* No deaths of humans have been attributed to Florida red tide, but people may experience respiratory irritation (coughing, sneezing, and tearing) when the red tide organism ("Karenia brevis") is present along a coast and winds blow its toxic aerosol onshore. Swimming is usually safe, but skin irritation and burning is possible in areas of high concentration of red tide. [ [http://taylor.ifas.ufl.edu/marine_redtide.shtml University of Florida Marine and Natural Resources, IFAS Extension] ]
* In 1972 a red tide was caused in New England by a toxic dinoflagellate "Alexandrium (Gonyaulax) tamarense". [ [http://www.utas.edu.au/docs/plant_science/HAB2000/ HAB 2000 ] ]
* In 2005 the Canadian red tide was discovered to have come further south than it has in years prior by a ship called The Oceanus, closing shellfish beds in Maine and Massachusetts and alerting authorities as far south as Montauk (Long Island, NY) to check their beds. [cite web |url=http://www.nationalfisherman.com/month-content.asp?ItemID=1156&pcid=184&cid=196&archive=yes |author=Moore, Kirk |title=Northeast Oysters: The bigger danger, growers assert, would be the label of endangered |publisher=National Fisherman |accessdate=2008-07-31] Experts who discovered the reproductive cysts in the seabed warn of a possible spread to Long Island in coming years, halting the area's fishing and shellfish industry, which has endured for hundreds of yearsFact|date=December 2007, and threatening the tourist trade, which constitutes a significant portion of the 118-mile-long island's economy.

ee also

* Algal bloom (see "toxic chemicals" in paragraph 2)
* Harmful algal bloom
* Ciguatera
* Dinoflagellate (see "neurotoxins" and "red tide" under Ecology and fossils and see "phosphate" under Cautions)
* Domoic acid
* Saxitoxin
* Brevetoxin
* The Marine Mammal Center
* Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)
* Pfiesteria
* Phytoplankton

References

External links

* [http://www.whoi.edu/page.do?pid=11913 Harmful Algae and Red Tide Information from the Coastal Ocean Institute] , Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
* [http://www.fathom.com/course/10701012/index.html Toxic Blooms: Understanding Red Tides] , a seminar by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
* [http://www.chbr.noaa.gov/default.aspx?category=mb&pageName=biotoxin NOAA Marine Biotoxins Program] , National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
* [http://www.tulane.edu/~bfleury/envirobio/enviroweb/DeadZone.htm Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone and Red Tides]
* [http://isurus.mote.org/~mhenry/rtupdate.phtml Red Tide updates for the Gulf Coast of Florida] provided by Mote Marine Laboratory in Sarasota, FL
* [http://calpreempt.ucsc.edu/index.htm California Program for Regional Enhanced Monitoring for PhycoToxins] , California Department of Health Services and the University of California, Santa Cruz
* [http://research.myfwc.com/support/view_faqs.asp?id=13 Red Tide FAQ] , Florida's Fish and Wildlife Research Institute
* [http://redtideflorida.org/pages/index.php/florida-red-tide-report/ Florida's Red Tide Report] A Compilation of citizen based, media and official reports of the locations and severity of current Red Tide Blooms.
* [http://redtideflorida.org Florida Red Tide] A citizen based group dedicated to raising awareness of Red Tide, debunking myths, educating the public and taking action to promote or oceans health and help stop red tide.
* [http://isurus.mote.org/niehsredtidestudy/ NIEHS study of airborne impacts of Florida red tide]
* [http://www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/sf/BiotoxinProgram.htm Washington State Shellfish Biotoxin Program]
* [http://www.wesh.com/news/14843078/detail.html Rescue Effort Under Way After 5th Dolphin Death]
* [http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/storypage.aspx?StoryId=106682 abs-cbnnews.com, BFAR reiterates ban on eating shellfish from five provinces]
*eol|16225000|Alexandrium fundyense


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Red Tide —   [ red taɪd, englisch], Biologie: Rote Tide …   Universal-Lexikon

  • red tide — n seawater discolored by the presence of large numbers of dinoflagellates esp. of the genera Gonyaulax and Gymnodinium which produce a toxin poisonous esp. to many forms of marine vertebrate life and to humans who consume contaminated shellfish… …   Medical dictionary

  • red tide — red′ tide′ n. mcr a brownish red discoloration of marine waters caused by a huge aggregation of flagellates, esp. dinoflagellates, that often produce a potent neurotoxin that contaminates shellfish • Etymology: 1900–05 …   From formal English to slang

  • red tide — ☆ red tide n. a reddish discoloration of sea waters, caused by large numbers of red dinoflagellates (esp. genera Gymnodinium and Gonyaulax) that kill fish and other organisms by releasing poisonous products …   English World dictionary

  • red tide — noun seawater that is discolored by large numbers of certain dinoflagellates that produce saxitoxin • Hypernyms: ↑seawater, ↑saltwater, ↑brine * * * noun : seawater discolored by the presence of large numbers of dinoflagellates (especially of the …   Useful english dictionary

  • red tide — a brownish red discoloration of marine waters caused by the presence of enormous numbers of certain microscopic flagellates, esp. the dinoflagellates, that often produce a potent neurotoxin that accumulates in the tissues of shellfish, making… …   Universalium

  • red tide — n. a menstrual period. (Punning on the name of a tidal phenomenon where the water appears reddish owing to the presence of certain kinds of microscopic creatures.) □ Sorry, she’s down with the red tide and really prefers to stay home …   Dictionary of American slang and colloquial expressions

  • red tide — /rɛd ˈtaɪd/ (say red tuyd) noun the red bloom of marine algae which produces neurotoxins that kill fish and contaminate shellfish, and which is carried in on the tide …   Australian English dictionary

  • red tide — a population explosion in marine plankton such as dinoflagellates that is toxic and fatal to fish. The colour of the tide can be red, pink, yellow, green, blue, purple, black or brown. See also brevetoxin …   Dictionary of ichthyology

  • red tide — noun an algal bloom of sufficient quantity to cause discoloration (often red) in a body of water; red tides can potentially cause irritation or death to exposed creatures …   Wiktionary


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.