- Alan Hovhaness
Alan Hovhaness ( _hy. Ալան Հովհանես) (
March 8, 1911– June 21, 2000) was an American composerof Armenian and Scottish ancestry, but the inspiration for his mature work was as much Eastern as Western. ["In Memoriam Alan Hovhaness", "The Musical Times", Vol. 141, No. 1872. (Autumn, 2000), pp. 6-7.]
His music is accessible to the lay listener and often evokes a mood of mystery or contemplation. "
The Boston Globe" music criticRichard Buell wrote: "Although he has been stereotyped as a self-consciously Armenian composer (rather as Ernest Blochis seen as a Jewish composer), his output assimilates the music of many cultures. What may be most American about all of it is the way it turns its materials into a kind of exoticism. The atmosphere is hushed, reverential, mystical, nostalgic."
He was among the most prolific of 20th century composers, his official catalog comprising 67 numbered symphonies (surviving manuscripts indicate over 70) and 434 opus numbers. [http://www.musicweb.uk.net/classrev/2000/feb00/hovanessworks.htm] [The number of opus numbers was identifed as 434 by Kenneth Page in a review in "
Limelight" magazine (Australia), May 2007, p.55] However, the true tally is well over 500 surviving works since many opus numbers comprise two or more distinct works.
He was born as Alan Vaness Chakmakjian in
Somerville, Massachusettsto Haroutioun Hovanes Chakmakjian(an Armenian chemistry professor at Tufts Collegewho had been born in Adana, Turkey) and Madeleine Scott (an American woman of Scottish descent who had graduated from Wellesley College). At the age of five, the family moved from Somerville to Arlington, Massachusetts. Alan Hovhaness himself explained that his mother had insisted on the move from Somerville because of the discrimination against the Armenians there.Fact|date=June 2008 Upon his mother's death (October 3, 1930), he began to use the surname "Hovaness" in honor of his paternal grandfather, and changed it to "Hovhaness" around 1944. The name change reflected increased pride in his Armenian heritage, something that had earlier been discouraged by his mother who feared discrimination because of a foreign name.
Alan was interested in
musicfrom a very early age, writing his first composition at the age of four after being inspired by hearing a song of Franz Schubert. His family was concerned after this first attempt at composition, a cantata in the early Italian style, for his late-night hours spent composing and possibly for his financial future as an artist. He decided for a short time to pursue astronomy, another of his early loves. [http://www.hovhaness.com/Interview_Howard.html] The fascination of astronomy remained with him through his entire life and composing career with many works titled after various planets and stars. It is recounted that his father took great pride in his composing and organised his first piano lessons with a neighbourhood teacher. (Alan also played the violin and made a small income for a short time teaching the violin to neighbours' children.) His father helped to support him long into his young adulthood through many difficult years, and when recognised by Alan from centre stage of his successful Boston Symphony Orchestra Symphony Hall (Koussevitsky,) concert, broke into tears.
He continued his piano studies, first with Adelaide Proctor and then with
Heinrich Gebhard. By age 14, Hovhaness decided to devote himself to composition. Among his first and most important influences were the recordings of Gomidas Vartabed, a great Armenian composer who had lived through the Armenian Genocide. He composed two operas during his teenage years, which were performed at Arlington High School, and the composer Roger Sessionstook an interest in his music during this time. Following his graduation from high school in 1929, he studied with Leo Rich Lewisat Tufts and then the New England Conservatory of Music, under Frederick Converse. In 1932 he won the Conservatory's Samuel Endicottprize for composition, for a symphonic work entitled "Sunset Symphony" (elsewhere entitled "Sunset Saga"). In July 1934, with his first wife, Martha Mott Davis, he traveled to Finlandto meet the composer Jean Sibelius, whose music he had greatly admired since childhood. The two remained in correspondence for the next twenty years.
In 1936 Hovhaness attended a performance in Boston by the Indian dance troupe of
Uday Shankar(with orchestra led by Vishnudas Shirali), which began the composer's lifelong interest in the music of India. [http://www.hovhaness.com/Interview_Howard.html] During the 1930s (until 1939) he was employed by the WPA's Federal Music Project.
Destruction of early works
During the 1930s and 1940s, Hovhaness famously destroyed many of his early works. He later claimed that he had burned at least 1000 different pieces, a process that took at least two weeks; [http://www.hovhaness.com/Interview_Howard.html] elsewhere he claimed that he had destroyed approximately 500 works, up to 1000 pages in total (Gagne 1993, 121). In an interview with Richard Howard, he stated that the decision was based primarily on Roger Sessions' criticism of his works of that period, and that he wished to have a new start in his composing. [http://www.hovhaness.com/Interview_Howard.html]
Hovhaness became interested in Armenian culture and music in 1940, as the
organistfor the St. James Armenian Apostolic Churchin Watertown, Massachusetts, remaining in this position for approximately ten years. In 1942 he won a scholarship at Tanglewoodto study in Bohuslav Martinů's master class. However, Martinů had a serious fall in the early summer which made it impossible for him to teach. Instead, the composer's seminar which Hovhaness attended was led by Aaron Coplandand Leonard Bernstein. While a recording of Hovhaness's first symphony was being played, Copland talked loudly in Spanish to the Latin American composers in the room, and when the recording finished, Bernstein went to the piano, played a melodic minor scale, and remarked, "I can't stand this cheap ghetto music." Hovhaness was angered and distraught by his experience at Tanglewood, and quit early despite being on scholarship. Following this experience, he again destroyed a number of his works.
The next year he devoted himself to Armenian subject matter, in particular using modes distinctive to Armenian music, and continued for several years, achieving some renown and the support of other musicians, including
John Cageand Martha Graham, all while continuing as church organist.
Beginning in the mid-1940s, Hovhaness and two artist friends,
Hyman Bloomand Hermon di Giovanno, met frequently to discuss spiritual and musical matters. All three had a strong interest in Indian classical music, and brought many well known Indian musicians to Boston to perform. During this period, Hovhaness learned to play the sitar, studying with amateur Indian musicians living in the Boston area. Around 1942, Bloom introduced Hovhaness to Yenovk Der Hagopian, a fine singer of Armenian and Kurdish troubadour songs, whose singing served as an inspiration to Hovhaness.
In one of many applications for a Guggenheim fellowship (1941), Hovhaness presented his credo:
:"I propose to create an heroic, monumental style of composition simple enough to inspire all people, completely free from fads, artificial mannerisms and false sophistications, direct, forceful, sincere, always original but never unnatural. Music must be freed from decadence and stagnation. There has been too much emphasis on small things while the great truths have been overlooked. The superficial must be dispensed with. Music must become virile to express big things. It is not my purpose to supply a few pseudo intellectual musicians and critics with more food for brilliant argumentation, but rather to inspire all mankind with new heroism and spiritual nobility. This may appear to be sentimental and impossible to some, but it must be remembered that Palestrina, Handel, and Beethoven would not consider it either sentimental or impossible. In fact, the worthiest creative art has been motivated consciously or unconsciously by the desire for the regeneration of mankind."
Lou Harrisonreviewed a 1945 concert of Hovhaness' music which included his 1944 concerto for piano and strings, entitled "Lousadzak"::"There is almost nothing occurring most of the time but unison melodies and very lengthy drone basses, which is all very Armenian. It is also very modern indeed in its elegant simplicity and adamant modal integrity, being, in effect, as tight and strong in its way as a twelve-tone work of the Austrian type. There is no harmony either, and the brilliance and excitement of parts of the piano concerto were due entirely to vigor of idea. It really takes a sound musicality to invent a succession of stimulating ideas within the bounds of an unaltered mode and without shifting the home-tone."However, as before, there were also critics::The serialists were all there. And so were the Americanists, both Aaron Copland's group and Virgil's. And here was something that had come out of Boston that none of us had ever heard of and was completely different from either. There was nearly a riot in the foyer [during intermission] — everybody shouting. A real whoop-dee-doo.::(Miller and Lieberman 1998)
"Lousadzak" was Hovhaness's first work to make use of an innovative technique he called the "spirit murmur" — an early example of
aleatoric musicthat was inspired by a vision of Hermon di Giovanno. [http://www.hovhaness.com/Interview_Howard.html] The technique involves instruments repeating phrases in uncoordinated fashion, producing a complex "cloud" or "carpet" of sounds. [http://www.hovhaness.com/Interview_Howard.html]
In the mid-1940s Hovhaness' stature in New York was helped considerably by members of the immigrant Armenian community who sponsored several high-profile concerts of his music. This organization, the Friends of Armenian Music Committee, was led by Hovhaness's friends Dr. Elizabeth A. Gregory, the Armenian American piano/violin duo
Maro Ajemianand Anahid Ajemian, and later Anahid's husband, pioneering record producer and subsequent Columbia Records executive George Avakian. Their help led directly to many recordings of Hovhaness' music appearing in the 1950s on MGM and Mercury records, placing him firmly on the American musical landscape.
In May and June 1946, while staying with an Armenian family, Hovhaness composed "Etchmiadzin", an opera on an Armenian theme, which was commissioned by a local Armenian church.
In 1948 he joined the faculty of the
Boston Conservatory, teaching there until 1951. His students there included the jazz musicians Sam Riversand Gigi Gryce.
Relocation to New York
In 1951, Hovhaness moved to
New York City, where he took up composing full-time. Also that year (beginning August 1), he worked at the Voice of America, first as a script writer for the Armenian Section, then as Director of Music, composer, and musical consultant for the Near East and Trans-Caucasian section. He eventually lost this job (along with much of the other staff) when Dwight D. Eisenhowersucceeded Harry S. Trumanas U.S. president in 1953. Beginning at this time, Hovhaness branched out from Armenian music, adopting styles and material from a wide variety of sources. In 1953 and 1954 he received Guggenheim Fellowships in composition. In 1954 he wrote the score for the Broadway play " The Flowering Peach" by Clifford Odets, a ballet for Martha Graham ("Ardent Song", 1954), and two scores for NBCdocumentaries on India and Southeast Asia(1955 and 1957). Also during the 1950s, he composed for productions at The Living Theatre.
His biggest breakthrough to date came in 1955, when his Symphony No. 2, "Mysterious Mountain", was premiered by
Leopold Stokowskiin his debut with the Houston Symphony. The idea that "Mysterious Mountain" was commissioned for the Houston Symphony is a common misconception [http://www.hovhaness.com/hovhaness.html] . That same year, MGM Recordsreleased recordings of a number of his works. Between 1956 and 1958, at the urging of Howard Hanson(who was an admirer of his music), he taught summers at the Eastman School of Music.
Trips to Asia
From 1959 through 1963, Hovhaness conducted a series of research trips to India, Hawaii, Japan, and South Korea, investigating the ancient traditional musics of these nations and eventually integrating elements of these into his own compositions. His study of
Carnatic musicin Madras, India (1959-60), during which he collected over 300 ragas, was sponsored by a Fulbright fellowship. While in Madras, he learned to play the " veena" and composed a work for Carnatic orchestra entitled "Nagooran", inspired by a visit to the " dargah" at Nagore, which was performed by the South Indian Orchestra of All India RadioMadras and broadcast on All India Radio on February 3, 1960. He compiled a large amount of material on Carnatic ragas in preparation for a book on the subject, but never completed it.
He studied Japanese
gagakumusic (learning the wind instruments " hichiriki", "shō", and "ryūteki") in the spring of 1962 with Masatoshi Shamoto in Hawaii, and a Rockefeller Foundationgrant allowed him to conduct further gagaku studies with Masataro Togi in Japan (1962-63). Also while in Japan, he studied and played the " nagauta" (" kabuki") " shamisen" and the " jōruri" (" bunraku") "shamisen". In recognition of the musical styles he studied in Japan, he wrote his famous Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints, Op. 211(1965), a concerto for xylophoneand orchestra.
In 1963 he composed his second ballet score for Martha Graham, entitled "Circe". In 1965, as part of a U.S. government-sponsored delegation, he visited Russia, Georgia and Armenia (then under Soviet control), the only time during his life that he would visit his ancestral homeland. While there, he donated his handwritten manuscripts of harmonized Armenian liturgical music to the
Yeghishe CharentsState Museum of Arts and Literature in Yerevan.
Perhaps also prophetic in worldly matters, Hovhaness stated in a 1971 interview in "Ararat" magazine:
:"We are in a very dangerous period. We are in danger of destroying ourselves, and I have a great fear about this...The older generation is ruling ruthlessly. I feel that this is a terrible threat to our civilization. It's the greed of huge companies and huge organizations which control life in a kind of a brutal way...It's gotten worse and worse, somehow, because physical science has given us more and more terrible deadly weapons, and the human spirit has been destroyed in so many cases, so what's the use of having the most powerful country in the world if we have killed the soul. It's of no use" (Michaelyan 1971).
Hovhaness was inducted into the National Institute of Arts and Letters (1951), and received honorary D.Mus. degrees from the
University of Rochester(1958), Bates College(1959), and the Boston Conservatory(1987). He moved to Seattle in the early 1970s, where he lived for the rest of his life. In 1973 he composed his third and final ballet score for Martha Graham: "Myth of a Voyage", and over the next twenty years (between 1973 and 1992) he produced no fewer than 37 new symphonies.
Continuing his interest in composing for Asian instruments, in 1981, at the request of Lou Harrison, he composed two works for Indonesian
gamelanorchestra, which were premiered by the gamelan of Lewis & Clark College, under the direction of Vincent McDermott.
Hovhaness is survived by his wife, the
coloraturasoprano Hinako FujiharaHovhaness, who administers the Hovhaness-Fujihara music publishing company; [http://www.orchestralibrary.com/publDir.html] as well as a daughter, the harpsichordist Jean Nandi).
In 2004 plans were announced to establish an Alan Hovhaness International Research Centre in
Yerevan, Armenia, to be part of that nation's State Museum of Arts and Literature. The centre, intended as a world center for Hovhaness research, will house a comprehensive archive of materials related to Hovhaness. [http://www.hovhaness.org]
*1936 (rev. 1954) - Prelude and Quadruple Fugue (orchestra), Op. 128
*1936 - Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, Op. 17
*1936 - Exile (Symphony No. 1), Op. 17, No.2
*1944 - Lousadzak (Concerto for piano and strings), Op. 48
*1945 - Mihr (for two pianos)
*1946 - Prayer of St. Gregory, Op. 62b, for trumpet and strings (interlude from the opera "Etchmiadzin")
*1947 - Arjuna (Symphony No. 8) for piano, timpani and orch., Op. 179
*1949-50 - St. Vartan Symphony (No. 9), Op. 180
*1950 - Janabar (Sinfonia Concertante for piano, trumpet, violin and strings), Op. 81
*1951 - Khaldis, Op. 91, for piano, four trumpets, and percussion
*1953 - Concerto No. 7 (Orchestra), Op. 116
*1954 - Concerto for Two Pianos and Orchestra, Op. 123, No. 3
*1955 - Mysterious Mountain (Symphony No. 2), Op. 132
*1957 - Symphony No. 4, Op. 165
*1958 - Meditation on Orpheus, Op. 155
*1958 - Magnificat (SATB soli, SATB choir and orchestra), Op. 157
*1959 - Symphony No. 6, Celestial Gate, Op. 173
*1959 - Symphony No. 7, Nanga Parvat, for symphonic wind band, Op. 178
*1960 - Symphony No. 11, All Men are Brothers, Op. 186
*1963 - The Silver Pilgrimage (Symphony No. 15), Op. 199
*1965 - Fantasy on Japanese Woodprints for
marimbaand orchestra, Op. 211
*1966 - Vishnu Symphony (No. 19), Op. 217
*1967 - Fra Angelico, Op. 220
*1968 - Mountains and Rivers without End, Chamber Symphony for 10 players, Op. 225
*1969 - Lady of Light (soli, chorus, and orch), Op. 227
*1969 - Shambala, Concerto for violin, sitar, and orchestra, Op. 228
*1970 - And God Created Great Whales (taped whale songs and orchestra), Op. 229
*1970 - Symphony Etchmiadzin (Symphony No. 21), Op. 234
*1970 - Symphony No. 22, City of Light, Op. 236
*1971 - Saturn Op. 243 for soprano, clarinet, and piano
*1973 - Majnun Symphony (Symphony No. 24), Op. 273
*1979 - Guitar Concerto No. 1, Op. 325
*1982 - Symphony No. 50, Mount St. Helens, Op. 360
*1985 - Guitar Concerto No. 2 for guitar and strings, Op. 394
*Symphony No. 1 - "
Exile", Op. 17, No. 2 (1936, rev.1970), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 2 - "Mysterious Mountain", Op. 132 (1955), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 3, Op. 148 (1956), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 4, Op. 165 (1958), for wind orchestra
*Symphony No. 5, Op. 170 (1953, rev.1960), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 6 - "Celestial Gate", Op. 173 (1959), for chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 7 - "Nanga Parvat", Op. 178 (1959), for wind orchestra
*Symphony No. 8 - "
Arjuna", Op. 179 (1947), for piano & orchestra
*Symphony No. 9 - "
Saint Vartan", Op. 80/180 (1949), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 10 - "Vahaken", Op. 184 (1944, rev. 1965), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 11 - "All Men Are Brothers", Op. 186 (1960, rev.1969), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 12 - "Choral", Op. 188 (1960), for SATB choir, tape & orchestra
*Symphony No. 13 - "Ardent Song", Op. 190 (1954, rev.1960), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 14 - "
Ararat", Op. 194 (1960), for wind orchestra
*Symphony No. 15 - "Silver
Pilgrimage", Op. 199 (1962), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 16 - "
Kayagum", Op. 202 (1962), for six Koreaninstruments & chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 17 - "Symphony for Metal Orchestra", Op. 203 (1963), for six flutes, three trombones & five percussion
*Symphony No. 18 - "
Circe", Op. 204a (1963), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 19 - "
Vishnu", Op. 217 (1966), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 20 - "Three Journeys to a Holy Mountain", Op. 223 (1968), for wind orchestra
*Symphony No. 21 - "
Etchmiadzin", Op. 234 (1968), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 22 - "City of Light", Op. 236 (1970), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 23 - "
Ani", Op. 249 (1972), for large concert band & brass ensemble " ad libitum"
*Symphony No. 24 - "
Majnun", Op. 273 (1973), for tenor solo, SATB choir & chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 25 - "
Odysseus", Op. 275 (1973), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 26, Op. 280 (1975), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 27, Op. 285 (1976), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 28 - "Armenian II.", Op. 286 (1976), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 29, Op. 289 (1976), for baritone horn & orchestra
*Symphony No. 30, Op. 293 (1976), for chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 31, Op. 294 (1977), for string orchestra
*Symphony No. 32 - "The Broken Wings", Op. 296 (1977), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 33, Op. 307 (1977), for chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 34, Op. 310 (1977), for bass trombone & string orchestra
*Symphony No. 35, Op. 311 (1978), for two orchestras (including
*Symphony No. 36, Op. 312 (1978), for flute & orchestra
*Symphony No. 37, Op. 313 (1978), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 38, Op. 314 (1978), for
coloratura soprano& chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 39 - "
Lament", Op. 321 (1978), for guitar & orchestra
*Symphony No. 40, Op. 324 (1979), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 41, Op. 330 (1979), for chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 42, Op. 332 (1979), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 43, Op. 334 (1979), for oboe, trumpet, timpani & string orchestra
*Symphony No. 44, Op. 339 (1980), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 45, Op. 342 (1954), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 46 - "To The
Green Mountains", Op. 347 (1980), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 47 - "
Walla Walla, land of many waters", Op. 348 (1980), for soprano & orchestra
*Symphony No. 48 - "Vision of
Andromeda", Op. 355 (1981), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 49 - "Christmas Symphony", Op. 356 (1981), for string orchestra
*Symphony No. 50 - "
Mount St. Helens", Op. 360 (1982), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 51, Op. 364 (1982), for trumpet & string orchestra
*Symphony No. 52 - "Journey to
Vega", Op. 372 (1983), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 53 - "Star Dawn", Op. 377 (1983), for concert band
*Symphony No. 54, Op. 378 (1983), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 55, Op. 379 (1983), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 56, Op. 380 (1983), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 57 - "Cold Mountain", Op. 381 (1983), for soprano "or" tenor solo, clarinet & string orchestra
*Symphony No. 58 - "Symphony Sacra", Op. 389 (1985), for soprano & baritone soli, SATB choir & chamber orchestra
*Symphony No. 59, Op. 395 (1985), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 60 - "To The
Appalachian Mountains", Op. 396 (1985), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 61, Op. 397 (1986), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 62 - "Oh Let Man Not Forget These Words Divine", Op. 402 (1987-88), for baritone solo, trumpet & string orchestra
*Symphony No. 63 - "
Loon Lake", Op. 411 (1988), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 64 - "Agiochook", Op. 422 (1989-90), for trumpet & string orchestra
*Symphony No. 65 - "Artstakh", Op. 427 (1991), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 66 - "Hymn to
Glacier Peak", Op. 428 (1992), for orchestra
*Symphony No. 67 - "Hymn to the Mountains", Op. 429 (1992), for orchestra
Films about Alan Hovhaness
*1984 - "Alan Hovhaness". Directed by Jean Walkinshaw, KCTS-TV, Seattle.
*1986 - " [http://www.bullfrogfilms.com/catalog/wsong1.html Whalesong] ". Directed by Barbara Willis Sweete, Rhombus Media.
*1990 - "The Verdehr Trio: The Making of a Medium". Program 1: "Lake Samish Trio"/Alan Hovhaness. Directed by Lisa Lorraine Whiting, Michigan State University.
*2006 - "A Tribute to Alan Hovhaness". Produced by Alexan Zakyan, Hovhaness Research Centre, Yerevan, Armenia.
Films with scores by Alan Hovhaness
*1955 - "Assignment: India". NBC-TV documentary.
*1956 - "Narcissus". Directed by
*1957 - "Assignment: Southeast Asia". NBC-TV documentary.
Pearl Langand Francisco Moncion dance performance: " [http://www.catarchive.com/detailPages/620107.html Black Marigolds] ". From the CBS television program "Camera Three", presented in cooperation with the New York State Education Department. Directed by Nick Havinga.
*1966 - "Nehru: Man of Two Worlds". From "The Twentieth Century" series; reporter: Walter Cronkite. A presentation of CBS News.
*1973 - "Tales From a Book of Kings: The Houghton Shah-Nameh". New York, New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art and Time-Life Multimedia.
*1980 - "". Hosted by
Carl Sagan. Directed by Adrian Malone.
*1982 - " [http://www.paladventurevideos.com/ENW.htm Everest North Wall] ". Directed by Laszlo Pal.
*1984 - " [http://www.paladventurevideos.com/WOE.htm Winds of Everest] ". Directed by Laszlo Pal.
*2005 - "I Remember Theodore Roethke". Produced and edited by Jean Walkinshaw, KCTS Public Television, Seattle.
* Hovhaness married six times, the first marriage was around 1934, the last 1977.
* The daughter from his first marriage (his only child) was named Jean Christina Hovaness (born June 13, 1935) and named after Jean Christian Sibelius, her godfather, with whom Hovhaness maintained a friendship.
* Hovhaness may have been one of the first American composers to set up a record label devoted to the release of his own works, Poseidon Society. Its first release was in 1963, with around 15 discs following over the next decade.
* Hovhaness' piano lineage traces back to Ludwig van Beethoven. His piano professor Heinrich Gebhardt was a student of Theodor Leschetizky-who was a student of Carl Czerny-who was a student of Beethoven.
Dominick Argento(b. 1927)
*John Davison (1930-1999)
John Diercks(b. 1927)
Robert Gauldin(b. 1931)
Sam Rivers(b. 1923)
Lewis Rowell(b. 1933)
Mary Jeanne van Appledorn(b. 1927)
Robert Washburn(b. 1928)
W. Francis McBeth(b. 1933)
John S. Hilliard(b. 1947)
*Gagne, Cole (1993). "Soundpieces 2: Interviews with American Composers". Scarecrow Press. ISBN 0-8108-2710-7.
*Harrison, Lou (1945). "Alan Hovhaness Offers Original Compositions." "New York Herald Tribune", June 18, 1945, p. 11.
*Howard, Richard (1983). "The Works of Alan Hovhaness: A Catalog, Opus 1-Opus 360". Pro Am Music Resources. ISBN 0-912483-00-8.
*Johnston, Lynn (1984). "Alan Hovhaness: An Interview with a Master Composer." Published in "The Arlington (MA) Advocate", July 5, 1984, and in "The Armenian Mirror-Spectator", Vol. LII, No. 1, issue 2843, July 21, 1984. Available on CD (copyright 2000) at Robbins Library, Arlington, MA, and at the Library of Congress.
*Kostelanetz, Richard (1989). "On Innovative Music(ian)s". New York: Limelight Editions
*Malina, Judith (1984). "The Diaries of Judith Malina, 1947-1957". New York: Grove Press, Inc. ISBN 0394531329.
*Michaelyan, Julia (1971). "An Interview with Alan Hovhaness." "Ararat: A Quarterly" 45, v. 12, no. 1 (Winter 1971), pp. 19-31.
*Miller, Leta E. and Lieberman, Frederic (1998). "Lou Harrison: Composing a World". Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-511022-6.
*Nandi, Jean (2000). "Unconventional Wisdom: A Memoir". [Berkeley, California] : Jean Nandi.
* [http://www.hovhaness.com/ The Alan Hovhaness website]
* [http://www.hovhaness.com/lnterviews.html Online Interviews with Alan Hovhaness]
* [http://www.bruceduffie.com/hovx.html Alan Hovhaness in conversation with Bruce Duffie]
* [http://www.hovhaness.org/ Alan Hovhaness International Research Centre, Yerevan, Armenia]
* [http://cristoforifund.tripod.com/concertcalendar.html/ Concert listings: the music of Alan Hovhaness in performance]
* [http://cristoforifund.tripod.com/hovhaness/ Reminiscences of Alan Hovhaness by pianist Martin Berkofsky]
* [http://www.alanhovhaness.com/ "All Men are Brothers" Marathon Concert Tour honouring the 100th Anniversary of Alan Hovhaness]
* [http://radiom.org/detail.php?omid=OTG.1976.01.28.c2 Other Minds Archive: "The World of Alan Hovhaness"] from KPFA's "Ode To Gravity" series, aired 28 January 1976; includes an interview with the composer by Charles Amirkhanian recorded in late 1975
* [http://artofthestates.org/cgi-bin/composer.pl?comp=119 Art of the States: Alan Hovhaness] "Lousadzak, op. 48" (1944)
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Alan Hovhaness — (* 8. März 1911 in Somerville, Massachusetts; † 21. Juni 2000 in Seattle) war ein US amerikanischer Komponist armenisch schottischer Abstammung. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk … Deutsch Wikipedia
Alan Hovhaness — (né Alan Vaness Chakmakjian à Somerville dans le Massachusetts, le 8 mars 1911 – mort à Seattle le 21 juin 2000), en arménien Ալան Յովհաննէս, est un compositeur américain. Biographie Alan Hovhaness est né d un père arménien et … Wikipédia en Français
Alan Hovhaness — Chakmakjian (8 de marzo de 1911 – 21 de junio de 2000) fue un compositor estadounidense de ascendencia armenia y escocesa. Hovhaness comenzó a componer desde niño. Estudió en el New England Conservatory, lo que le inclinó a cultivar el interés… … Wikipedia Español
Alan Hovhaness — Chakmakjian … Eponyms, nicknames, and geographical games
Hovhaness — Alan Hovhaness (* 8. März 1911 in Somerville, Massachusetts; † 21. Juni 2000 in Seattle) war ein US amerikanischer Komponist armenisch schottischer Abstammung. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Werk … Deutsch Wikipedia
Hovhaness — Alan Hovhaness Alan Hovhaness (Somerville dans le Massachusetts, le 8 mars 1911 – Seattle le 21 juin 2000), est un compositeur américain Biographie Né d un père arménien et d une mère écossaise, son nom réel était Alan Vaness Chakmakjian, qu il… … Wikipédia en Français
Alan — alán (ant.) m. *Perro alano. * * * alán. m. desus. perro alano. * * * (as used in expressions) Alanbrooke (de Brookeborough), Alan Francis Brooke, 1 vizconde Arthur, Chester A(lan) Ayckbourn, Sir Alan Bennett, Alan Dershowitz, Alan (Morton) … Enciclopedia Universal
Hovhaness, Alan — or Alan Hovaness orig. Alan Hovhaness Chakmakjian born March 8, 1911, Somerville, Mass., U.S. U.S. composer. He started to compose as a child. Studies at the New England Conservatory led him to pursue an interest in non Western music, which only… … Universalium
Alan — /al euhn/, n. a male given name: from a Celtic word meaning harmony. * * * (as used in expressions) Arthur Chester Alan Ayckbourn Sir Alan Bennett Alan Dershowitz Alan Morton Greenspan Alan Hazeltine Louis Alan Heeger Alan J. Hovhaness Alan Alan… … Universalium
Hovhaness, Alan — o Alan Hovaness orig. Alan Hovhaness Chakmakjian (8 mar. 1911, Somerville, Mass., EE.UU.–21 jun. 2000, Seattle, Wash.). Compositor estadounidense. Comenzó a componer desde niño. Los estudios en el conservatorio de Nueva Inglaterra le crearon el… … Enciclopedia Universal