Dalian


Dalian
Dalian
大连
—  Sub-provincial city  —
大连市
Clockwise from top: Dalian's Skyline, Laodong Park, Lüshun Station, Xinghai Square, and Zhongshan Square
Location of Dalian within Liaoning in China
Dalian is located in China
Dalian
Location of Dalian within Liaoning in China
Coordinates: 38°55′15″N 121°38′21″E / 38.92083°N 121.63917°E / 38.92083; 121.63917Coordinates: 38°55′15″N 121°38′21″E / 38.92083°N 121.63917°E / 38.92083; 121.63917
Country People's Republic of China
Province Liaoning
Settled 1899
Transfer of sovereignty to Japan (Treaty of Shimonoseki) 17 April 1895
– Russian occupation
- Japanese occupation
3 March 1898 – 2 January 1905
1905 – 15 August 1945
– Transfer of sovereignty to China 16 April 1955
City seat Xigang District
Divisions
 - County-level

6 districts, 4 counties(citys)
Government
 - Mayor Li Wancai
Area
 - Sub-provincial city 13,237 km2 (5,110.8 sq mi)
 - Land 12,574 km2 (4,854.8 sq mi)
Elevation 29 m (95 ft)
Population (2009)[1]
 - Sub-provincial city 6,170,000
 - Density 466.1/km2 (1,207.2/sq mi)
 Urban 3,578,000
 - Major ethnic groups Han
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal code 116000
Area code(s) 0411
GDP 2009[2]
 - Total CNY ¥ 441.8 billion
 - Per capita CNY ¥ 71,833
US$ 10,515 (nominal)
HDI (2008) 0.834 – High
Coastline 1,906 km (excluding islands)
License plate prefixes 辽B
City flowers Rosa chinensis
Website http://www.dalian.gov.cn/
Dalian
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 大连
Traditional Chinese 大連
Literal meaning Great Connection
Japanese name
Kanji 大連
Hiragana だいれん
Korean name
Hangul 다롄
Hanja 大連
Russian name
Russian Далянь or Дальний
Romanization Dalian or Dalny

Dalian (Mandarin pronunciation: [tɑ˥˩li̯ɛn˧˥]) is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's northernmost warm water port. The second largest city in Liaoning province, next only to the capital (Shenyang), the city has a significant history of being used by foreign powers as a port. Today it serves as a regional financial base and an important international shipping centre and logistics hub in Northeast Asia.

Contents

Names

Modern Dalian originated as Qingniwa (Chinese: 青泥窪; pinyin: Qīngníwā; literally "blue mud swamp") or Qingniwaqiao (Chinese: 青泥窪橋; pinyin: Qīngníwāqiáo; literally "bridge over the blue mud swamp") was a small fishing village near where the Russians chose to build their commercial town for the Kwantung Leased Territory after assuming control in 1898.[citation needed]

During the period of Russian control (1898–1905), the city of Dalny (Russian: Дальний Dal'nij,[3] literally "faraway" or "remote", rendered as 達里尼 Dálǐní in Chinese) was founded and built on the site of Qingniwaqiao. Under Japanese rule (1905–1945), the city was renamed Dairen[3] (大連 / だいれん) after the Chinese name for Dalian Bay (大連灣). During this period, the city was also called Dairen in English from the Japanese.

In 1950, Dalian was merged with nearby Lüshun (Port Arthur) to form the city of Lüda[3] (Chinese: 旅大; pinyin: Lǚdà), a name formed from the first character of each constituent's name and usually rendered as Lü-ta in English during that time. The city's name was changed from Lüda to Dalian (大連, the same Chinese characters as Japanese Dairen) on 5 March 1981,[3] after the State Council approved it on 9 February.

History

Ancient

In the Qin and Han periods (221 B.C.-A.D. 220), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Liaodong county, becoming a strategic point from which the Han Dynasty colonized northern Korea.[3] During the 3rd century through 5th century, when China was split into Sixteen Kingdoms, the neighboring kingdom of Goguryeo maintained control of this region. In the early Tang Dynasty (618–907), the Dalian region was under the jurisdiction of Andong Prefecture in Jili state, and during the Liao Dynasty (916–1125), it was under the jurisdiction of Dong Jing Tong Liaoyang county. Dalian was named Sanshan in the period of WeiJin (220–420), San Shanpu in the Tang Dynasty (618–907), Sanshan Seaport in the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644), and Qingniwakou in the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911).[citation needed]

Qing Dynasty

In the 1880s, the Qing government constructed loading bridges and fortifications with built-in cannons, and set up mining camps on the northern coast of Dalian Bay near what would become the center of Dalian, and it became the small town of Qingniwa or Qingniwaqiao. At that time, Jinzhou, north of downtown Dalian, now Dalian City's Jinzhou District, was a walled town and the center of political and economic activities of this area.[citation needed]

British, Russian, and Japanese occupations

Dairen (Dalian) in 1912

The settlement of Qingniwa was occupied by the British in 1858,[4] returned to the Chinese in the 1880s, and then occupied by Japan in 1895 during the first Sino-Japanese War. Nearby Port Arthur took its name from a Royal Navy Lieutenant named William C. Arthur, but was known to the Chinese as Lüshun.

While Japan's intention to lease Port Arthur and its surrounding areas, based on the Treaty of Shimonoseki, met with the Tripartite Intervention by France, Germany and Russia, the Russian Empire in 1898 succeeded in leasing the peninsula from the Qing Dynasty, and a modern city was laid out with the name of Dalny (Дальний).[5] Linked to the Trans-Siberian Railway's branch line, Dalny became Russia's primary port-city in Asia. The Russian government contributed more than 10 million golden rubles (equivalent to 11.5 billion of today's[clarification needed] rubles) into the city foundation and building.

Both Dalny (Qingniwaqiao of Zhongshan District, Dalian) and Port Arthur (Lüshunkou) were developed and heavily fortified by the Russians in the period prior to 1904. Dalny was the main battlefield of the Russo-Japanese War (1905). Consequently, some historians blame Admiral Eugene Alexeyeff for the fall of Port Arthur during the siege of Port Arthur on 2 January 1905 due to his failure to concentrate on the naval base and its fortifications, instead splitting precious resources shipped 5,000 miles across the single tracked Trans-Siberian Railway and Manchurian railways.

After the Russo-Japanese war, Port Arthur was yielded to Japan (Treaty of Portsmouth), who set up the Kwantung Leased Territory or Guandongzhou, which was roughly the southern half (Jinzhou District and south) of the present-day Dalian. After the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932, the sovereignty of the territory moved from China to Manchukuo. Japan still leased it from Manchukuo. In 1937, the current area of Dalian was enlarged and modernized by the Japanese as two cities: the northern Dairen (Dalian) and the southern Ryojun (Port Arthur or Lüshun).

Post-World War II

With the unconditional surrender of Japan in August 1945, Dairen passed to the Soviets, who had liberated the city in advance of the end of hostilities and governed the city until 1950. During this period the Soviets and Chinese Communists cooperated in the further development of the city, its industrial infrastructure, and especially the port, which remained as the freeport rented by the Soviet government. The city had been relatively undamaged during the war.[3]

In 1950, the USSR presented the city to the Chinese Communist government without any compensation and, on 1 December 1950, the city was amalgamated with Lüshun (Port Arthur) as Lüda in 1950 although the first Chinese Communist mayor of the new Lüda Administrative Office (旅大行政公署) had been appointed in 1945. From 12 March 1953 to 1 August 1954 it was a direct-controlled municipality and not part of Liaoning. Soviet troops left the city in 1955.[3] After the departure of the Soviets, the PRC converted Lüda into a major shipbuilding center and, in 1981, the name Dalian was given to the city with Lüshun becoming a constituent district.[3]

In 1984, the Chinese Government designated the city a Special Economic Zone. At the time, Dalian was China's largest foreign trade port.[6]

Post 1990

The city was upgraded from a prefecture-level city to a sub-provincial city in May 1994,[citation needed] with no change in its administrative subdivisions. In the 1990s the city benefited from the attention of Bo Xilai (currently the Communist Party head of Chongqing) who was both mayor of the city and provincial party official, who, among other things, banned motorcycles and planted large, lush parks in the city's many traffic circles.[citation needed] He also preserved much of Dalian's interesting and attractive Japanese and Russian architectural heritage. He is the former Minister of Commerce of the PRC.

In 2008, about 1000 people protested and blocked traffic as part of the 2008 Tibetan anti-Chinese protests.[7] and forced the temporary closure of the local Carrefour store.[8]

In 2010, the worst recorded oil spill in China's history occurred in Dalian.

In September 2011, Dalian hosted the World Economic Forum.[9]

Geography

Dalian
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
8.9
 
0
−7
 
 
5.8
 
1
−5
 
 
12
 
7
0
 
 
25
 
15
7
 
 
47
 
20
12
 
 
83
 
24
17
 
 
140
 
27
21
 
 
155
 
27
22
 
 
65
 
24
17
 
 
29
 
18
11
 
 
20
 
10
3
 
 
11
 
3
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA [10]
Dalian and vicinities, Landsat 5 satellite image, 3 August 2010.
Location within China

One of the most heavily developed industrial areas of China, Dalian City today consists of Dalian proper and the smaller Lüshunkou (formerly Lüshun city, known in western and Russian historic references as Port Arthur), about forty nautical miles farther along the Liaodong Peninsula. Historical references note that the Russian designed city of Dalny (Alt. Dalney), on the south side of Dalian Bay was 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Port Arthur/Lüshun (known today as Lüshunkou or literally, Lüshun Port).[citation needed]

Dalian is located west of the Yellow Sea and east of Bohai Sea roughly in the middle of the Liaodong peninsula at its narrowest neck or isthmus. With a coastline of 1,906 kilometres (1,184 mi), it governs the entire Liaodong Peninsula and about 260 surrounding islands and reefs. It is seated at south-south-west of the Yalu River, and its harbour entrance forms a sub-bay known as Dalian Bay.

Climate

Dalian has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa), characterised by humid summers due to the East Asian monsoon, and cold, windy, dry winters that reflect the influence of the vast Siberian anticyclone. Except for winter, the city experiences a one-month seasonal lag due to its position on the Liaodong Peninsula. Average temperatures range from −3.9 °C (25.0 °F) in January to 24.1 °C (75.4 °F) in August. Annual precipitation averages 602 millimetres (23.7 in) but is heavily concentrated in the summer months and can vary greatly from year to year. Due to the coastal location, the mean diurnal temperature variation annually is small, at 6.75 °C (12.2 °F). Sunshine is generous year-round, with an annual total of 2740 hours. The annual mean temperature is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F).

Environmental issues

In 2001, The United Nations Environment Programme awarded the Dalian Municipal Government for its outstanding contributions to the protection of the environment.[11]

The average content of the four pollutants in the air reached Class Ⅱ of National Ambient Air Quality Standards and there were 353 days with air pollution index (API) over Class Ⅱ (Good), including 108 excellent days with Class Ⅰ(Superior).[12] Dalian frequently ranks Grade 2 for air pollution according to SEPA.[13] However, the environmental effects of economic growth are of concern, according to Dalian Environmental Protection Agency, during the first half of 2011, respirable particles in the air increased significantly, with an average 40% higher than last year.[14]

The water quality of offshore marine space maintained stable overall. The annual average content of monitoring indicators for water quality met Class-II of the national seawater quality standard, except Inorganic Nitrogen in Dalian Bay and southern coast. The water quality of drinking water sources maintained good and complied with Class-III of Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.[12] Dalian won 6th Kitakyushu Environment Award.[citation needed]

Recent events have had a major environmental impact on the city. In July 2010, an accidental explosion in which two petroleum pipelines exploded released, according to official statements, 11,000 barrels of oil into the Yellow Sea. However, Rick Steiner, an American marine conservationist working with Greenpeace, cites that the figure could be upwards of 400,000.[15] It was reported as the largest oil spill to occur in China,[16][17] and involved 2,000 firefighters.[18] The oil spill stretched for at least 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi). 800 fishing boats were mobilised for the cleanup.[19] The incident caused President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao to intervene, and Vice Premier Zhang Dejiang moved in to help direct the rescue work [20] A researcher with the China Environmental Science Research Institute, said that "the impact on marine life and on humans -- as the pollution enters the food chain - could last 10 years." [21]

In August 2011, a dike protecting the petrochemical Fujia factory in Jinzhou District was breached due to a typhoon. Authorities have ordered the plant to be shut down.[22] Municipal authorities ruled that the facility must move leaving taxpayers to foot the cost of relocation.[23][24] Around 12,000 residents protested as the factory, which originally was intended to be based in Xiamen, did not receive official approval to operate in Dalian.[25][26] Dalian authorities ruled that the facility must move leaving taxpayers to pay the expensive cost of relocation.[23][24] Attempts to inform others of the protest on social media were censored by the Government.[27][28]

Concerns have been raised over mounting traffic due to "bad urban design" and that the growing rate of car ownership is affecting air quality.[14][29] The United States National Academy of Engineering have raised concern about rising traffic in Dalian stating that "rapid growth of traffic in Dalian and in similar Chinese cities will repeat the air quality and energy consumption mistakes of Los Angeles and other U.S. cities, if not better managed." [30] Aquatic pollution has affected the city's fishing industry.[14]

Administration

Dalian

Dalian is the second largest city of Liaoning province, after Shenyang, the provincial capital. Dalian City is governed by the Mayor and its Dalian Municipal People's Government.

Municipal government

The municipal government is located in the main building on the north side of People's Square on Zhongshan Road, originally built as the Administrative Office of Kwantung Leased Territory, and other buildings in downtown Dalian. There are the Commerce, Foreign Economy & Trade, Hygiene, Information Industry, Police, Religion, Science & Technology, Transportation and other city-level bureaus, which work closely with the corresponding agencies at the district level.

There are, in addition, 4 national leading open zones (对外开放先导区):

  • The Development Zone (开发区)
  • The Free Trade Zone (保税区)
  • The Hi-Tech Industrial Zone (高新技术产业园区)
  • The Golden Pebble Beach National Holiday Resort (金石滩国家旅游度假区)

Administrative divisions

(see Administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China)

The city administers 6 districts (区 qu), 3 county-level cities (市 shi), and 1 county (县 xian) :

  • There are 92 sub-districts and 69 town/townships .[31]
  • Ganjingzi, Zhongshan, Xigang, and Shahekou Districts make up the urban centre. Changhai County is made up entirely of islands east of the peninsula.
Map # Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(est. 2007)
Area (km²) Density
(/km²)
Dalian mcp.png
City proper
1 Xigang District 西岗区 Xīgǎng Qū 307,000 26 11,808
2 Zhongshan District 中山区 Zhōngshān Qū 354,000 43 8,233
3 Shahekou District 沙河口区 Shāhékǒu Qū 643,000 49 13,122
4 Ganjingzi District 甘井子区 Gānjǐngzi Qū 704,000 491 1,434
Suburban
5 Lüshunkou District 旅顺口区 Lǚshùnkǒu Qū 209,000 506 413
6 Jinzhou District 金州区 Jīnzhōu Qū 717,000 1,390 516
Satellite cities
7 Wafangdian 瓦房店市 Wǎfángdiàn Shì 1,025,000 3,791 270
8 Pulandian 普兰店市 Pǔlándiàn Shì 827,000 2,923 283
9 Zhuanghe 庄河市 Zhuānghé Shì 921,000 3,900 236
Rural
10 Changhai County 长海县 Chánghǎi Xiàn 74,000 119 622

Demographics

Permanent population of Dalian at the end of 2008 totaled 6.13 million. The total registered population on household was 58,337 thousand, with a net increase of 51.8 thousand over the previous year, of which, non-farming population was 34,783 thousand, accounting for 59.6 percent; farming population 23,554 thousand, accounting for 40.4 percent.[1]

Economy

Friendship Square in Dalian

The city has had a continuous annual double-digit percentage increase in GDP since 1992.[32] In 2009, the city's GDP registered a 15 percent increase, reaching RMB441.77 billion, while per capita GDP hit RMB71,833. According to a nationwide appraisal by the National Bureau of Statistics, Dalian ranks eighth among Chinese cities in terms of overall strength.[32] The city’s main industries include machine manufacturing, petrochemicals and oil refining, and electronics.[33]

Agriculture and aquaculture

Dalian was originally an agriculture and aquaculture-based area, which, after the opening of the ferry between Yantai and Lüshun during the early 20th century, began to be populated by the farmers and fishermen of Shandong, across the Yellow Sea.[citation needed] Corn, vegetables, fruit such as apples, cherries and pears are Dalian's typical agricultural products. Aquaculture is well developed in Dalian, exporting seaweed, scallops, sea urchins and others to Japan, Korea and other countries.[citation needed]

Heavy, light and distribution industries

Even before and during the Sino-Japanese War, the shipbuilding and locomotives industries were a thriving industry[citation needed], such as the companies which later became Dalian Shipbuilding Co. and Dalian Locomotive & Rolling Stock Works (DLoco). After the War, Dalian became an important center of the heavy and light industries, including companies such as Dalian Heavy Industry Co., Dalian Chemical Group, and Wafangdian Bearing Co.; and of the distribution industry, including such as Dashang Group. Overseas retailing giants, such as Wal-Mart from the US., Carrefour from France and Metro from Germany have recently opened stores in Dalian. Mycal, the Japanese retailing chain store, was bought out by its Chinese partner, Dashang Group, and is operated as Mykal.[citation needed]

Dalian Port is emerging as a very important port for international trade. A new harbor for oil tankers, at the terminus of an oil pipeline from the Daqing oilfields, was completed in 1976. Dalian is the 6th largest port in China.[34] Accordingly, Dalian is a major center for oil refineries, diesel engineering, and chemical production.

Also completed recently is a newer port on Dagushan Peninsula on the northern suburbs, specializing in import/export of mining and oil products. Together with its Dalian Railroad Station, Dalian International Airport and two major express roads to Shenyang (Shenda Expressway)-Changchun(Changda Expressway)-Harbin (Hada Expressway) in the north and to Dandong to the east, Dalian has become an important distribution center.[35]

Industrial zones

Dalian has been given many benefits by the PRC government, including the title of "open-city" (1984), which allows it to receive considerable foreign investment (see Special Economic Zone). The Development Zone was established in Jinzhou District, to which many Japanese manufacturing companies, such as Canon, Mitsubishi Electric, Nidec, Sanyo Electric and Toshiba, followed by Korean, American and European companies (such as Pfizer). In March 2007, Intel announced plans to build a semiconductor fabrication facility (commonly known as a fab) in the Development Zone, Dalian. It is Intel's first fab to be built at an entirely new site in over 15 years. The fab at Dalian will make the chip sets that support Intel's microprocessors and is expected to begin operation in the first half of 2010.[citation needed]

Other zones in the city include the Dalian Economic and Technological Development Zone, Dalian Export Processing Zone, Dalian Free Trade Zone, and Dalian Hi-Tech Industrial Development Zone.

Financial and IT industry

Dalian is the financial center of Northeast China. There are the Dalian branches of China's five major banks: Bank of China, Industrial & Commercial Bank of China, China Construction Bank, Bank of Communications, and Agricultural Bank of China. Dalian Commercial Bank is now called Dalian Bank, which among other things handles processing of the Dalian Mingzhu IC Card for public transportation.

Dalian Commodity Exchange is the only one of its kind in China, expanding the futures market beyond soybeans.

Since the 1990s, Dalian City has emphasized the development of the IT industry, especially in Dalian Hi-Tech Zone and Dalian Software Park in the western suburbs near Dalian University of Technology. Not only Chinese IT companies, such as DHC, Hisoft and Neusoft Group, but also American, European, Indian and Japanese IT companies are located there.[citation needed] Currently, the "Lushun South Road Software Industry Belt" Plan is proceeding, including Dalian Software Park Phase 2.

Intel's Fab 68 is located in Dalian. The plan was announced on 26 March 2007, and operations started on 26 October 2010. It is Intel's first chip-manufacturing fabrication in East Asia.[36]

Tourism

Dalian is a popular destination among domestic tourists and foreign visitors, especially from Japan, South Korea and Russia.[3] Its mild climate and multiple beaches as well as its importance in the modern history of China have attracted tourists. Some of the most famous beaches are Tiger beach, Xinghai beach, Jinshitan beach and Fujiazhuang beach. It was named as one of the three Best Tourism Cities in 2007, along with Hangzhou and Chengdu, recognized by the National Tourism Administration.[37]

Four inner-city districts

Laohutan is noted for its natural scenery.[citation needed] There is the Underwater World, the Bird Park and the recently completed Polar Region Zoo. The dolphin show is a major attraction for the Polar Region Zoo.
Discovery land is a theme park which contains six different major scenic spots.
  • Shahekou District: Xinghai Square, Xingghai Park and Heishijiao. Xinghai Square was built at the centennial of the City of Dalian (1998) and is slated to be East Asia's largest square. Xinghai beach is in side Xinghai Park. It is about 800m long and is an excellent place for swimming.
  • Victory Square, an underground shopping mall which is 4 floors underground.

Jinzhou District and Development Zone (in the northern suburbs)

Jinshitan beach, the Golden Pebble Beach is a tourist attraction with splendid coves and rock formations. There is also a golf course (Jinshitan International Golf Course), cross country motorcycling, a theme park (Dalian Discoveryland) and a game forest.

Lüshunkou District (in the western suburbs)

  • Lüshun Museum
  • Lüshun Railroad Station
  • 203 Hill and Shuishiying Meeting Place

The fiercest battle site and the signing site of the ceasefire treaty, of the Battle of Lüshun during the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05).

Three Northern Cities of Greater Dalian

  • Anbo Hotspring and Ski Course, in Pulandian City
  • Zhangxing Island International Golf Course, in Wafangdian City
  • Binyugou Scenic Area and Buyun Mountain Hotspring, in Zhuanghe City

Zoo and museums

Dalian is the home of three zoological parks: Dalian Forest Zoo, Sun Asia Ocean World, and Polar World. The Forest Zoo has a free-range animal section as well as a more traditional zoo. Shengya Ocean World includes an underwater conveyor through a transparent tunnel. Polar World is the only park devoted to polar animals in China. Dalian is also home to a number of public squares, including Xinghai Square.and it also famous for beer festivals.

Transportation

Local transportation

Dalian is one of the many cities in China where there are no longer many bicycles, and where there are few motorcycles, because their sale is prohibited.[citation needed] The city has a comprehensive bus system and an efficient Dalian Metro system, usually called Qinggui (), which connects Dalian Development Zone and Jinshitan with downtown Dalian. The Dalian Tram system is the second oldest in China.

Domestic and international

Dalian has a modern and recently (2006) expanded international airport, Dalian Zhoushuizi International Airport, with direct flights to the most major cities in China, and to the selected cities in Japan and South Korea.

The city's location means that train trips to most Chinese cities outside China's northeastern region require changing trains in Shanghai or Beijing. Most of the direct city to city express trains are overnight trips. In August 2007 construction started on a Harbin-Dalian high speed passenger railway, which is expected to be completed in 2013, connecting Harbin, Dalian, Changchun, and Shenyang.[38]

In addition to local and express bus service to Beijing and other areas in the northeast, Dalian is connected by passenger ship service to neighbouring coastal cities, such as Tianjin and Yantai, as well as Incheon, South Korea.

Culture

Zhongshan Square in Dalian
night view of the Dalian skycrapers

Dalian was selected as China's most suitable city for living in China in 2006 according to China Daily.[39]

Dalian dialect

Standard Mandarin is usually spoken in Dalian because it is a city with people from various locations. Among the Dalianites, however, the Dalian dialect is used, which belongs to the Jiao Liao Mandarin subgroup spoken from Shandong Province to Liaoning Province. The majority of the original Dalianites were the poor farmers and fishermen who had come from Shandong Province in a large population move called "Chuang Guandong". Among the Dalian dialect's features are a few loanwords from Japanese and Russian, reflecting its history of foreign occupation,[40] which is a very rare case in the Chinese language.

Sports

Sports play a big role in the local culture. The city's mayor encouraged a top league football team with foreign aid and a lot of city cash to increase the city's image in the country and bring local fame.[citation needed] They have been caught out several times though and the heyday of the Super Team has passed. The city's football team has dominated the sport in China and Asia by winning 7 titles out of the past 9 years of Chinese professional football league.

The Dalian's football club is Dalian Shide (大连实德), one of fifteen teams in the Chinese Super League. Prior to 2000, they were known as Dalian Wanda (大连万达).

City-wide festivals

Xinghai Square(星海广场), the Xinghai Conference Center, the Dalian World Expo Center and the hotels on Renmin Rd. are the places where Dalian's major annual events are held: Fireworks Displays (Chinese New Year, 1 May and 1 October), Dalian International Walking Festival (May), Dalian Locust Flower Festival (May), Dalian International Marathon (June), China International Software & Information Service Fair (June), Dalian International Beer Festival (July–August), Dalian International Auto Show (August) and Dalian International Fashion Week (September).

Every September Dalian hosts the Dalian International Fashion Festival (大连国际服装节).

Plastination center

The German anatomist Gunther von Hagens runs a plastination center in Dalian.

In popular culture

The computer game Battlefield 2 has a single-player/multiplayer map labeled as the "Dalian Plant", wherein the United States Marine Corps engages the People's Liberation Army to take control of a power plant. However, in reality, there presently aren't any power plants in or near Dalian. (Although Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Plant[41] is being built in Wafangdian, part of Dalian Prefecture-level City – over 100 from Dalian city center).

Inter-governmental

Japan maintains a Consulate General office and a JETRO office in Dalian, reflecting a relatively large Japanese population.

Japan Chamber of Commerce & Industry has about 700 corporate members. Those Japanese who had lived in Dalian before the War have organized the Dalian Society. There are such voluntary groups as the Lilac Society (for women) and the Dalian Mountaineering Association.[citation needed]

Religion

As of 2005, Dalian had 27 Protestant churches, 2 Catholic churches, 10 mosques, 34 Buddhist temples, and 7 Taoist temples, according to the statistics of the city government.[42]

Daoist temples can be found in various districts including downtown Dalian (Hua Temple in Zhong Shan Park), in Lushunkou District (Longwang Temple), and in Jinzhou District (Jinlong Temple in Daweijia, Xiangshui Temple at the foot of Dahei Mountain, and Zhenwu Temple in Liangjiadian).

Buddhist temples are in downtown Dalian (Songshan Temple on Tangshan Street), on the northern side of Anzi Mountain (Anshan Temple), at Daheishi (Thousand-Hand Buddha & 500 Luohan Statues), in Lushunkou District (Hengshan Temple at Longwangtan), and in Jinzhou District 'Guanyinge-Shengshui Temple on Dahei Mountain).

Dalian Catholic Church (built in 1926) is in downtown Dalian, west of Dalian Railway Station. Protestant churches are near Zhongshan Square (Yuguang Street Church, the former Dalian Anglican Church, built in 1928 in the British Consulate General's premises by the Church of England and Anglican Church of Japan jointly), on Changjiang Road (Beijing Street Church, now called Cheng-en Church, originally built in 1914 by the Danish Lutheran Church), on Xi'an Road (Christian Church for the Korean Chinese), east of the airport (the newly built Harvest Church, which can seat 4000 people), in Jinzhou (the newly built Jinzhou Church) and in Lüshunkou District (Lüshun Church, a former Danish Lutheran church). Dalian Mosque is on Beijing Street.[42]

Notable people

  • Toshirō Mifune (三船 敏郎 Mifune Toshirō?), Mifune Toshirō (1 April 1920 – 24 December 1997) was a famous Japanese actor who appeared in almost 170 feature films. He was born in Qingdao, to Japanese parents, and grew up in Dalian[43] with his parents and two siblings.
  • Dong Jie actress
  • Yu Nan actress
  • Wei Son (Chinese: 孫暐; Born 13 October 1989) is a Japanese fashion model who claims to have been born in Dalian.[44]
  • Cy Oggins spy

Education

There were 23 general institutions of higher education (and another 7 privately-run colleges), 108 secondary vocational schools, 80 ordinary middle high schools, 1,049 schools for nine-year compulsory education and 1,432 kindergartens in Dalian. The students on campus of all levels (including kindergartens) totaled 1108 thousand.

There are the following schools of higher education and research centers:

Colleges and universities

Some universities are undergoing relocations from the metropolitan area to the suburban districts. In 2007, Dalian University of Foreign Languages (except for its Schools of Chinese Studies 汉学院 and Continuous Education 培训部) and Dalian Medical University (except its Hospital) were moved to Lüshunkou District, just east of Baiyin Mountain Tunnel (白银山).

Missouri State University Branch Campus Dalian is a dual management private school with a western director.

Research centers

High schools

Notable high schools include:

International relations

Twin towns / Sister cities

Dalian is twinned with:

Dalian has a friendship city agreement with Dallas, Texas, USA.[45]

References

  1. ^ a b Population and Employment Dalian China
  2. ^ "Count the monthly magazine in January–December,2009: 大连市统计局" (in Chinese). DALIAN STATISTICS. http://www.stats.dl.gov.cn/eng/lookdata.asp?bh=17580. Retrieved 17 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Britannica Educational Publishing (2010). "The Major Cities of Northern China". The Geography of China: Sacred and Historic Places. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 165–168. ISBN 9781615301829. 
  4. ^ Dairen had been an insignificant fishing village called Chingniwa when Great Britain took the Bay of Dalyan from China. The British renamed the bay Victoria Bay after their queen., Kuramoto pg 19.
  5. ^ Czarist Russia brought in their finest architects to this insignificant fishing village to build their dream city, a "Paris in the Far East", copying the layout and architecture of Paris. Nicholas II named the city "Dal'nii" – the faraway place – and declared it a tax-free commercial port., Kuramoto pg 20.
  6. ^ http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=VSozAAAAIBAJ&sjid=RO8FAAAAIBAJ&pg=1332,976704&dq=dalian+economic-zone&hl=en
  7. ^ http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,351886,00.html
  8. ^ http://www2.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2008-04/21/content_6630934.htm
  9. ^ http://news.xinhuanet.com/english2010/china/2011-09/14/c_131136755.htm
  10. ^ a b "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集(1971-2000年)" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. http://cdc.cma.gov.cn/shuju/search1.jsp?dsid=SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_MMON_19712000_CES&tpcat=SURF&type=table&pageid=3. Retrieved 2009年11月19日. 
  11. ^ http://www.unep.org/Documents.multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=201&ArticleID=2862&l=en
  12. ^ a b Dalian China – Environmental Protection
  13. ^ Ministry of Environmental Protection of China.
  14. ^ a b c http://www.nautilus.org/publications/essays/napsnet/reports/WenBo_Dalian_Case_Study
  15. ^ Jacobs, Andrew (30 July 2010). "Group Says China's Official Oil Spill Figure May Be Too Low". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/31/world/asia/31dalian.html. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  16. ^ http://articles.boston.com/2010-07-21/lifestyle/29289880_1_oil-spill-oil-last-year-environmental-group
  17. ^ http://www.chinapost.com.tw/china/national-news/2010/07/24/265902/1st-details.htm
  18. ^ http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-07-17/oil-leak-from-dalian-pipeline-explosion-fires-is-under-control-cnpc-says.html
  19. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jul/20/china-fishing-boats-oil-slick
  20. ^ http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90882/7070249.html
  21. ^ http://www.mysinchew.com/node/42202
  22. ^ Watts, Jonathan (14 August 2011). "China orders petrochemical plant shutdown after protests". The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/aug/14/china-petrochemical-plant-shutdown-protest. Retrieved 2011-08-17. 
  23. ^ a b http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/4511
  24. ^ a b http://www.vancouversun.com/news/China+middle+class+battles+Bloody/5271005/story.html
  25. ^ http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9P3PRPO0.htm
  26. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2011/08/16/world/asia/16dalian.html
  27. ^ http://cmp.hku.hk/2011/08/14/14785/
  28. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2011/aug/14/china-protest-against-px-chemical-plant
  29. ^ http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2011/09/in-fast-growing-china-a-warning-about-when-prosperity-isnt-enough/244603/
  30. ^ http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=12001&page=11
  31. ^ Dalian Statistics Yearbook 2008
  32. ^ a b China Briefing Media (2006). "Dalian". Business Guide to Beijing and North-East China. China Briefing Media. pp. 199–200. 
  33. ^ Haft, Jeremy (2007). All the Tea in China: How to Buy, Sell, and Make Money on the Mainland. Penguin. p. 76. "[Dalian's] Key industries include food processing, machinery, IT, electronics, garments, petrochemicals, household goods, textiles, locomotives, shipbuilding, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and petroleum refining." 
  34. ^ http://www.thenational.ae/featured-content/channel-page/business/middle-article-list/dalian-port-ideally-placed-on-the-cusp-of-prosperity
  35. ^ Eltschinger, Cyrill (2007). Source Code China: The New Global Hub of IT Outsourcing. John Wiley and Sons. p. 118. 
  36. ^ Nystedt, Dan (2010-10-25). "Intel opens first chip manufacturing plant in China". IDG. http://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9193038/Intel_opens_first_chip_manufacturing_plant_in_China. Retrieved 2011-09-02. 
  37. ^ http://www.china.org.cn/archive/2007-02/10/content_1199624.htm
  38. ^ "Work begins on Harbin-Dalian passenger-only rail line". People's Daily Online. 24 August 2007. http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90776/6247071.html. 
  39. ^ Jing, Fu (3 January 2006). "Beijing drops out of top 10 'best city' list". China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2006-01/03/content_508828.htm. 
  40. ^ 大連方言について (in Japanese)
  41. ^ Dalian Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Station
  42. ^ a b 《宗教概况》. Dalian: Ethnic Affairs Commission. http://mzw.dl.gov.cn/zj/33685_34708.htm. Retrieved 11 September 2010 
  43. ^ IMDb Biography
  44. ^ "Wei Son's message arrives✰", January 24, 2011, Shibuhara Girls, MTV Japan (Japanese)
  45. ^ http://www.pegasusnews.com/news/2008/apr/29/dallas-mayor-inks-friendship-pact-north-china-port/

Further reading

  • Hess, Christian A. (2006). "From colonial jewel to socialist metropolis: Dalian, 1895—1955." Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, San Diego.
  • Kuramoto, Kazuko. Manchurian Legacy: Memoirs of a Japanese Colonist, 1st edition. Michigan State University Press. 1 October 1999. ISBN 0-87013-510-4, ISBN 978-0-87013-510-1, ISBN 0-87013-725-5, ISBN 978-0-87013-725-9.
  • Matz, Leigh. Blue Sky Red Tears, 1st edition. DigitalKu. 30 November 2004. ISBN 0-9763168-1-1, ISBN 978-0-9763168-1-7.
  • McKnight, Tom, (ed.). Geographica: The Complete Illustrated Atlas of the World, 3rd revision. New York: Barnes and Noble Books, 2001. ISBN 0-7607-5974-X, ISBN 978-0-7607-2714-0.
  • Perrins, Robert John (1998). "'Great connections': The creation of a city, Dalian, 1905–1931. China and Japan on the Liaodong Peninsula." Ph.D. dissertation, York University (Canada).
  • Song Li. Everyday Dalian: Life In Modern Manchuria (Photography Book), Foreword by Phil Borges. 1st edition. DigitalKu. 8 February 2008. ISBN 0-9763168-5-4, ISBN 978-0-9763168-5-5.
  • Theiss, Frank. The Voyage of Forgotten Men, 1st Ed. Indianapolis & New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1937.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Dalian — Dàlián · 大连 Localisation de la préfecture de Dalian (en jaune) …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Dalian — 大连 Zhongshan Platz Dàlián Shì • 大连市 Staat …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Dalian — Dalian,   früher Lüta, Lüda [Kurzwort aus den Städtenamen Lüshun und Talien beziehungsweise Dalian], Stadt an der Südspitze der Halbinsel Liaodong, Provinz Liaoning, China, 5,40 Mio. Einwohner; TU, Fachhochschulen. Dalian liegt an felsiger Küste… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Dalian — (chino simplificado: 大连, chino tradicional: 大連, pinyin: Dàlián) es una ciudad y puerto en la provincia de Liaoning, República Popular China, en la orilla del Mar Bohai. Tiene un total de 1.906 Km de costa. Durante la ocupación japonesa fue… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Dalian — (anc. Dairen), princ. port de la Chine du N. E. (Liaoning); 1 480 240 hab. (aggl. urb. 4 619 060 hab.). Grand centre industriel …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Dalian — /ˈdalian/ (say dahleeahn) noun a port in north eastern China in southern Liaoning province at the tip of Liaodong Peninsula, adjoining Lüshun; entry port for Manchuria. Formerly, Dairen. Also, Lüda …   Australian English dictionary

  • Dalian — [dä′lyen′] seaport in Liaoning province, NE China: see LÜDA …   English World dictionary

  • Dalian — /dah lyahn /, n. Pinyin. 1. Formerly, Lüda. an urban municipality in S Liaoning province, in NE China, on the southern tip of the Liaodong peninsula: comprises the old cities of Dalian and Lüshun, and five adjacent counties. 7,000,000; ab. 1300… …   Universalium

  • Dalian — 大连市 Dalián …   Wikipedia Español

  • Dalian — 1 Original name in latin Dalian Name in other language DLC, Dairen, Dal niy, Dalian, Dalian Shi, Daljan , Dalny, Dal’niy, Lu ta, Lu ta shih, Luda, L ta, L ta shih, Lda, Ta lien, Ta lien shih, da lian, da lian shi, Далянь State code CN… …   Cities with a population over 1000 database


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