- Witches' Sabbath
The Witches' Sabbath or Sabbat is a supposed meeting of those who practice
witchcraft, Satanism, or other rites. European records tell of innumerable cases of persons being accused or tried for taking part in Sabbat gatherings, from the Middle Agesto the 17th century or later. However, there are no reliable reports on what actually happened during a Sabbat; and much of what was written about them may be the product of popular imagination or deliberate misinformation.
The Sabbat in history
Although allusions to Sabbats were made by the Catholic Canon (law) since about 905, the first book that mentions the Sabbat is, theoretically, "
Canon Episcopi", included in Burchard of Worms's collection in the 11th century. The "Canon Episcopi" alleged that "Diana's rides," (by the name of the Roman goddess of the hunt) were false, and that these spirit travels did not occur in reality. " Errores Gazariorum" later evoked Sabbat, in 1452.
In the 13th century the accusation of participation in a Sabbat was considered very serious. Some allusions to meetings of witches with demons are made in the "
Malleus Maleficarum" (1486). Nevertheless, it was during the Renaissance when Sabbat folklore was most popular, more books on them were published, and more people lost their lives when accused of participating. "Commentarius de Maleficius" (1622), by Peter Binsfeld, cites accusation of participation in Sabbats as a proof of guiltiness in an accusation for the practice of witchcraft.
What has been said about the Sabbat
Compendium Maleficarum" (1608), by Francesco Maria Guazzo, aka Guaccio, Guaccius is a book published by an Italian priest with some illustrations of what he imagined could be a Sabbat, and gives a description of it; a brief summary can be cited as an example: "the attendants go riding flying goats, trample the cross, are made to be re-baptised in the name of the Devil, give their clothes to him, kiss the Devil's behind, and dance back to back forming a round".
Hans Baldung Grien(ca 1484-1545) and Pierre de Rostegny, aka De Lancre (1553-1631) human flesh was eaten during Sabbats, preferably children, and also human bones stewed in a special way. It was also said by some authorsWho|date=July 2007 that salt, bread and oil were prohibited because the Devil hated them; while other testimonies told about delicious dishes. Other descriptionsWho|date=July 2007 add that human fat, especially of non-baptised children, was used to make an unguent that enabled the witches to fly; it was also believedWho|date=July 2007 that witches could fly by themselves, ride a broom, or be carried by demons to the place of the meeting.
The most common belief on which authorsWho|date=July 2007 agreed is that Satan was present at the Sabbat, often as a
goator satyr, and many agreed that more demons were present. Another belief said that sometimes a person could offer his/her own body to be possessed by some demonserving as a medium (see demon possession). It was believedWho|date=July 2007 that the Sabbat commenced at midnightand ended at dawn, beginning with a procession, continuing with a banquet, then a Black Mass, and culminating with an orgyin which non-marital or sexual intercourse with demons in male or female form was practised. Consumption of hallucinogens and sometimes alcoholwas often reported.
According to folklore, the Sabbat was most often celebrated in isolated places, preferably forests or mountains. Some famous places where these events were said to have been celebrated are
Briany, Carignano, Puy-de-Dôme( France), Blocksberg, Melibäus, the Black Forest, ( Germany), the Bald Mount( Poland), Vaspaku, Zabern, Kopastatö( Hungary), and more, but it was also said that Stonehenge( England) was a place for Sabbats. In the Basque country the Sabbat (there called Akelarre, or 'field of the goat') was said to be celebrated in isolated fields.
There is no agreement among authors concerning the dates on which the Sabbats were to be celebrated. Some hypothosized they would take place during the night of the Sunday before the time the Christian mass was celebrated, some authors disagreed telling that Satan was less powerful on holy days.
Some commonly mentioned dates were February 1 (to some February 2), May 1 (Great Sabbat,
Walpurgis Night), August 1 (lammas), November 1 ( Halloween, commencing on October 30's eve), Easter, and Christmas. Other less frequently mentioned dates were Good Friday, January 1 (day of Jesus' circumcision), June 23 (St. John's Day), December 21 (St. Thomas), and Corpus Christi. and others.
According to the testimonies of "benandanti" and similar European groups (see below), common dates for gatherings are during the weeks of the
Ember days, during the twelve days of Christmasor at Pentecost.
Disputed accuracy of the accounts
The descriptions of Sabbats were made or published by priests, jurists and judges who never took part in these gatherings, or were transcribed during the process of the
witchcraft trials. That these testimonies reflect actual events is for most of the accounts considered doubtful. Norman Cohn argued that they were determined largely by the expectations of the interrogators and free association on the part of the accused, and reflect only popular imagination of the times, influenced by ignorance, fear, and religious intolerance towards minority groups. [Cohn, Norman (1977) "Europe's Inner Demons"] Some of the existing accounts of the Sabbat were given when the person recounting them was being tortured. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=sgRcr0ScIO0C&pg=PA251&lpg=PA251&dq=%22from+the+confessions%22+torture+sabbath&source=web&ots=4qrR1lhZcn&sig=hQmnVG4y_DRyBtrqTPdhRBlDtUo&hl=en#PPA252,M1] and so motivated to agree with suggestions put to them.
Many of the diabolical elements of the Witches' Sabbath stereotype, such as the eating of babies, poisoning of wells or kissing the devil's anus, were also made about heretical Christian sects,
lepers, muslims and Jews (see blood libel). The term 'Sabbath' is the same as the normal English word 'Sabbath', referring to the witches' equivalent to the Christian day of rest; a more common term was "synagogue" or 'synagogue of Satan'cite book | author=Kieckhefer, Richard | title=European Witch Trials: their foundations in popular and learned culture, 13001500 | publisher=Routledge & K. Paul | year=1976] , possibly reflecting anti-Jewish sentiment, although the acts attributed to witches bear little resemblance to Christian or Jewish Sabbath customs. The "Errorez Gazariorum" ("the Errors of the Cathars") which mentions the Sabbath, while not discussing the actual behaviour of the Cathars, is named after them, in an attempt to link these stories to a heretical Christian group. [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=GzitzV4fSWgC&pg=PA233&lpg=PA233&dq=errores+gazariorum+cathars&source=web&ots=MkcqEoAwxs&sig=kpZ2TSZjUXELGn2sEI_TJxughwM&hl=en]
Christian missionaries' attitude to African cults was not much different in principle to their attitude to the Witches' Sabbath in Europe; some accounts viewed them as a kind of Witches' Sabbath, but they are not. [http://www.jstor.org/pss/2769036] Some African communities believe in witchcraft, but as in the European witch trials, people they believe to be "witches" are condemned rather than embraced.
Possible connections to real groups
Other historians, including
Carlo Ginzburg, Éva Pócs, Bengt Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen hold that these testimonies can give insights into the belief systems of the accused. Ginzburg famously discovered records of a group of individuals in northern Italy, calling themselves " benandanti", who believed that they went out of their bodies in spirit and fought amongst the clouds against evil spirits to secure prosperity for their villages, or congregated at large feasts presided over by a goddess, where she taught them magic and performed divinations.Ginzburg, Carlo. "Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath".] Similar testimonies have been discovered throughout much of Europe, from the " armiers" of the Pyrenees, from the followers of Signora Orientein 14th century Milanand the followers of Richellaand 'the wise Sibillia' in 15th centurynorthern Italy, and much further afield, from Livonian werewolves, Dalmatian "kresniki", Hungarian " táltos", Romanian " căluşari" and Ossetian " burkudzauta". The meetings described by these people seem to have mostly been out of body experiences, and it is unknown whether they ever congregated physically.
The events at a Witches' Sabbath are believed by some to derive from events in pre-Christian shamanism [http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:HGLBSt3x9J8J:www.nexialquest.com/Sources%2520of%2520the%2520Sabbath.pdf+witches+sabbath+pre-christian&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=uk&client=firefox-a] religions, which naturally were seen with alarm by the dominant Christian. This view, incidentally, has been adopted by some Neo-Pagans.
*cite book | author=Harner, Michael | title=Hallucinogens and Shamanism| year=1973 - See the chapter "The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft"
*cite book | author=Michelet, Jules | title=
Satanism and Witchcraft: The Classic Study of Medieval Superstition | year=1862 | id=ISBN 978-0806500591 The first modern attempt to outline the details of the medieval Witches' Sabbath.
*cite book |author=Summers, Montague | title=The History of Witchcraft |year=1926 Chapter IV, "The Sabbat" has detailed description of Witches Sabbath, with complete citations of sources.
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Look at other dictionaries:
witches'Sabbath — n. A meeting of witches, supposed by medieval Christians to be a demonic orgy. * * * … Universalium
witches' Sabbath — n. [sometimes w s ] a midnight meeting of witches, devil worshipers, demons, etc., esp. when held on certain festivals as a demonic orgy … English World dictionary
witches' Sabbath — Demonology. Sabbat. [1670 80] * * * ▪ rite nocturnal gathering of witches (witchcraft), a colourful and intriguing part of the lore surrounding them in Christian European tradition. The concept dates from the mid 14th century when it first… … Universalium
witches' Sabbath — noun Date: circa 1676 a midnight assembly of witches, devils, and sorcerers for the celebration of rites and orgies … New Collegiate Dictionary
witches' Sabbath — noun A supposed meeting of witches at midnight to practice sorcery or to take part in a demonic orgy. Syn: sabbat … Wiktionary
witches sabbath — n. midnight meeting of witches and sorcerers held for worshipping the devils or for other rites (medieval Christians believed it to be a demonic orgy) … English contemporary dictionary
witches' Sabbath — witch′es Sab′bath (or sab′bath) n. myt (in European folklore) a secret rendezvous of witches and sorcerers, characterized by orgiastic rites, dances, feasting, etc • Etymology: 1670–80 … From formal English to slang
witches' Sabbath — noun a midnight meeting of witches to practice witchcraft and sorcery; in the Middle Ages it was supposed to be a demonic orgy • Syn: ↑sabbat • Hypernyms: ↑assembly … Useful english dictionary
witches' sabbath — noun see sabbath (sense 2) … English new terms dictionary
sabbath — ► NOUN 1) (often the Sabbath) a day of religious observance and abstinence from work, kept by Jews from Friday evening to Saturday evening, and by most Christians on Sunday. 2) (also witches sabbath) a midnight pagan ritual held by witches.… … English terms dictionary