- Dog meat
Dog meat Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 1,096 kJ (262 kcal) Carbohydrates 0.1 g - Dietary fiber 0 g Fat 20.2 g Protein 19 g Water 60.1 g Vitamin A equiv. 3.6 μg (0%) Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.12 mg (10%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.18 mg (15%) Niacin (vit. B3) 1.9 mg (13%) Vitamin C 3 mg (4%) Calcium 8 mg (1%) Iron 2.8 mg (22%) Phosphorus 168 mg (24%) Potassium 270 mg (6%) Sodium 72 mg (5%) Ash 0.8 g Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: Yong-Geun Ann (1999)
Dog meat refers to edible parts and the flesh derived from (predominantly domestic) dogs. Human consumption of dog meat has been recorded in many parts of the world, including ancient China, ancient Mexico, and ancient Rome. According to contemporary reports, dog meat is consumed in a variety of countries such as Switzerland, China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Korea. In addition, dog meat has also been used as survival food in times of war and/or other hardships. The Donner Party, stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during the height of the Mexican-American War, is a noted example of having eaten a pet dog for survival purposes, though it became more known over the years due to cannibalism.
In contemporary times, some cultures view the consumption of dog meat to be a part of their traditional cuisine, while others consider consumption of dog to be inappropriate and offensive. In response to criticisms, proponents of dog meat have argued that distinctions between livestock and pets is subjective, and that there is no difference with eating the meat of different animals, while countering that those critical of dog meat consumption are guilty of cultural supremacy, if not racism. Eating dog is forbidden under Jewish and Islamic dietary laws.
Arctic and Antarctic
Dogs have historically been emergency food sources for various peoples in Siberia, northern Canada, and Greenland. Sled dogs are usually maintained for pulling sleds, but occasionally are eaten when no other food is available.
British explorer Ernest Shackleton and his Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition became trapped, and ultimately killed their sled dogs for food. Norwegian explorer Roald Amundsen was known to have eaten sled dogs during his expedition to the South Pole. By eating some of the sled dogs, he required less human or dog food, thus lightening his load. When comparing sled dogs to ponies as draught animals he also notes:
"...there is the obvious advantage that dog can be fed on dog. One can reduce one's pack little by little, slaughtering the feebler ones and feeding the chosen with them. In this way they get fresh meat. Our dogs lived on dog's flesh and pemmican the whole way, and this enabled them to do splendid work. And if we ourselves wanted a piece of fresh meat we could cut off a delicate little fillet; it tasted to us as good as the best beef. The dogs do not object at all; as long as they get their share they do not mind what part of their comrade's carcass it comes from. All that was left after one of these canine meals was the teeth of the victim - and if it had been a really hard day, these also disappeared."
Douglas Mawson and Xavier Mertz were part of the Far Eastern Party, a three-man sledging team with Lieutenant B. E. S. Ninnis, to survey King George V Land, Antarctica. On 14 December 1912 Ninnis fell through a snow-covered crevasse along with most of the party's rations, and was never seen again. Mawson and Mertz turned back immediately. They had one and a half weeks' food for themselves and nothing at all for the dogs. Their meagre provisions forced them to eat their remaining sled dogs on their 315 mile return journey. Their meat was tough, stringy and without a vestige of fat. Each animal yielded very little, and the major part was fed to the surviving dogs, which ate the meat, skin and bones until nothing remained. The men also ate the dog's brains and livers. Unfortunately eating the liver of sled dogs produces the condition hypervitaminosis A because canines have a much higher tolerance for vitamin A than humans do. Mertz suffered a quick deterioration. He developed stomach pains and became incapacitated and incoherent. On 7 January 1913, Mertz died. Mawson continued alone, eventually making it back to camp alive.
Under Canada's Wildlife Act, it is illegal to sell meat from any wild species, but there is no law against selling and serving canine meat, including dogs, if it is killed and gutted in front of federal inspectors.
In 2003, health inspectors discovered four frozen canine carcasses in the freezer of a Chinese restaurant in Edmonton which, in the end, were found to be coyotes. The Edmonton health inspector said that it is not illegal to sell and eat the meat of dogs and other canines, as long as the meat has been inspected.
Dogminegasim meat Chinese 狗肉 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin gǒu ròu Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping gau2 juk6 Mutton of the earth Chinese 地羊 Literal meaning earth lamb Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin dì yáng Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping dei6 joeng4 Fragrant meat Chinese 香肉 Transcriptions Mandarin - Hanyu Pinyin xiāngròu Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping hoeng1 juk6 3-6 fragrant meat Chinese 三六香肉 Transcriptions Cantonese (Yue) - Jyutping saam1 luk6 hoeng1 juk6 - Yale Romanization sàam luhk hèung yuhk
Dog meat (Chinese: 狗肉; pinyin: gǒu ròu) has been a source of food in some areas of China from around 500 BC, and possibly even earlier. Mencius, the philosopher, recommended dog meat because of its pharmaceutical properties. Ancient writings from the Zhou Dynasty referred to the "three beasts"[cite this quote] (which were bred for food), comprising pig, goat, and dog. Dog meat is sometimes euphemistically called "fragrant meat" (香肉 xiāng ròu) or "mutton of the earth" (地羊 dì yáng) in Mandarin Chinese and "3-6 fragrant meat" (Chinese: 三六香肉; Cantonese Yale: sàam luhk hèung yuhk) in Cantonese (3 plus 6 is 9 and the words "nine" and "dog" are homophones, both pronounced gáu in Cantonese. In Mandarin, "nine" and "dog" are pronounced differently).
The eating of dog meat in China dates back thousands of years and it remains socially acceptable. It is thought to have medicinal properties, and is especially popular in winter months, as it is believed to generate heat and promote bodily warmth. The meat is popular in Guangdong and Guangxi from whence it went on the menu for Chinese astronauts to consume in outer space. When food is scarce, dogs are eaten as an emergency food source.
Some controversy has emerged about the treatment of dogs in China, not because of the consumption itself, but because of other factors like cruelty involved with the killing, including allegations the animals are sometimes skinned while still alive.
A growing movement against consumption of cat and dog meat has gained attention from people in mainland China. Those changes began about two years after the formation of the Chinese Companion Animal Protection Network (CCAPN), a networking project of the Chinese Animal Protection Network. Expanded to more than 40 member societies, CCAPN in January 2006 began organizing well-publicized protests against dog and cat eating, starting in Guangzhou, and following up in more than ten other cities "with very optimal response from public." Before the 2008 Beijing Olympics, Chinese officials in Beijing ordered dog meat to be taken off of the menu at its 112 official Olympic restaurants in order to not offend visitors from various nations who would be appalled by the offering of dog meat at Beijing eateries.
Since January 2007, more than ten Chinese groups have joined an online signing event against the consumption of cat and dog meat. The signatures indicate the participants will avoid eating cat and dog meat in the future. This online signing event received more than 42,000 signatures from public, and has been circulated around the country.
Some Chinese restaurants in the United States serve "imitation dog meat", which is usually pulled pork, and purportedly flavored like dog meat, e.g. "Northern Chinese Restaurant", in Rosemead, California.
In China, draft legislation has been proposed at the start of 2010, which aims to prohibit the consumption of dog meat. The legislation, however, is not expected to be effective, despite officially outlawing the eating of dog meat if it is passed. On 26 January 2010, the first draft proposal of the legislation was introduced, with the main reason for the law reportedly to protect the country's animals from maltreatment, and includes a measure to jail people who eat dog for up to 15 days. However food festivals continue to promote the meat. For example the 4th annual Yulin, Shaanxi food fair that took place on May 29, 2011 spanning 10 days consumed 15,000 dogs.
In Hong Kong, the Dogs and Cats Ordinance was introduced by the Hong Kong Government on 6 January 1950, it prohibits the slaughter of any dog or cat for use as food, whether for mankind or otherwise, on pain of fine and imprisonment. Four local men were sentenced to 30 days imprisonment in December 2006 for having slaughtered two dogs. In an earlier case, in February 1998, a Hongkonger was sentenced to one month imprisonment and a fine of two thousand HK dollars for hunting street dogs for food.
In Taiwan, dog meat is known by the euphemism "fragrant meat" (Chinese: 香肉; pinyin: xiāngròu). The eating of dog was previously more common and, as of 2007[update], was still practiced on some areas of the island. Dog meat is believed to have health benefits, including improving circulation and raising body temperature.
In 2001, the Taiwanese government imposed a ban on the sale of dog meat, due to both pressure from domestic animal welfare groups and a desire to improve international perceptions, although there were some protests. In 2007, another law was passed, significantly increasing the fines to sellers of dog meat. However, animal rights campaigners have accused the Taiwanese government of not prosecuting those who continue to slaughter and serve dog meat at restaurants. Although the slaughter and consumption of dog meat is illegal in Taiwan, there are reports that suggest the practice continues as of 2011[update].
Dog meat is a delicacy popular in East Timor.
Although consumption of dog meat is not common in France, and is now considered taboo, dog meat has been consumed in the past. The earliest evidence of dog consumption in France was found at Gaulish archaeological sites, where butchered dog bones were discovered. Similar findings, corresponding to that time or earlier periods, have also been recorded through Europe. French news sources from the late 19th century carried stories reporting lines of people buying dog meat, which was described as being "beautiful and light." During the siege of Paris in 1870, there were lines at butcher's shops of people waiting to purchase dog meat. Dog meat was also reported as being sold by some butchers in Paris, 1910.
Dog meat has been eaten in every major German crisis at least since the time of Frederick the Great, and is commonly referred to as "blockade mutton". In the early 20th century, consumption of dog meat in Germany was common. The high price of other meat forced Germans to eat horse and dog meat.
The consumption of dog meat continued in the 1920s. In 1937, a meat inspection law targeted against trichinella was introduced for pigs, dogs, boars, foxes, badgers, and other carnivores. Dog meat has been prohibited in Germany since 1986
In the latter part of World War I, dog meat was being eaten in Saxony by the poorer classes because of famine conditions. Consumption of dog meat has increased greatly and the price has gone up.
Sausages made of dog meat was commonly consumed in Netherland in 1940s.
The term "dog" has been used as a synonym for sausage since 1884 and accusations that sausage makers used dog meat date to at least 1845. Immigrants who were from Germany where consumption of dog meat was common  brought their food "Frankfurter" to America, and it was called hot dog because it was widely believed that it was made of dog meat. The belief that sausages contained dog meat was occasionally justified.
The traditional culture surrounding the consumption of dog meat varied from tribe to tribe among the original inhabitants of North America, with some tribes relishing it as a delicacy, and others (such as the Comanche) treating it as an abhorrent practice. Native peoples of the Great Plains, such as the Sioux and Cheyenne, consumed it, but there was a concurrent religious taboo against the meat of wild canines.
During their 1803–1806 expedition, Meriwether Lewis and the other members of the Corps of Discovery consumed dog meat, either from their own animals or supplied by Native American tribes, including the Paiutes and Wah-clel-lah Indians, a branch of the Watlalas, the Clatsop, the Teton Sioux (Lakota), the Nez Perce Indians, and the Hidatsas. Lewis and the members of the expedition ate dog meat, except William Clark, who reportedly could not bring himself to eat dogs. The usual preparation method was boiling.
The Kickapoo people includes puppy meat in many of their traditional festivals This practice has been well documented in the Works Progress Administration "Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma".
Meat shops sold dog meat in Belgium in early 20th century. The average price was 12 francs a kilo ($1.30 pound) in 1916. The Council. of the Veterinary School of Belgium recommended dog meat for human food 
Dog meat is haram for Muslims and as such, it is not consumed by most of Indonesia's predominantly Muslim population. However, dog meat is eaten by several of Indonesia's non-Muslim minorities.
In Indonesia, the consumption of dog meat is usually associated with the Minahasa, a Christian ethnic group in northern Sulawesi, and Bataks of northern Sumatra, who consider dog meat to be a festive dish and usually reserve it for special occasions like weddings and Christmas. Popular Indonesian dog-meat dishes are rica-rica, called variably as "RW" or rintek wuuk, rica-rica waung, guk-guk, and "B1". Locally on Java, there are several names for dishes made from dog meat, such as sengsu (tongseng asu), sate jamu, and kambing balap.
Dog meat was consumed in Japan along with cattle, horse, monkey, and chicken meat until 675 A.D., when Emperor Temmu decreed a prohibition on its consumption during the 4th-9th months of the year. According to Meisan Shojiki Ōrai (名産諸色往来) published in 1760, the meat of wild dog was sold along with boar, deer, fox, wolf, bear, raccoon dog, otter, weasel and cat in some regions of Edo. In 2008, Japan imported 5 tons of dog meat from China compared to 4,717 tons of beef, 14,340 tons of pork and 115,882 tons of poultry.
Gaegogi (개고기) literally means "dog meat" in Korean. The term itself, however, is often mistaken as the term for Korean soup made from dog meat, which is actually called bosintang (보신탕; 補身湯, Body nourishing soup).
The consumption of dog meat can be traced back to antiquity. Dog bones[further explanation needed] were excavated in a neolithic settlement in Changnyeong, South Gyeongsang Province. A wall painting in the Goguryeo Tombs complex in South Hwangghae Province, a World Heritage site which dates from the 4th century AD, depicts a slaughtered dog in a storehouse. The Balhae people also enjoyed dog meat, and the Koreans' appetite for canine cuisine seems to have come from that era.
The Korea Food & Drug Administration recognizes any edible product other than drugs as food. In the capital city of Seoul, the sale of dog meat was outlawed by regulation on February 21, 1984 by classifying dog meat as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품), but the regulation was not rigorously enforced except during the 1988 Seoul Olympics. In 2001, the Mayor of Seoul announced there would be no extra enforcement efforts to control the sale of dog meat during the 2002 FIFA World Cup, which was partially hosted in Seoul. In March 2008, the Seoul city government announced its plan to put forward a policy suggestion to the central government to legally classify slaughter dogs as livestock, reigniting debate on the issue.
South Korean Food Sanitary Law (식품위생법) does not include dog meat as a legal food ingredient. Also, dog meat has been categorized as 'repugnant food' (혐오식품) based on a regulation issued by Seoul Metropolitan Government, of which using as food ingredient is not permitted.[dead link]
However, the laws are not strictly enforced. The primary dog breed raised for meat, the Nureongi (누렁이), or Hwangu (황구); which is a specific breed, different from the breeds raised for pets in Korea.
There is a large and vocal group of Koreans who are against the practice of eating dogs. There is also a large population of people in Korea that do not eat or enjoy the meat, but do feel strongly that it is the right of others to do so. There is a smaller but still vocal group of pro-dog cuisine people in South Korea who want to popularize the consumption of dog in Korea and the rest of the world. A group of pro-dog meat individuals attempted to promote and publicize the consumption of dog meat worldwide during the run-up to the 2002 Fifa World Cup, co-hosted by Japan and South Korea, which prompted retaliation from animal rights campaigners and prominent figures such as Brigette Bardot to denounce the practice. Opponents of dog meat consumption in South Korea are critical of practices that are claimed to improve the flavour of dog meat in Korean tradition, such as beating and hanging.
The restaurants that sell dog meat do so, often exclusively, at the risk losing their restaurant licenses. A case of a dog meat wholesaler brought up on charges of selling dog meat in arose in 1997. However, an appeals court acquitted the dog meat wholesaler, ruling that dogs were socially accepted as food. According to the National Assembly of South Korea, more than 20,000 restaurants, including the 6484 registered restaurants, served soups made from dog meat in Korea in 1998. In 1999 the BBC reported that eighty-five hundred tons of dog meat were consumed annually, with another 93,600 tons used to produce a medicinal tonic called gaesoju (개소주). As of 2007[update], the dogs were no longer being beaten to death as they had been in past times.
Dog meat is often consumed during the summer months and is either roasted or prepared in soups or stews. The most popular of these soups is bosintang and gaejang-guk, a spicy stew meant to balance the body's heat during the summer months. This is thought to ensure good health by balancing one's "ki" or vital energy of the body. A 19th century version of gaejang-guk explains the preparation of the dish by boiling dog meat with vegetables such as green onions and chili pepper powder. Variations of the dish contain chicken and bamboo shoots.
In North Korea (officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea), in early 2010, the government included dog meat in its new list of one hundred fixed prices, setting a fixed price of 500 won per kilogram.
In the time of the Aztecs, Mexican Hairless Dogs were bred, among other purposes, for their meat. Hernán Cortés reported when he arrived in Tenochtitlan in 1519, "small gelded dogs which they breed for eating" were among the goods sold in the city markets. These dogs, Xoloitzcuintles, were often depicted in pre-Columbian Mexican pottery. The breed was almost extinct in the 1940s, but the British Military Attaché in Mexico City, Norman Wright, developed a thriving breed from some of the dogs he found in remote villages.
Consumption of dog meat is taboo in Mexican culture. However, in May 2008, a man named Rubén Cuellar of Veracruz-Boca del Rio was accused of engaging in the slaughter of dogs and selling the meat to local taco restaurants to unsuspecting customers. He was detained by police pending investigation.
In the capital city of Manila, Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05 specifically prohibits the killing and selling of dogs for food. More generally, the Philippine Animal Welfare Act 1998 prohibits the killing of any animal other than cattle, pigs, goats, sheep, poultry, rabbits, carabaos, horses, deer and crocodiles, with exemptions for religious, cultural, research, public safety or animal health reasons. Nevertheless, as is reported from time to time in Philippine newspapers, the eating of dog meat is not uncommon in the Philippines.
Asocena is a dish primarily consisting of dog meat originating from the Philippines.
While the meat is not eaten, in some rural areas of Poland, dog fat can be made into lard, which by tradition is believed to have medicinal properties - being good for the lungs, for instance. In 2009, a scandal erupted when a farm near Częstochowa was discovered rearing dogs to be rendered down into lard.
Dogs were historically eaten in Tahiti and other islands of Polynesia, including Hawaii at the time of first European contact. James Cook, when first visiting Tahiti in 1769, recorded in his journal, "few were there of us but what allow'd that a South Sea Dog was next to an English Lamb, one thing in their favour is that they live entirely upon Vegetables". Calwin Schwabe reported in 1979 that dog was widely eaten in Hawaii and considered to be of higher quality than pork or chicken. When Hawaiians first encountered early British and American explorers and exploiters, they were at a loss to explain the visitors' attitudes about dog meat. The Hawaiians raised both dogs and pigs as pets and for food. They could not understand why their British and American visitors only found the pig suitable for consumption. This practice seems to have died out, along with the native Hawaiian breed of dog, the unique Hawaiian Poi Dog, which was primarily used for this purpose. The consumption of domestic dog meat is still commonplace in the Kingdom of Tonga, and has also been noted in expatriate Tongan communities in New Zealand, Australia, and the United States.
Popular Swiss recipes for dog meat include gedörrtes Hundefleisch served as paper-thin slices, as well as smoked dog ham, Hundeschinken, which is prepared by salting and drying raw dog meat.
According to the 21 November 1996 edition of the Rheintaler Bote, a Swiss newspaper covering the Rhine Valley area, the rural Swiss cantons of Appenzell and St. Gallen are known to have had a tradition of eating dogs, curing dog meat into jerky and sausages, as well as using the lard for medicinal purposes. Dog sausage and smoked dog jerky remains a staple in the Swiss cantons of St. Gallen and Appenzell, where one farmer was quoted in a regional weekly newspaper as saying that "meat from dogs is the healthiest of all. It has shorter fibres than cow meat, has no hormones like veal, no antibiotics like pork."
A few years earlier, a news report on RTL Television on the two cantons set off a wave of protests from European animal rights activists and other concerned citizens. A 7,000-name petition was filed to the commissions of the cantons, who rejected it, saying it was not the state's right to monitor the eating habits of its citizens.
The production of food from dog meat for commercial purposes, however, is illegal in Switzerland.
Dog meat is consumed mostly in Northern part of Vietnam and can be found in special restaurants which specifically serve this type of meat. Dog meat is believed to bring good fortune in Vietnam. In Vietnam, dog meat is seen as being comparable in consumption to chicken or pork. In any urban areas, there are always sections which house a lot of dog-meat restaurants. For example, on Nhat Tan Street, Tây Hồ District, Hanoi, many restaurants serve dog meat. Groups of customers, usually male, seated on mats, will spend their evenings sharing plates of dog meat and drinking alcohol since dog meat is believed to raise the libido in men. The consumption of dog meat can be part of a ritual usually occurring toward the end of the lunar month for reasons of astrology and luck. Restaurants which mainly exist to serve dog meat may only open for the last half of the lunar month. The Associated Press reported in October 2009 that a soaring economy has led to the booming of dog restaurants in Hanoi, and that this has led to a proliferation of dognappers. Reportedly, a 20 kilograms (44 lb) dog can sell for more than $100—roughly the monthly salary of an average Vietnamese worker.
In addition to the potentially fatal dangers of vitamin poisoning from consuming dog meat, such as under the circumstances suffered by Xavier Mertz of the Australasian Antarctic Expedition after consuming the overly rich in Vitamin A liver of his sled dogs, the transmission of rabies to humans from dog meat consumption have been reported in two cases in China, one in Vietnam, and two deaths reported in the Philippines.
- ^ Ann Yong-Geun "Dog Meat Foods in Korea", Table 4. Composition of dog meat and Bosintang (in 100g, raw meat), Korean Journal of Food and Nutrition 12(4) 397 - 408 (1999).
- ^ a b Schwabe, Calvin W. (1979). Unmentionable cuisine. University of Virginia Press. p. 168. ISBN 9780813911625. http://books.google.com/books?id=SiBntk9jGmoC.
- ^ Op. cit. Simoons 1994, pp. 239–240
- ^ a b Rupert Wingfield-Hayes (29 June 2002). "China's taste for the exotic". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/2074073.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- ^ "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 31 December 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1735647.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- ^ a b Desiree Caluza (2006-01-17). "Dog meat eating doesn’t hound Cordillera natives". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on 2006-02-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20060219003946/http://news.inq7.net/regions/index.php?index=2&story_id=63272&col=36. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- ^ a b Anthony L. Podberscek (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea". Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. http://www.animalsandsociety.org/assets/265_podberscek.pdf#page=8&search=nationwide. "Dog meat is eaten nationwide and all year round, although it is most commonly eaten during summer, especially on the (supposedly) three hottest days."
- ^ a b Dachshunds Are Tenderer. Time Magazine. November 25, 1940. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,884181,00.html. Retrieved 2008-01-20
- ^ a b Douglas Mawson. "The Home of the Blizzard". http://www.gutenberg.org/files/6137/6137-h/6137-h.htm#2HCH0013.
- ^ Donner Party Ate Family Dog, Maybe Not People : Discovery News
- ^ William Saletan (January 16, 2002). "Wok The Dog -- What's wrong with eating man's best friend?". slate.com. http://www.slate.com/id/2060840/. Retrieved 2007-07-23.
- ^ Ahmed Zihni (2004). "Dog Meat Dilemma". sunysb.edu. Archived from the original on 2007-08-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20070811115017/http://www.sunysb.edu/writrhet/philosophy/handbook/essaycontest/2004essaywinners/2004+Ahmet+Zihni.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ John Feffer (June 2, 2002). "The Politics of Dog - When globalization and culinary practice clash". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20060427201343/http://www.prospect.org/print/V13/10/feffer-j.html. Retrieved 2007-05-11.
- ^ "Translation of Sahih Muslim, Book 21: The Book of Games and the Animals which May be Slaughtered and the Animals that Are to be Eaten.". USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamentals/hadithsunnah/muslim/021.smt.html#021.4752. Retrieved 2007-05-27. Chapter 3: It is unlawful to eat fanged beasts of prey and birds with talons
- ^ Roald Amundsen. "The South Pole". http://www.gutenberg.org/dirs/etext03/tsp1210h.htm#intro.
- ^ "Canine carcasses at Edmonton restaurant were coyotes". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 11, 2003. http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2003/11/11/coyote_meat031111.html. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- ^ "Ready-to-cook canines at Edmonton restaurant". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 5, 2003. http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2003/11/05/dog_restaurant2031105.html. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- ^ "Dog meat legal, health inspector says". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 7, 2003. http://www.cbc.ca/news/story/2003/11/07/dog_meat031107.html. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
- ^ Asme; Shiqiu Liang, Dazun Chen (2005). Ya she xiao pin xuan ji. Chinese University Press. p. 244. ISBN 9789629962197. http://books.google.com/?id=UMZdQT_FyHAC&pg=PA244 Contributions by Nicholas Lemann, Translated by Ta-tsun Chen.
- ^ Simoons, Frederick J. (1991). Food in China: a cultural and historical inquiry. CRC Press. pp. 24, 38, 149, 305, 309–315, 317, 332. ISBN 9780849388040. http://books.google.com/?id=Fo087ZxohA4C
- ^ Jeffries, Stuart (2004-12-29). "Fang shui". Sydney Morning Herald. http://www.smh.com.au/news/Good-Living/Fang-shui/2004/12/28/1103996536603.html. Retrieved 2006-09-04.
- ^ "Dog meat row hits HK chain". BBC News. 4 August 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2172072.stm.
- ^ a b c Li Xianzhi, 2010-01-27, Eating cats, dogs could be outlawed, Xinhua News Agency
- ^ "Chinese Astronauts Ate Dog Meat In Space". Huffington Post. 2010-05-13. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/13/chinese-astronauts-ate-do_n_574735.html. Retrieved 2010-08-01.
- ^ Wakabayashi, Bob Tadashi (2007). The Nanking atrocity, 1937-38: complicating the picture (illustrated ed.). Berghahn Books. p. 2007. ISBN 9781845451806. http://books.google.com/?id=N-vXRgEAPU0C
- ^ "Salon Editorial: An Olympic Disgrace". http://www.salon.com/opinion/feature/2008/03/24/animal_cruelty_china/.
- ^ "Guangzhou bans eating snakes--ban helps cats". http://www.animalpeoplenews.org/07/11/guangzhoubanseatingsnakes11_07.html. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- ^ China bans dog from Olympic menu, BBC News, 11 July 2008.
- ^ "Say no to cat dog meat". http://hk.myblog.yahoo.com/pet-lover/article?mid=4575%20. Retrieved 2008-02-16.
- ^ Trung Quốc sắp sửa cấm ăn thịt chó, mèo (Vietnamese)
- ^ "China to jail people for up to 15 days who eat dog". China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-01/26/content_9379689.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-26.
- ^ "陝西榆林10天美食節 1萬5千隻狗慘遭下肚 | 大陸新聞 | NOWnews 今日新聞網". Nownews.com. http://www.nownews.com/2011/06/29/162-2723748.htm. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- ^ "Tasteless? Food festival in Yulin, China celebrates canine culinary culture - with 15,000 dogs on the menu | Mail Online". Dailymail.co.uk. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2008751/Tasteless-Food-festival-Yulin-China-celebrates-canine-culinary-culture--15-000-dogs-menu.html. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- ^ "Dogs and cats ordinance". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1950-01-06. http://www.legislation.gov.hk/blis_ind.nsf/CurEngOrd/A1D0F30B6DF3561C88256489000BA485?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2009-11-19.
- ^ "Slaughter of dog or cat for food prohibited". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. http://www.legislation.gov.hk/blis_ind.nsf/e1bf50c09a33d3dc482564840019d2f4/44771ba5f3213c8e88256489000ba799?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- ^ "Slaughter of dog or cat for food - Penalty". Department of Justice (Hong Kong). 1997-06-30. http://www.legislation.gov.hk/blis_ind.nsf/e1bf50c09a33d3dc482564840019d2f4/4047f3da4a9d11a588256489000ba79a?OpenDocument. Retrieved 2006-12-01.
- ^ Cheng, Jonathan (2006-12-23). "Dog-for-food butchers jailed (DUBIOUS first case)". The Standard - China's Business Newspaper. http://www.thestandard.com.hk/news_print.asp?art_id=34791&sid=11480561. Retrieved 2007-01-10.
- ^ "First Case Imprisonment in HK for Dog Meal". 2006-05-29. http://ks.cn.yahoo.com/question/?qid=1306052905861. Retrieved 2006-12-23.
- ^ a b "Taiwan law takes bite out of dog meat sales". 17 December 2007. http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/2007/12/17/135250/Taiwan-law.htm. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- ^ "Taiwan bans dog meat". BBC News. 2 January 2001. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/1097823.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-15.
- ^ "Activists expose dog meat trade". Taipei Times. 2011-06-23. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2011/01/22/2003494141. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- ^ "Democratic Republic of East Timor". worldconflictstoday.com. p. 3. http://www.worldconflictstoday.com/axiom_content/cg_pdfs/world/EastTimor.pdf.
- ^ Mallher, X.; B. Denis (1989). Le Chien, animal de boucherie. pp. 81–84.
- ^ Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie, Artulen, Paris.
- ^ Romi (1993). Histoire des festins insolites et de la goinfrerie.
- ^ Boitani, Luige; Monique Bourdin (1997). L'ABCdaire du chien.
- ^ a b (PDF) Germany's dog meat market; Consumption of Canines and Horses Is on the Increase.. The New York Times. June 23, 1907. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9B04E4D9133EE033A25750C2A9609C946697D6CF&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2008-01-20 , Bureau Of Manufactures, United States; Bureau Of Foreign Commerce (1854-1903), United States; Bureau Of Statistics, United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor (1900). Monthly consular and trade reports, Volume 64, Issues 240-243.. United States. Bureau of Manufactures, Bureau of Foreign Commerce, Dept. of Commerce. http://books.google.com/?id=3mZJAAAAMAAJ&pg=PP5&q=. Retrieved 2009-09-29
- ^ "Use Horse and Dog Meat - Germans forced to that diet by high price of other meat", The New York Times, 1900, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9B05EEDE1039E733A25752C1A9619C946197D6CF
- ^ "...the German breeders... heightened the price to such an extent that horse, and even dog's meat, has become staple with the poorer classes in certain districts, and notably in the large cities.", in "American Food In Germany", The New York Times, 1898, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A01E4DF1E39E433A25757C0A9649D94699ED7CF
- ^ "DOGS AS MEAT IN MUNICH.; Butcher's Shop Hangs Sign Offering Either to Buy or Sell.", The New York Times, 1923, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F70917FA3F5D15738DDDAE0894DA415B838EF1D3&scp=5&sq=germans+dog+meat&st=p
- ^ "GERMANS STILL EAT DOGS.; Berlin Police Chief Issues Rules for Inspection of the Meat.", The New York Times, 1925, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30616FD3E551B7A93C0A8178DD85F418285F9&scp=3&sq=germans+dog+meat&st=p
- ^ Fleischbeschaugesetz (Meat Inspection Law), § 1a, RGBl. (Reich Law Gazette) 1937 I p. 458, then becoming § 1 para. 3, RGBl. 1940 I p. 1463 (in German)
- ^ Fleischhygienegesetz (Law on Meat Hygiene), § 1 para. 1 sent. 4, BGBl. (Federal Law Gazette) 1986 I p. 398 (in German).
- ^ "FEAR OF FAMINE APPALS AUSTRIA; Charges of Cannibalism by Vienna Workmen Are Officially Hushed Up. PEOPLE JEER AT THE WAR. German Promises of Victory Flouted--Soldiers Beg for Bread and Long for Peace. Quaratine Against Bolshevism. Real Famine in the Country. Saxons Eat Camels and Dogs", New York Times, May 22, 1918
- ^ "NETHERLANDERS SEEK SUNDAY MEAT IN VAIN; Food Situation Becomes Acute as Nazis Seize Dog Sausage", The New York Times, 1940, http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F60A1FF8355A167A93CAA91789D95F448485F9&scp=2&sq=dog+meat&st=p
- ^ *Wilton, David (2004), Word Myths: Debunking Linguistic Urban Legends, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195172841
- ^ "Hot Dog", Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?allowed_in_frame=0&search=hot+dog&searchmode=none
- ^ "A new cure for consumption is being tried in Shelbyville, Ind. It is an exclusive diet of dog meat.", in "A Florence Bank in Trouble", Telegraphic Brevities, The New York Times, 1891, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=950DEED7123AE533A25754C0A9679D94609ED7CF
- ^ "PATRONS OF DOG MEAT", The New York Times, 1885, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9905E5DC123FE533A25751C1A9649D94649FD7CF
- ^ "A Family Living On Dog Meat", March 12, 1876, The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9A07EFD9143AE63BBC4A52DFB566838D669FDE
- ^ "Miners eat horses and dogs", The New York Times, 1904, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9902E3DA113CE433A25754C2A9639C946597D6CF
- ^ "He then demanded 5 cents worth of dog meat... Canter protested that he did not have even a bone that could be used for soup in the shop", in "Customer Shoots Butcher.", The new York Times, March 6, 1902, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9905E5DF1230E733A25755C0A9659C946397D6CF
- ^ Native Radio
- ^ Native American Diet
- ^ Back Through the Gorge, 1806
- ^ Ecola
- ^ Change of Heart
- ^ Lemhi Pass to Fort Clatsop
- ^ September 17, "Sinque Hole Camp"
- ^ Sex, Dog Meat, and the Lash: Odd Facts About Lewis and Clark
- ^ The Mexican Kickapoo Indians Felipe A. Latorre and Dolores L. Latorre (1976).
- ^ WPA Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Ed Cooley (July 29, 1937)
- ^ WPA Indian Pioneer History Project for Oklahoma Albert Couch (October 12, 1937)
- ^ "We found the meat shops all closed, ... with three exceptions, namely; shops that have recently and openly sold dog meat.... The average price were 12 francs a kilo, bones and all, (about $1.30 a pound) and some meat that had been obtained by special exertions for the soup kitchens.", in "Meat Shops Closed As Belgians Go Hungry", The New York Times, July 23, 1916, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9804E2D8153BE233A25750C2A9619C946796D6CF
- ^ "The Council. of the Veterinary School of Belgium even recommended dog meat for human food after being properly inspected.", in "Eating The Old Mare", The New York Times, October, 8, 1888, http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=9507E3D71F38E033A2575BC0A9669D94699FD7CF
- ^ a b Simoons, Frederick J. (1994). Eat not this flesh: food avoidances from prehistory to the present (2 ed.). Univ of Wisconsin Press. p. 229. ISBN 9780299142544. http://books.google.com/?id=JwGZTQunH00C
- ^ "Minahasa" (PDF). http://www.jai.or.id/jurnal/2004/sv/06gw_sv04.pdf. Retrieved 2006-12-20.
- ^ Nihon Shoki Chapter 29 -- Kanbun: 亦四月朔以後。九月三十日以前。莫置比満沙伎理梁。且莫食牛・馬・犬・猿・鶏之完。以外不在禁例。 English: Also, from the first day of the first[sic. it should read fourth] month until the 30th day of the ninth month, it is prohibited to use hinasakiri or fish traps. Also, cow, horse, dog, monkey, and chicken meat is not to be eaten. Meats outside of these are not prohibited.
- ^ Hanley, Susan B. (1999). Everyday things in premodern Japan: the hidden legacy of material culture. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 0520218124. http://books.google.com/?id=f7E5a9CIploC&pg=PA66&dq=dog#v=onepage&q=dog.
- ^ (Japanese) 平成20年動物検疫年報仕出地域別輸入検疫状況, Quarantine Statics, The Animal Quarantine Service, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan).
- ^ A Study of the favorite Foods of the Balhae People Yang Ouk-da
- ^ op.cit. Kim 2008, p. 209
- ^ Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law Review 14 (2): 231. http://184.108.40.206/journals/jo_pdf/lralvol14_2_201.pdf#page=31.
- ^ "Dog Meat to Be Subject to Livestock Rules". The Chosun Ilbo. Mar. 24, 2008. http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2008/03/24/2008032461015.html.
- ^ "[Half of Korea "Dog Meat Should be Controlled as Livestock Product]" (in Korean). The Chosun Ilbo. Mar. 28, 2008. http://news.khan.co.kr/kh_news/khan_art_view.html?artid=200803281211152&code=940100. (Translation)
- ^ Hankyore (Korean)
- ^ Podberscek, Anthony L. (2009). "Good to Pet and Eat: The Keeping and Consuming of Dogs and Cats in South Korea". Journal of Social Issues 65 (3): 615–632. doi:10.1111/j.1540-4560.2009.01616.x. http://www.animalsandsociety.org/assets/265_podberscek.pdf.
- ^ Dog Meat Foods in Korea, Ann, Yong-Geun, Korean Medical Database
- ^ a b c Do Koreans Really Eat Dog? about.com
- ^ "South Korea promotes dog meat". BBC News. 2002-01-13. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1758765.stm.
- ^ Hopkins, Jerry; Bourdain, Anthony; Freeman, Michael (2004). Extreme Cuisine: The Weird & Wonderful Foods That People Eat. Tuttle Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 079460255X. http://books.google.com/?id=DJDKaxEEfYgC&pg=PA23&dq=appeals+court#v=onepage&q=appeals%20court.
- ^ "[Bosintang Controversy: What is the Solution?]" (in Korean). National Assembly Tele Vision. Aug. 9, 2006. http://www.assembly.go.kr/brd/news/news_vw.jsp?newsId=3727. (Translation)
- ^ Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law Review 14 (2): 202. http://220.127.116.11/journals/jo_pdf/lralvol14_2_201.pdf#page=2.
- ^ a b South Korea's dog day, BBC News, 17 August 1999.
- ^ Young Koreans turn their noses up at dog dinners by Daniel Jeffreys in Seoul, 3 August 2007, independent.co.uk
- ^ Pettid, Michael J., Korean Cuisine: An Illustrated History, London: Reaktion Books Ltd., 2008, 84-85.
- ^ Dailynk.com
- ^ About THE XOLOITZCUINTLE, Xolo Rescue USA.
- ^ Cortés, Hernan; trans. Anthony Pagden (1986). Letters from Mexico. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03799-6.
- ^ Inc, Time (January 28, 1957). "Hairless Dogs Revived". Life Magazine: 93. http://books.google.com/?id=K1QEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA93&dq=Xoloitzcuintle+extinct&q. Retrieved 2010-08-07.
- ^ Mata perros surtia de carne fresca a taqueros
- ^ Murray, Senan (2007-03-06). "Dog's dinners prove popular in Nigeria". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/6419041.stm. Retrieved 2006-03-06.
- ^ Willy Volk (March 7, 2007). ""Man Bites Dog": Dining on Dog Meat in Nigeria". gadling.com. http://www.gadling.com/2007/03/07/man-bites-dog-dining-on-dog-meat-in-nigeria/.
- ^ "Metro Manila Commission Ordinance 82-05". http://www.pitstopit.com/paws3/campaign_mmc.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- ^ "The Animal Welfare Act 1998". http://www.chanrobles.com/republicactno8485.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-30.
- ^ "Resolution 05-392". Province of Benguet. 2006-01-17. http://elgu2.ncc.gov.ph/benguet/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=288&Itemid=1. Retrieved 2006-10-27.
- ^ a b Polish couple accused of making dog meat delicacy , Telegraph
- ^ Titcomb, M. (1969). Dog and Man in the Ancient Pacific. Honolulu: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Special Publication 59. ISBN 0910240108.
- ^ Ellis, W. (1839). Polynesian Researches. 4. London: Fisher, Jackson. ISBN 1432549669.
- ^ Mumford, David (1971). The Explorations of Captain James Cook in the Pacific. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-22766-9.
- ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/1373802
- ^ "Auckland man Paea Taufa cooked his pet dog in a backyard barbecue | thetelegraph.com.au". Dailytelegraph.com.au. 2009-08-17. http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/world/auckland-man-paea-taufa-cooked-his-pet-dog-in-a-backyard-barbecue/story-e6frev00-1225762862389. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- ^ Op. cit. Schwabe 1979, p. 173
- ^ Joongang Ilbo, January 13, 2004; Rheintaler Bote, November 21, 1996; excerpts from both articles translated in: "And you thought they just ate fondue", Marmot's Hole (blog), January 14, 2004. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- ^ FDHA Ordinance of 23 November 2005 on food of animal origin, Art.2.
- ^ a b c d "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC News. 2001-12-31. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1735647.stm.
- ^ "Dognappers spark deadly violence across Vietnam". Newsday. October 3, 2011. http://www.newsday.com/news/nation/dognappers-spark-deadly-violence-across-vietnam-1.3217961.
- ^ "Hanoi dog meat restaurants come under scrutiny after cholera outbreak". Vietnamnet. http://english.vietnamnet.vn/Health/2009/04/843532/. Retrieved 2009-05-15. [dead link]
- ^ "Cholera, bird flu present, but VN still A/H1N1-free". Vietnamnet. http://english.vietnamnet.vn/reports/2009/05/847602/. Retrieved 2009-05-15.
- ^ David J. C. Shearman (1978). "Vitamin A and Sir Douglas Mawson". British Medical Journal 1 (6108): 283–285. PMC 1602734. PMID 340007. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1602734.
- ^ Kathleen E. McLaughlin - GlobalPost (2009-06-02). "Eat a dog, catch rabies?". http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/china-and-its-neighbors/090529/the-link-between-eating-dogs-and-catching-rabies. Retrieved 2009-06-04.
- Kim, Rakhyun E. (2008). "Dog Meat in Korea: A Socio-Legal Challenge". Animal Law 14 (2): 201–236. SSRN 1325574
- Colting, Fredrik; Carl-Johan Gadd (2005-07-10). Magnus Andersson Gadd. ed. The Pet Cookbook: Have your best Friend for dinner. Canada: Nicotext. ISBN 91-974883-4-8.
- Yong-Geun Ann, Ph.D (in Korean and English). Dog Meat. Hyoil Book Publishing Company. http://wolf.ok.ac.kr/~annyg/english/. (contains some recipes)
- Dressler, Uwe; Alexander Neumeister (2003-05-01) (in German). Der Kalte Hund. Dresden: IBIS-Ed.. ISBN 3-8330-0650-1.
- Dog meat at the Open Directory Project
- Dr. Dogmeat's website Website for Dr. Ahn Yong-keun, a well-known advocate of dog meat consumption in Korea.
- 'Adventure Cuisine,' Dog meat in Northeast India, Sunday MidDay, 22nd June 2008, by Arjun Razdan
- CNN: Inside the cat and dog meat market in China
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
dog meat — n. a dead person. (Typically in a threat.) □ Make one move, and you’re dog meat. □ They pulled another hunk of gangland dog meat out of the river … Dictionary of American slang and colloquial expressions
dog meat — noun a) Dog eaten as meat. b) Meat prepared to be given to a dog as food … Wiktionary
dog meat — n. dead person (usually made in threat form) … English slang
Dog Meat Records — was a record label for the Australian hard rock music scene in the 1990s. It released such artists as Hoss, Powder Monkeys, Splatterheads and others. Dog Meat was a continuation of an earlier label, Grown Up Wrong, which was releasing records,… … Wikipedia
Dog meat consumption in South Korea — South Korean name Hangul 개고기 Revised Romanization Gaegogi … Wikipedia
Dog food — For the corporate practice of using one s own products, see Eating your own dog food. Not to be confused with Dog meat, which covers human consumption of canines. Dog food refers to food specifically intended for consumption by dogs. Though… … Wikipedia
Dog — For other uses, see Dog (disambiguation). Domestic dog Temporal range: 0.015–0 Ma … Wikipedia
Meat — For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). Varieties of meat Meat is animal flesh that is used as food. Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but … Wikipedia
Dog River (Oregon) — Diagram of Hood River watershed, the Dog River is at lower right The Dog River is a small river in Oregon s Cascade Range and drains a few eastern foothills of Mount Hood. It is a tributary of East Fork Hood River and also contributes water for… … Wikipedia
dog dance — noun : a ceremonial dance among certain western No. American Indians; especially : one in which eating of dog meat was a feature … Useful english dictionary