- Hungarian National Socialist Party
Part of a series on Nazism Category · Portal
The Hungarian National Socialist Party (Hungarian: Nemzeti Szociálista Magyar Munkás Párt, literally "National Socialist Hungarian Workers' Party") was a political epithet adopted by a number of minor Nazi parties in Hungary before the Second World War.
Early National Socialist groups
The initial HNSP was organised in the 1920s, but did not gain any influence. Nevertheless this incarnation of the party carried on into the 1930s.
A second group, the National Socialist Party of Work, was founded by Zoltán Böszörmény in 1931. The movement soon became known as the Scythe Cross due to its party emblem. The Scythe Cross was fairly small, but it was the first fascist movement in Hungary to directly call for land and social reform for peasants. Many fascist movements afterward, including the Arrow Cross Party, followed this example and gained rural support.
The Hungarian National Socialist Agricultural Labourers’ and Workers’ Party (HNSALWP) was formed in 1933 as a splinter group from the Smallholders Party under Zoltán Meskó. This party appealed specifically to landless peasants. Before long it subsumed the original HNSP and its followers became known as the Greenshirts for their distinctive uniforms. They also adopted the Arrow Cross as their symbol.
Around the same time Sándor Graf Festetics, who had briefly served as Minister of Defence during the government of Mihály Károlyi, set up his own Hungarian National Socialist People’s Party (HNSPP). A rival group, going by the name of HNSP, also emerged under the leadership of Count Fidél Pálffy (who was later viewed by the SS as a candidate to lead the country). This group adopted the swastika as its emblem and the National Socialist Program as its policy document and even attempted to organise their own SA and SS, albeit on a much smaller scale than in Germany. Both of these groups looked directly to Nazi Germany for their inspiration and copied the Nazi Party as much as they could. Both were also banned soon after their formation by the government, although they continued underground.
Attempts at unity
In 1934 the HNSALWP, the HNSPP and Palffy's HNSP concluded a formal alliance, although before long Festetics was expelled for his perceived 'softness' on the issue of Hungary's Jews. He went on to join another HNSP that was organised in Debrecen by István Balogh. Both Balogh and Festetics were elected to parliament for this group in 1935.
The two remaining parties came together as the National Socialist Party of Hungary in 1935 and before long Palffy had seen off Mesko as well to leave him as sole leader. As a consequence Mesko re-established the HNSALWP, although it failed to gain much support.
Scythe Cross rebellion
Whilst the various factions had struggled to gain some sort of unity the Scythe Cross movement had remained independent. The group pushed a strong platform of anti-Semitism and anti-communism and, drawing its support from the working classes, soon came to be seen as a potential danger by the government of Miklós Horthy. Support was particularly strong amongst the poor seasonal workers who picked up casual labour on the large estates at harvest time, and when over 100 were arrested they all declared themselves willing to die for the 'Idea' espoused by Böszörmény.
Developing a militia structure, the Scythe Cross opted for insurgency and launched a rebellion of sorts on May Day 1936. However the still fairly small and poorly equipped group was no match for the army and it was quickly put down. As a result the group was banned and suppressed by the government and Böszörmény went into exile in Germany.
Unity under Szálasi
Whilst this was going on Ferenc Szálasi had emerged as a strong leader of his own Party of National Will (later the Arrow Cross Party). This group soon became the focus for unity, absorbing first Balogh's group in 1937 before adopting the HNSP moniker for his own group that same year. Before long Szálasi had brought all the main talent bar Festetics, who was closer to the aristocracy despite his flirtation with Nazism, under his umbrella.
The Arrow Cross was banned when war broke out and as a result Szalasi found unity difficult to maintain. Palffy joined with László Baky to relaunch the HNSP almost immediately and this group had 15 deputies by 1940 when it once again merged into Szalasi's group. This merger was not to last however as in 1941 they broke away to form Hungarian Renewal - National Socialist Party (HRNSP), which had as many as 44 deputies. Supported by the German-funded newspaper Magyarság, the party made little headway, although it was one of the few allowed to continue after the German invasion and played a minor role in the government of Szálasi. The HRNSP was officially merged into the Arrow Cross in 1944, although separate organisations largely continued to function until the end of the war.
None of the various claimants to the title of Hungarian National Socialist Party survived the Second World War.
- ^ a b c d e f Payne, p. 270
- ^ R. Braham,'The Politics of Genocide - The Holocaust in Hungary'
- ^ 'Hungarian Fascism'
- ^ T. Brass, Peasants, Populism and Postmodernism: The Return of the Agrarian Myth, p. 60
- ^ Payne, p. 271
- ^ Payne, pp. 273-4
- ^ Payne, pp. 415-6
- ^ Philip Rees, Biographical Dictionary of the Extreme Right Since 1890, László Baky entry
- ^ Payne, p. 419
- Stanley G. Payne, A History of Fascism 1914-1945, London, Roultedge, 2001
Nationalism and National Socialism in Hungary to 1945 Political parties and groups PeopleIstván Antal · László Baky · István Balogh · László Bárdossy · Károly Beregfy · Zoltán Böszörmény · László Budinszky · László Endre · Sándor Festetics · Imre Finta · József Gera · Gyula Gömbös · Árpád Henney · Béla Imrédy · Győző Istóczy · Andor Jaross · Béla Jurcsek · Gábor Kemény · András Kun · Zoltán Meskó · Fidél Pálffy · Ferenc Rajniss · Jenő Rátz · Lajos Reményi-Schneller · Döme Sztójay · Ferenc Szálasi · András Tasnádi Nagy · Gábor Vajna · Charles Zentai Related articles
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
National Socialist Party — For specifically the German Nazi Party, see Nazi Party. Parties in various contexts have referred to themselves as National Socialist parties. Because there is no clear definition of national socialism, the term has been used to mean very… … Wikipedia
National Socialist Party (Romania) — The National Socialist Party (Romanian:Partidul Naţional Socialist) was a mimetic National socialist political party active in Romania during the early 1930s. The success of the Nazi Party in the July 1932 election in Germany increased interest… … Wikipedia
Greek National Socialist Party — The Greek National Socialist Party (Greek: Ελληνικό Εθνικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα, Elliniko Ethniko Sosialistiko Komma), was a minor Nazi party founded in Greece in 1932 by George S. Mercouris, a former Cabinet minister. Established in Athens in… … Wikipedia
Hungarian Communist Workers' Party — Hungarian Communist Worker s Party Magyar Kommunista Munkáspárt Leader Gyula Thürmer Founded 17 December 1989 … Wikipedia
Hungarian Social Democratic Party — For the Historical Social Democratic Party, see Historical Social Democratic Party (Hungary). Hungarian Social Democratic Party Magyarországi Szociáldemokrata Párt Leader László Kapolyi Founded December 1890 Headquarters 114. Pf. 709, 1535 … Wikipedia
Socialist party (disambiguation) — Socialist Party may refer to: Action * Arab Socialist Action Party * Arab Socialist Action Party – Arabian Peninsula * Liberal Socialist Action Party * National Socialist Action Party * Sardinian Socialist Action Party * Senegalese Party of… … Wikipedia
National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands — Nationaal Socialistische Beweging in Nederland Leader Anton Mussert (1931 1945) … Wikipedia
National Fascist Party — Partito Nazionale Fascista Historic Leader Benito Mussolini … Wikipedia
National Socialist Dutch Workers Party — Nationaal Socialistische Nederlandsche Arbeiderspartij Leader … Wikipedia
National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark — Danmarks Nationalsocialistiske Arbejderparti Leader Cay Lembcke 1932 1933, Frits Clausen 1933 1945 … Wikipedia