Fourteen Holy Helpers


Fourteen Holy Helpers

Infobox Martyrs
name=Fourteen Holy Helpers
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feast_day=August 8 (locally)
venerated_in=Roman Catholic Church


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The "Fourteen Holy Helpers" are a group of saints venerated together in Roman Catholicism because their intercession was thought to be particularly effective, especially against various diseases. This group of "Nothelfer" ("helpers in need") originated in the 14th century at first in the Rhineland, largely as a result of the epidemic (probably of bubonic plague) that became known as the Black Death.

History of veneration

Devotion to the fourteen "Auxiliary Saints" began in Rhineland, now part of Germany, in the time of the Black Death.cite web |last=Hammer |first=Bonaventure |date=1995 | title =The Fourteen Holy Helpers | url =http://www.catholictradition.org/Litanies/litany63.htm | accessdate =2007-11-06]

At the heart of the fourteen were three virgin martyrs:

"Sankt Margaretha mit dem Wurm,"
"Sankt Barbara mit dem Turm,"
"Sankt Katharina mit dem Radl,"
"das sind die heiligen drei Madl." [cite web | title =Sau-Toni, Rochus und die Pest | publisher=Heimat- und Verkehrsverein Obernburg | url =http://hvv-obernburg.de/html/sau-toni__rochus_und_die_pest.html | accessdate =2007-11-05] "Saint Margaret with the dragon"
"Saint Barbara with the tower"
"Saint Katharine with the wheel"
"those are the three holy maids."

As the other saints began to be invoked along with these three virgin martyrs, they were represented together in artwork. Popular veneration of these saints often began in a monastery that held their relics. All of the saints except Giles were martyrs.

Saint Christopher and Saint Giles were invoked against the plague itself. Saint Denis was prayed to for relief from headache, Saint Blaise for ills of the throat, Saint Elmo, for abdominal maladies, Saint Barbara for the febrile, and Saint Vitus against epilepsy. Saint Pantaleon was the patron of physicians, Saint Cyriacus invoked against temptation on the deathbed, and Saints Christopher, Barbara, and Catherine for protection against a sudden and unprovided death. Saint Giles was prayed to for a good confession, and Saint Eustace as patron of family troubles. Domestic animals were also attacked by the plague, and so Saints George, Elmo, Pantaleon, and Vitus were invoked for their protection. Saint Margaret of Antioch is the patron of safe childbirth.

As the saints' joint "cultus" spread in the sixteenth century, Pope Nicholas V attached indulgences to devotion of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, though these no longer apply. While each had a separate feast day, the Fourteen Holy Helpers were in some places celebrated as a group on August 8, but this celebration never became part of the General Roman Calendar for universal veneration. [See Roman Missal: original edition of Pope Pius V (reproduced in "Missale Romanum - Editio Princeps," Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1998, ISBN 88-209-2547-8); [http://books.google.com/books?vid=LCCN33036844&id=E7sPAAAAIAAJ&pg=PP34&lpg=PP34&dq=missale+romanum&as_brr=1#PPP3,M1 1634 typical edition;] [http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC05532785&id=YOtZKUW7ZYIC&pg=RA2-PR7&lpg=RA2-PR7&dq=missale&as_brr=1#PPP6,M1 1884 typical edition;] [http://www.sanctamissa.org/EN/resources/missale-romanum-pdf.html 1920 typical edition;] [http://www.musicasacra.com/pdf/missale62.pdf 1962 typical edition] ] When that calendar was revised in 1969 (see the Roman Catholic calendar of saints), the individual celebrations of St Barbara, St Catherine of Alexandria, St Christopher, and St Margaret of Antioch were dropped, but in 2004 Pope John Paul II reinstated the November 25 optional memorial of Catherine of Alexandria, whose voice was heard by Saint Joan of Arc. The individual celebrations of all fourteen are included in the General Roman Calendar as in 1954, the General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius XII and the General Roman Calendar of 1962.

Comparable to the cult of the Fourteen Holy Helpers was that of the Four Holy Marshals, who were also venerated in the Rhineland as "Marshals of God." These were Quirinus of Neuss, Saint Anthony the Great, Pope Cornelius, and Saint Hubert.

The Auxiliary Saints

The fourteen saints are:

For one or another of the saints in the original set, Anthony the Anchorite, Leonard of Noblac, Nicholas, Sebastian, Oswald the King, Pope Sixtus II, Apollonia, Dorothea of Caesarea, Wolfgang of Regensburg or Roch were sometimes substituted. In France an extra "helper" is added, the Virgin Mary.cite web |last= Jones |first=G. R. |date= 2004-04-09 | title =8 August is the feast of... | work =Saints at a Glance | url =http://www.le.ac.uk/users/grj1/ssaints.html | accessdate =2007-11-06]

The Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen

The Fourteen Holy Helpers are honored in Bavaria as the "vierzehn Heiligen," and the Basilica of the Vierzehnheiligen is dedicated to these "Helper Saints." The Rococo pilgrimage church in the hamlet of Bad Staffelstein was designed by Balthasar Neumann and built between 1743 and 1772.

Devotion to these saints began in that region on September 24, 1445 when Hermann Leicht, the young shepherd of a nearby Franciscan monastery, saw a crying child in a field that belonged to the nearby Cistercian monastery of Langheim. As he bent down to pick up the child, it abruptly disappeared. A short time later, the child reappeared in the same spot. This time, two candles were burning next to it. In June 1446, Leicht saw the child a third time. This time, the child bore a red cross on its chest and was accompanied by thirteen other children. The child said: "We are the fourteen helpers and wish to erect a chapel here, where we can rest. If you will be our servant, we will be yours!" Shortly after, Leicht saw two burning candles descending to this spot. It is alleged that miraculous healings soon began, through the intervention of the fourteen saints.

The Cistercian brothers to whom the land belonged erected a chapel, which immediately attracted pilgrims. An altar was consecrated as early as 1448. Pilgrimages to the Vierzehnheiligen continue to the present day between May and October.

Depiction in culture

One of the most famous group depictions of the "Fourteen Saints" is a 1503 altarpiece by Matthias Grünewald for the monastery in Lichtenfels in Upper Franconia.

The "fourteen angels" of the lost children's prayer in Engelbert Humperdinck's "fairy opera" "Hansel and Gretel" are the Fourteen Holy Helpers. The English words are familiar:

Quote|When at night I go to sleep,
Fourteen angels watch do keep,
Two my head are guarding,
Two my feet are guiding;
Two upon my right hand,
Two upon my left hand.
Two who warmly cover
Two who o'er me hover,
Two to whom 'tis given
To guide my steps to heaven. [cite web | title =When at Night I Go to Sleep | work =The Hymns and Carols of Christmas | url =http://www.hymnsandcarolsofchristmas.com/Hymns_and_Carols/when_at_night_i_go_to_sleep.htm | accessdate =2007-11-05]

Gallery

References

ee also

*Franciscan Monastery in Kadaň - a Franciscan monastery in the Czech Republic with a church dedicated to the Holy Helpers.
*Langheim Abbey - an abbey in Lichtenfels, Bavaria where Matthias Grünewald painted his "Holy Helpers" altarpiece.
*Four Holy Marshals
*Patron saints of ailments, illness and dangers - the category of Roman Catholic saints to which the Holy Helpers belong.

External links

* [http://www.catholic-forum.com/saints/define95.htm Invocation and litany to the Fourteen Holy Helpers]
* [http://www.heiligenlexikon.de/start.html?Glossar/Vierzehn_heilige_Nothelfer.htm Das Ökumenische Heiligenlexikon - Heilige Nothelfer] de icon
* [http://www.vierzehnheiligen.de/ Basilika Vierzehnheiligen] de icon
* [http://community.webshots.com/slideshow/165383764ihBmDg?mediaPosition=165386623&track_pagetag=/page/photo/travel/germany&track_action=/Shortcuts/Slideshow WebShots slideshow of the Basilika Vierzehnheiligen]


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