- Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act
The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, commonly abbreviated ANCSA, was signed into law by President
Richard M. Nixonon December 18, 1971, the largest land claims settlement in United States history. ANCSA was intended to resolve the long-standing issues surrounding aboriginal land claims in Alaska, as well as to stimulate economic development throughout Alaska. The settlement extinguished Alaska Nativeclaims to the land by transferring titles to twelve Alaska Native regional corporations and over 200 local village corporations. A thirteenth regional corporation was later created for Alaska Natives who no longer resided in Alaska.
In 1968, the Atlantic-Richfield Company discovered oil at Prudhoe Bay on the Arctic coast, catapulting the issue of
land ownershipinto headlines. [cite news | last = Coile | first = Zachery | publisher= San Francisco Chronicle | url= http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?file=/c/a/2005/08/29/MNGLGEEKSF1.DTL | title = ARCTIC OIL: Oil is the lifeblood of Alaska, with residents ready to drill | date = August 9 2005| accessdate= 2005-09-12 ] In order to lessen the difficulty of drilling at such a remote location and transporting the oil to the lower 48 states, the best solution seemed to be building a pipeline to carry the oil across Alaska to the port of Valdez, built on the ruins of the previous town. At Valdez, the oil would be loaded onto tanker ships and sent by water to the contiguous states. The plan was approved, but a permit to construct the pipeline, which would cross lands involved in the native dispute, could not be granted until the Native claims had been settled.
With major petroleum dollars on the line, there was a new urgency for an agreement, and, in 1971, the "Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act" was signed into law by the U.S. President, under which the Natives relinquished aboriginal claims to their lands. [cite web | title= Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act | publisher = U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service | url= http://laws.fws.gov/lawsdigest/alasnat.html | accessdate= 2005-09-01] In return, they received access to 44 million acres (180,000 km²) of land and were paid $963 million. The land and money were divided among regional, urban, and village corporations. Some handled their funds wisely and others did not, leaving some Natives land rich and cash poor. The settlement compensated the Natives for the invasion of their lands and opened the way for all Alaskans to profit from oil, one of the state's largest natural resources.
elected provisions of ANCSA
* Native claims to almost all of Alaska were extinguished in exchange for approximately one-ninth of the state's land plus $962.5 million in compensation distributed to 200 local village and 12 Native-owned regional corporations, plus a thirteenth corporation comprising Alaska Natives who had left the state.
* Of the compensation monies, $462.5 million was to come from the federal treasury and the rest from oil revenue-sharing.
* Settlement benefits would accrue to those with at least one-fourth Native ancestry.
* Of the approximately 80,000 Natives enrolled under ANCSA, those living in villages (approximately 2/3rds of the total) would receive 100 shares in both a village and a regional corporation.
* The remaining 1/3rd would be "at large" shareholders with 100 shares in a regional corporation plus additional rights to revenue from regional mineral and timber resources.
Alaska Native Allotment Actwas revoked and as yet unborn Native children were excluded.
* The twelve regional corporations within the state would administer the settlement.
* A thirteenth corporation composed of Natives who had left the state would receive compensation but not land.
* Surface rights to 44 million acres (178,000 km²) were patented to the Native village and regional corporations
* The surface rights to the patented land were granted to the village corporations and the subsurface right to the land were granted to the regional corporation, creating a "split estate"
Alaska Native regional corporations
:"Main article at:
Alaska Native Regional Corporations"The following thirteen regional corporations were created under ANCSA:
The Aleut Corporation(TAC)
Arctic Slope Regional Corporation(ASRC)
Bering Straits Native Corporation(BSNC)
Bristol Bay Native Corporation(BBNC)
Chugach Alaska Corporation(CAC)
Cook Inlet Region, Inc.(CIRI)
NANA Regional Corporation(NANA)
The 13th Regional Corporation
Also, most of these corporations set up nonprofit corporations of their own.
Alaska Native village corporations
Many separate village corporations were also created by the Act. Below is a short list of some of the village corporations created under ANCSA:
* [http://www.ukpik.com/ Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation] the village corporation for
* [http://www.bnc-alaska.com Bethel Native Corporation] , the village corporation for
* [http://www.capefoxcorp.com Cape Fox Corporation] , the village corporation for
* [http://www.deloycheet.com/ Deloycheet, Inc.] The village corporation for
Holy Cross, Alaska
* [http://www.hunatotem.com/ Huna Totem Corporation] , the village corporation for Huna, Alaska
* [http://www.haidacorp.com Haida Corporation] the village corporation for
* [http://www.goldbelt.com/ Goldbelt, Inc.]
Juneau, Alaska's urban native corporation
* [http://www.pvil.com Paug-Vik, Inc. Ltd.] The village corporation for
* [http://www.chenega.com Chenega Corporation] The village corporation for
Prince William Sound
Land selection by the State of Alaska under the Statehood Act and for the regional and village corporations has continued through the present.
* [http://www.lbblawyers.com/ancsa.htm The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Resource Center] run by [http://www.landye-bennett.com/ Landye Bennett Blumstein LLP] .
* [http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/SEEJ/Landclaims/ Alaska Native Land Claims Settlement Act of 1971] . Through [http://arcticcircle.uconn.edu/index.html Arctic Circle] , University of Connecticut.
* [http://www.alaskool.org/projects/ancsa/ancsaindx.htm Revisiting the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA)] . Through [http://www.alaskool.org/ Alaskool] .
* [http://www.ancsa.net/ Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act Network (ANCSA.net)] "'
* [http://www.channel6.dk/native "Native Experience"] A four part television documentary series about the impact of oil and mineral development on the Native cultures of Alaska, dealing in particular with the historical background leading up to ANCSA and the experiences, memories and perceptions of both natives involved in the lands claim and their descendants today in rural Alaska. The series website includes many images from the television series as well as background information on the subject. "Native Experience" was produced by [http://www.channel6.dk Adrian Redmond of Channel 6 Television in Denmark] ."'
* [http://fairbanks-alaska.com/alaska-native-corporations.htm Alaska Native Corporation Links]
* [http://www.lbblawyers.com/ANCSA%20Paper%20with%20Table%20of%20Contents%201992.pdf James D. Linxwiler, "The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act: The First Twenty Years" Paper 2, Proceedings from the 38th Annual Rocky Mountain Mineral Law Institute (1992)]
* [http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d06399.pdf GAO Report: Increased Use of Alaska Native 8(a) Firms Calls for Increased Oversight]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act — Vom ANCSA geschaffene Gebietskörperschaften (regional corporations) Der Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, abgekürzt ANCSA, ist die umfangreichste Regulierung von Gebietsansprüchen in der Geschichte der Vereinigten Staaten und wurde am 18.… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Native American Languages Act of 1990 — 101st United States Congress PUBLIC LAW 101 477 October. 30, 1990 TITLE I NATIVE AMERICAN LANGUAGES ACT Enacted by Congress … Wikipedia
Alaska Native Regional Corporations — The Alaska Native Regional Corporations (Alaska Native Corporations or ANCSA Corporations) were established in 1971 when the United States Congress passed the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) which settled land and financial claims… … Wikipedia
Alaska Native Allotment Act — The Alaska Native Allotment Act of 1906, USStat|34|197, enacted on May 17, 1906, permitted individual Alaska Natives to acquire title to up to 160 acres of land in a manner similar to that afforded to Native Americans in the other states and… … Wikipedia
List of Alaska Native tribal entities — rThis is a list of Alaska Native tribal entities which are recognized by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. For related lists, see the List of Indian reservations in the United States, List of Native American Tribal Entities (federally… … Wikipedia
Connecticut Indian Land Claims Settlement — Foxwoods Resort Casino The Connecticut Indian Land Claims Settlement was an Indian Land Claims Settlement passed by the United States Congress in 1983. The settlement act ended a lawsuit by the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe to recover 800 acres of … Wikipedia
native American — native American, adj. a person born in the United States. [1835 45, Amer.] * * * ▪ indigenous peoples of Canada and United States Introduction also called American Indian, Amerindian, Amerind, Indian, Aboriginal American, or First Nation… … Universalium
Native American civil rights — are the civil rights of Native Americans in the United States. Although indigenous to the Americas, American Indians became one of many minorities and the movement for American Indian civil rights began almost as soon as Europeans started to… … Wikipedia
Native American Church — insignia Native American Church, a religious denomination which practices Peyotism or the Peyote religion, originated in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans in the United States.… … Wikipedia
Native American gaming — enterprises are gaming businesses operated on Indian reservations or tribal land in the United States. Indian tribes have limited sovereignty over these businesses and therefore are granted the ability to establish gambling enterprises outside of … Wikipedia