Women artists

Women artists

Women have been involved in making art in most times and places, despite difficulties in training and trading their work, and gaining recognition. "For about three thousand years, the women - and only the women - of Mithila have been making devotional paintings of the gods and goddesses of the Hindu pantheon. It is no exaggeration, then, to say that this art is the expression of the most genuine aspect of Indian civilization." " [ Vequaud, Ives, "Women Painters of Mithila", Thames and Hudson, Ltd., London, 1977 p. 9 ] In the West the Middle Ages were arguably the best period for women artists;fact|date=July 2008 the later introduction of drawing from life models made it far harder, for reasons of decorum, for women to obtain the specialised training required for a professional artist.

In the latter part of the 20th Century, historians have endeavored to rediscover the artistic accomplishments of women and to give these their due place in the narrative of art history.

Ancient and classical periods

There are no records of who the artists of the prehistoric eras were, but the studies of many early ethnographers and cultural anthropologists indicate that women often were the principle artisans in the cultures considered as Neolithic, creating their pottery, textiles, baskets, and jewelry. Collaboration on large projects was typical. Extrapolation to the artwork and skills of the Paleolithic follows the same understanding of the cultures known and studied through archaeology. Cave paintings exist that bear the handprints of women and children as well as those with the handprints of men.

In the earliest records of western cultures, few individuals are mentioned, although women are depicted in all of the art, some showing their labors as artists. Ancient references by Homer, Cicero, and Virgil mention the roles of prominent women in textiles, poetry, and music and other cultural activities, without discussion of individual artists in the culture. The case for men is the same among their writings.

Among the earliest historical records of Europe concerning individual artists, Pliny the Elder wrote about a number of Greek women who were painters, including Timarete, Eirene, Kalypso, Aristarete, Iaia, and Olympias. While none of their work survives, there is a "caputi hydria" in The Torno Collection in Milan attributed to the Leningrad painter from circa 460-450 B.C. that shows women working alongside men in a workshop where both painted vases.

Medieval era

"Artists from the Medieval period include Ende, Diemudus, Guda, Claricia, Herrade of Landsberg and Hildegard of Bingen."

In the early Medieval period, women often worked alongside men. Manuscript illuminations, embroideries, and carved capitals from the period clearly demonstrate examples of women at work in these arts. Documents show that they also were brewers, butchers, wool merchants, and iron mongers. Artists of the time period, including women, were from a small subset of society whose status allowed them freedom from these more strenuous types of work. Women who were artists, often were of two literate classes, either wealthy aristocratic women or nuns. Women in the former category often created embroideries and textiles. Those in the later category often produced illuminations.

There were a number of embroidery workshops in England at the time, particularly at Canterbury and Winchester; "Opus Anglicanum" or English embroidery was already famous across Europe - a 13th century Papal inventory counted over two hundred pieces. It is presumed that women were almost entirely responsible for this production. One of the most famous embroideries of the Medieval period is the Bayeux Tapestry, of cloth embroidered with wool that is 230 feet long and which narrates the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Conquest of England. The Bayeux Tapestry may have been created in either a commercial workshop, by a royal or aristocratic lady and her retinue, or a workshop in a nunnery. In the 14th century, a royal workshop is documented, based at the Tower of London, and there may have been other earlier arrangements.

Manuscript illumination affords us many of the named artists of the Medieval Period including Ende, a tenth century Spanish nun; Guda, a twelfth century German nun; Claricia, twelfth century laywoman in a Bavarian scriptorium. These women, and many more unnamed illuminators, benefited from the nature of convents as the major loci of learning for women in the period and the most tenable option for intellectuals among them.

In many parts of Europe, with the Gregorian Reforms of the eleventh century and the rise in feudalism, women faced many strictures that they did not face in the Early Medieval period. With these changes in society, the status of the convent changed. In the British Isles, the Norman Conquest marked the beginning of the gradual decline of the convent as a seat of learning and a place where women could gain power. Convents were made subsidiary to male abbots, rather than being headed by an abbess, as they had previously.

In Germany, however, under the Ottonian Dynasty, convents retained their position as institutions of learning. This might be partially because they were often headed and populated by unmarried women from the royal and aristocratic families. Therefore, it is in Germany where the greatest late Medieval period work by women emerges, as exemplified by that of Herrade of Landsberg and Hildegard of Bingen.

, differ greatly from others created in Germany during the same period. They are characterized by bright colors, emphasis on line, and simplified forms. While Hildegard likely did not pen the images, their idiosyncratic nature leads one to believe they were created under her close supervision.

The twelfth century saw the rise of the city in Europe, along with the rise in trade, travel, and universities. These changes in society also engendered changes in the lives of women. Women were allowed to head their husbands' businesses, if they were widowed. The Wife of Bath in Chaucer's "The Canterbury Tales" is one such case. During this time, women also were allowed to be part of some artisan guilds. Guild records show that women were particularly active in the textile industries in Flanders and Northern France. Medieval manuscripts have many marginalia depicting women with spindles. In England, women were responsible for creating "Opus Anglicanum", or rich embroideries for ecclesiastical or secular use on clothes and various types of hangings. Women also became more active in illumination. A number of women likely worked alongside their husbands or fathers, including the daughter of Maître Honoré and the daughter of Jean le Noir. By the 13th century, most illuminated manuscripts were being produced by commercial workshops, and by the end of the Middle Ages, when production of manuscripts had become an important industry in certain centres, women seem to have represented a majority of the artists, and scribes, employed, especially in Paris. The movement to printing, and of book illustration to the printmaking techniques of woodcut and engraving, where women seem to have been little involved, represented a setback to the progress of women artists.

Renaissance era

"Artists from the Renaissance era include Caterina dei Vigri, Maria Ormani, Sofonisba Anguissola, Lucia Anguissola, Lavinia Fontana, Barbara Longhi, Fede Galizia, Diana Scultori Ghisi, Esther Inglis, Marietta Robusti (daughter of Tintoretto), Properzia de' Rossi, Mayken Verhulst, Levina Teerlinc, and Catarina van Hemessen"

This is the first period in Western history in which a number of secular female artists gained international reputations. The rise in women artists during this period may be attributed to major cultural shifts. One such shift was a move toward humanism, a philosophy affirming the dignity of all people, that became central to Renaissance thinking and helped raise the status of women. In addition, the identity of the individual artist in general was regarded as more important; significant artists whose identity is unknown virtually cease from this period.

Two important texts, "On Famous Women" and "The City of Women", illustrate this cultural change. Boccaccio, a fourteenth century humanist, wrote "De mulieribus claris" (Latin for "On Famous Women") (1135-59) which was a collection of biographies of women. Of the 104 biographies, he included Thamar (or Thmyris), an ancient Greek vase painter. Curiously, among the fifteenth century manuscript illuminations of "On Famous Women", Thamar was depicted painting a self-portrait or perhaps, painting a small image of the Virgin and Child.

Christine de Pizan, who was a remarkable late medieval French writer, rhetorician, and critic, wrote "City of Women" in 1405 about an allegorical city in which independent women lived free from the slander of men. In her work she included real women artists, such as, Anastaise, who was one of the best Parisian illuminators, although none of her work has survived. Other humanist texts led to increased education for Italian women. The most notable of these was "Il Cortegiano" or "The Courtier" by sixteenth century Italian humanist Baldassare Castiglione. This enormously popular work stated that men and women should be educated in the social arts. His influence made it acceptable for women to engage in the visual, musical, and literary arts. Thanks to Castiglione, this was the first period of renaissance history in which noblewomen were able to study painting.

Sofonisba Anguissola, shown right, was the most successful of these minor aristocrats who first benefited from humanist education and then went on to recognition as painters. Artists who were not noblewomen were affected by the rise in humanism as well. In addition to conventional subject matter, artists such as Lavinia Fontana and Catarina van Hemessen, began to depict themselves in self-portraits, not just as painters, but also, as musicians and scholars, thereby highlighting their well-rounded education.

Along with the rise in Humanism, there was a shift from craftsmen to artists. Artists, on the other hand, were now expected to have knowledge of perspective, mathematics, ancient art, and study of the human body. In the late Renaissance the training of artists began to move from the master's workshop to the Academy, and women began a long struggle, not resolved until the late 19th century, to gain full access to this training.

Study of the human body required working from male nudes and corpses. This was considered essential background for creating realistic group scenes. Women were generally barred from training from male nudes so, therefore, they were precluded from creating the realistic group scenes that were required for the large-scale religious compositions that received the most prestigious commissions.
[
Judith Leyster, 1630, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.] Although many aristocratic women had access to some training in art, without the benefit of figure drawing from nude male models, most of those women chose marriage over a career in art. This was true for example, of two of Sofonisba Anguissola's sisters. The women who are recognized as artists in this period, were either nuns or children of painters. Of the few who emerge as Italian artists in the fifteenth century, all who are known today, are associated with convents.

These artists who were nuns include Caterina dei Virgi, Antonia Uccello, and Suor Barbara Ragnoni. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, the vast majority of women who gained any modicum of success as artists, were the children of painters. This is likely because they were able to gain training in their fathers' workshops.

Examples of these women who were trained by their father include, painter Lavinia Fontana, miniature portraitist Levina Teerlinc, and portrait painter Catarina van Hemessen. Women artists during this period in Italy, even those trained by their family, seem somewhat unusual.

In certain parts of Europe, particularly northern France and Flanders, however, it was more common for children of both genders to enter into their father's profession. In fact, in the Low Countries, where women had more freedoms, there were a number of artists in the Renaissance who were women. For example, the records of the Guild of Saint Luke in Bruges show that, not only did they admit women as practicing members, but also, that by the 1480s twenty-five percent of its members were women (many probably working as manuscript illuminators).

Baroque era

"Artists from the Baroque era include: Mary Beale, Rosalba Carriera, Élisabeth Sophie Chéron, Isabel de Cisneros, Josefa de Ayala better known as Josefa de Óbidos, Giovanna Garzoni, Artemisia Gentileschi, Judith Leyster, Maria Sibylla Merian, Louise Moillon, Maria van Oosterwijk, Clara Peeters, Luisa Roldán known as La Roldana, Rachel Ruysch and Elisabetta Sirani."

As in the Renaissance Period, many women among the Baroque artists came from artist families. Artemisia Gentileschi is an excellent example of this. She was trained by her father, Orazio Gentileschi, and she worked alongside him on many of his commissions. Luisa Roldán was trained in her father's (Pedro Roldán) sculpture workshop.

, depicted the same scene with a passive Judith, in her novel treatment, Gentileschi's Judith appears to be an able actor in the task at hand. Action is the essence of it and another painting by her of Judith, leaving the first scene, which is shown to the right.

, whose fruit still life paintings were noted for their brilliant colors.

Eighteenth century

"Artists from this period include, Rosalba Carriera, Giulia Lama, Anna Dorothea Therbusch, Angelica Kauffmann, Mary Moser, Maria Cosway, Anne Vallayer-Coster, Adelaide Labille-Guiard,and Elisabeth Vigée-Le Brun."

In many countries of Europe, the Academies were the arbiters of style. The Academies also were responsible for training artists, exhibiting artwork, and, inadvertently or not, promoting the sale of art. Most Academies were not open to women. In France, for example, the powerful Academy in Paris had 450 members between the seventeenth century and the French Revolution, and only fifteen were women. Of those, most were daughters or wives of members. In the late eighteenth century, the French Academy resolved not to admit any women at all.

The pinnacle of painting during the period was history painting, especially large scale compositions with groups of figures depicting historical or mythical situations. In preparation to create such paintings, artists studied casts of antique sculptures and drew from male nudes. Women had limited, or no access to this Academic learning, and as such there are no extant large-scale history paintings by women from this period. Some women made their name in other genres such as portraiture.

Other women were innovative in their ability to compensate for their lack of training. Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun used her experience in portraiture to create an allegorical scene, "Peace Bringing Back Plenty", which she classified as a history painting and used as her grounds for admittance into the Academy. After the display of her work, it was demanded that she attend formal classes, or lose her license to paint. She became a court favourite, and a celebrity, who painted over forty self-portraits, which she was able to sell.

in 1936, and women were not admitted to the Academy's schools until 1861.

By the late eighteenth century, there were important steps forward for artists who were women. In Paris, the Salon, the exhibition of work founded by the Academy, became open to non-Academic painters in 1791, allowing women to showcase their work in the powerful annual exhibition. Additionally, women were more frequently being accepted as students by famous artists, such as, Jacques-Louis David and Jean-Baptiste Greuze.

Nineteenth century

"Artists from this period include Constance Mayer, Marie Ellenrieder, Rosa Bonheur, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Camille Claudel, Kate Greenaway, Suzanne Valadon, Victorine Meurent, Anna Boch, Enid Yandell and Lucy Bacon."

Marie Ellenrieder and Marie-Denise Villers worked in the field of portraiture in the beginning of the century, and Rosa Bonheur in realist painting and sculpture.

Barbara Bodichon, Eleanor Fortescue Brickdale, Kate Bunce, Evelyn De Morgan, Emma Sandys, Elizabeth Siddal, Marie Spartali Stillman, and Maria Zambaco were women artists of the Pre-Raphaelite movement.

During the century access to training for women was largely opened up. The British "Government School of Design", which evolved into the Royal College of Art, admitted women from its foundation in 1837, but into a "Female School" which was treated somewhat differently, with "life"- classes consisting for several years of drawing a man wearing a suit of armour. The Royal Academy Schools finally admitted women from 1861, but they initially only drew draped models. However other schools in London, including the Slade School of Art from the 1870s, were more liberal. By the end of the century women were able to study the naked, or very nearly naked, figure in many Western European and North American cities.

The Society of Female Artists (now called The Society of Women Artists) was established in 1855 in London and has staged annual exhibitions since 1857, when 358 works were shown by 149 women, some using a pseudonym. [http://www.society-women-artists.org.uk/History.html "History"] , The Society of Women Artists. Retrieved 17 February 2008.]

Julia Margaret Cameron and Gertrude Kasebier became well-known in the new medium of Photography, where there were no traditional restrictions, and no established training, to hold them back.
Elizabeth Thompson (Lady Butler), perhaps inspired by her life-classes of armoured figures at the Government School, was the first woman to become famous for large history paintings, specializing in scenes of military action, usually with many horses. [ [http://www.andrewcusack.com/scotsdg3.jpgScotland Forever!] perhaps her most famous work]

Berthe Morisot and the Americans, Mary Cassatt and Lucy Bacon, became involved in the French Impressionist movement of the 1860s and 1870s. American Impressionist Lilla Cabot Perry was influenced by her studies with Monet and by Japanese art in the late nineteenth century. Cecilia Beaux was an American portrait painter who also studied in France.

In 1894, Suzanne Valadon was the first woman admitted to the Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts in France. Laura Muntz Lyall, a post-impressionist painter, exhibited at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, and then in 1894 as part of the Société des artistes français in Paris.

Twentieth century

Artists from this period include, Lee Bontecou, Louise Bourgeois, Leonora Carrington, Mary Cassatt, Elizabeth Catlett, Camille Claudel, Sonia Delaunay, Dulah Marie Evans, Helen Frankenthaler, Elisabeth Frink, Françoise Gilot, Natalia Goncharova, Grace Hartigan, Barbara Hepworth, Eva Hesse, Malvina Hoffman, Gwen John, Käthe Kollwitz, Lee Krasner, Frida Kahlo, Laura Knight, Barbara Kruger, Marie Laurencin, Tamara de Lempicka, Dora Maar, Maruja Mallo, Agnes Martin, Ana Mendieta, Joan Mitchell, Alice Neel, Louise Nevelson, Georgia O'Keeffe, Bridget Riley, Verónica Ruiz de Velasco, Anne Ryan, Charlotte Salomon, Augusta Savage, Zinaida Serebriakova, Sr. Maria Stanisia, Suzanne Valadon and Nellie Walker. [ [http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/feminist/Women-Artists-20th21st-Centuries.html Women Artists of the 20th & 21st Centuries] , retrieved on June 14th 2007.]

.

Sr. Maria Stanisia was able to overcome the patriarchal attitudes both within early twentieth century Chicago and the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church to become acclaimed as one of the greatest painters in the field of religious art.Fact|date=February 2008

Helen Frankenthaler worked with Jackson Pollock in the Abstract Exprssionist movement. Lee Krasner was married to Pollock and an abstract artist. Elaine de Kooning was a student and later the wife of Willem de Kooning, who was a realistic painter also.Clarifyme|date=February 2008 Anne Ryan was a collagist. Jane Frank, a student of Hans Hofmann, worked with mixed media on canvas. In Canada, Marcelle Ferron was an exponent of automatism.

In the Art Deco era, Hildreth Meiere made large-scale mosaics and was the first woman honored with the Fine Arts Medal of the American Institute of Architects.Fact|date=February 2008 Tamara de Lempicka, also of this era, was an Art Deco painter from Poland.

and other celebrity figures.

Aleksandra Ekster was a Constructivist, Cubo-Futurist, and Suprematist artist who was a founder of Art Deco.Fact|date=February 2008 Sonia Delaunay and her husband were the founders of Orphism. Helen Frankenthaler worked in the Color Field abstract movement. Mary Carroll Nelson founded the Society of Layerists in Multi-Media (SLMM), whose artist members follow in the tradition of Emil Bisttram and the Transcendental Painting Group, as well as Morris Graves of the Pacific Northwest Visionary Art School. In the 1970s, Judy Chicago created "The Dinner Party", one of the most important works of feminist art.

From the 1960s on feminism led to a great increase in interest in women artists and their academic study. Notable contributions have been made by the art historians Germaine Greer, Linda Nochlin, Griselda Pollock and others. Figures like Artemesia Gentileschi and Frida Kahlo emerged from relative obscurity to become feminist icons.

In 1996, Catherine de Zegher curated an exhibition of 37 great women artists from the Twentieth Century. The exhibition, "Inside the Visible", that travelled from the ICA in Boston to the National Museum for Women in the Arts in Washington, the Whitechapel in London and the Art Gallery of Western Australia in Perth, included artists' works from the 1930s through the 1990s featuring: Claude Cahun, Louise Bourgeois, Bracha Ettinger, Agnes Martin, Carrie Mae Weems, Charlotte Salomon, Eva Hesse, Nancy Spero, Francesca Woodman, Lygia Clark and Mona Hatoum among others.

Contemporary artists

In 1993, Rachel Whiteread was the first woman to win the Tate Gallery's Turner Prize. Gillian Wearing won the prize in 1997, when there was an all-woman shortlist, the other nominees being Christine Borland, Angela Bulloch and Cornelia Parker. In 1999, Tracey Emin gained considerable media coverage for her entry "My Bed", but did not win. In 2006 the prize was awarded to abstract painter, Tomma Abts.

In 2001, a conference called "Women Artists at the Millennium" was organized at Princeton University. A book by that name was published in 2006, featuring major art historians such as Linda Nochlin analysing prominent women artists such as: Louise Bourgeois, Yvonne Rainer, Bracha Ettinger, Sally Mann, Eva Hesse, Rachel Whiteread and Rosemarie Trockel.

Prominent contemporary women artists also include Marisol Escobar, Kiki Smith, Sophie Calle, Jenny Saville, Sarah Lucas, Karen Kilimnik, Marlene Dumas, Stella Vine, Yoko Ono, Kara Walker, Carolee Schneeman, Yayoi Kusama, Lynda Benglis, and Shazia Sikander.

In the Autumn of 2006, the British art magazine "Latest Art" polled thirty experts to compose a list of the thirty greatest women artists ever. Artists on the list are both contemporary and historical including Artemisia Gentileschi, Mary Cassatt, Georgia O'Keeffe, Diane Arbus, Frida Kahlo, Louise Bourgeois,Tracey Emin, Paula Rego, Judy Chicago, Annie Leibovitz and twenty others.

See also

*The depiction of women artists in art history
* Feminist art
* National Museum of Women in the Arts
* List of American artists

Notes and references

Partial bibliography

* Anscombe, Isabelle, "A Woman's Touch: Women in Design from 1860 to the Present Day", Penguin, New York, 1985. ISBN 0-670-77825-7.
* Armstrong, Carol and Catherine de Zegher (eds.), "Women Artists at the Millennium", The MIT Press, Cambridge, 2006. ISBN 0-262-01226-X.
* Bank, Mirra, "Anonymous Was A Woman", Saint Martin's Press, New York, 1979. ISBN 0-312-13430-4.
* Broude, Norma, and Mary D. Garrard, "The Power of Feminist Art", Harry N. Abrams, Inc. New York, 1995. ISBN 0-8109-2659-8.
* Brown, Betty Ann, and Arlene Raven, "Exposures: Women and their Art", NewSage Press, Pasadena, CA, 1989. ISBN 0-939165-11-2.
* Callen, Anthea, "Women Artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement, 1870-1914", Pantheon, N.Y., 1979. ISBN 0-394-73780-6.
* Caws, Mary Anne, Rudolf E. Kuenzli, and Gwen Raaberg, "Surrealism and Women", MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990. ISBN 0-262-53098-8.
* Chadwick, Whitney, "Women, Art, and Society," Thames and Hudson, London, 1990. ISBN 0-500-20241-9.
* Chadwick, Whitney, "Women Artists and the Surrealist Movement", Thames and Hudson, London, 1985. ISBN 0-500-27622-6.
* Cherry, Deborah, "Painting Women: Victorian Women Artists", Routledge, London, 1993. ISBN 0-415-06053-2.
* Chiarmonte, Paula, "Women Artists in the United States: a Selective Bibliography and Resource Guide on the Fine and Decorative Arts", G. K. Hall, Boston, 1990. ISBN 0-8161-8917-X
*Deepwell, Katy (ed) ,"Women Artists and Modernism",Manchester University Press,1998. ISBN 0-7190-5082-0.
*Deepwell, Katy (ed),"New Feminist Art Criticism;Critical Strategies",Manchester University Press, 1995. ISBN 07190-4258-5.
* Fine, Elsa Honig, "Women & Art", Allanheld & Schram/Prior, London, 1978. ISBN 0-8390-0187-8.
* Florence, Penny and Foster, Nicola, "Differential Aesthetics", Ashgate, Burlington, 2000. ISBN 0-7546-1493-X.
* Greer, Germaine, "The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and Their Work", Farrar Straus Giroux, New York, 1979. ISBN 0-374-22412-9.
* Harris, Anne Sutherland and Linda Nochlin, "Women Artists: 1550-1950", Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Alfred Knopf, New York, 1976. ISBN 0-394-41169-2.
* Heller, Nancy G., "Women Artists: An Illustrated History", Abbeville Press, New York, 1987. ISBN 0-89659-748-2.
* Henkes, Robert. "The Art of Black American Women: Works of Twenty-Four Artists of the Twentieth Century", McFarland & Company, 1993.
* Hess, Thomas B. and Elizabeth C. Baker, "Art and Sexual Politics: Why have there been no Great Women Artists?," Collier Books, New York, 1971
* Marsh, Jan, "The Pre-Raphaelite Sisterhood", St. Martin's Press, New York, 1985. ISBN 0-7043-0169-5.
* Marsh, Jan, "Pre-Raphaelite Women: Images of Femininity in Pre-Raphaelite Art", Phoenix Illustrated, London, 1998. ISBN 0-7538-0210-4
* Marsh, Jan, and Pamela Gerrish Nunn, "Pre-Raphaelite Women Artists", Thames and Hudson, London, 1998. ISBN 0-500-28104-1
* "The National Museum of Women in the Arts", Harry N. Abrams, Inc., N.Y. 1987. ISBN 0-8109-1373-9.
* Nochlin, Linda, "Women, Art, and Power and Other Essays", Harper & Row, New York, 1988. ISBN 0-06-435852-6.
* Parker, Rozsika, and Griselda Pollock, "Framing Feminism: Art and the Women's Movement, 1970-1985", Pandora, London and New York, 1987. ISBN 0-86358-179-X.
* Parker, Rozsika, and Griselda Pollock, "Old Mistresses: Women, Art & Ideology", Pantheon Books, New York, 1981. ISBN 0-7100-0911-9.
* Parker, Rozsika, "The Subversive Stitch: Embroidery and the Making of the Feminine", Routledge, New York, 1984. ISBN 0-7043-4478-5.
*Petteys, Chris, "Dictionary of Women Artists: an international dictionary of women artists born before 1900", G.K. Hall, Boston, 1985
* Pollock, Griselda, "Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism and the Histories of Art", Routledge, London, 1988. ISBN 0-415-00722-4
* Pollock, Griselda, "Generations and Geographies in the Visual Arts", Routledge, London, 1996. ISBN 0-415-14128-1
* Pollock, Griselda, (edited and introduction by Florence, Penny), "Looking back to the Future", G&B Arts, Amsterdam, 2001. ISBN 90-5701-132-8
* Pollock, Griselda, "Encounters in the Virtual Feminist Museum: Time, Space and the Archive", 2007. Routledge. ISBN 0415413745.
* Rosenthal, Angela, "Angelica Kauffman: Art and Sensibility", London and New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-300-10333-6.
*Rubinstein, Charlotte Streifer, "American Women Sculptors: A History of Women Working in Three Dimensions", G.K. Hall, Boston. 1990
* Sills, Leslie. "Visions: Stories About Women Artists", Albert Whitman & Company, 1993.
* Slatkin, Wendy, "Voices of Women Artists", Prentice Hall, N.J., 1993. ISBN 0-13-951427-9.
* Slatkin, Wendy, "Women Artists in History: From Antiquity to the 20th Century", Prentice Hall, N.J., 1985. ISBN 0-13-027319-8.
* Tufts, Eleanor, "American Women Artists, 1830-1930", The National Museum of Women in the Arts, 1987. ISBN 0-940979-02-0.
* Waller, Susan, "Women Artists in the Modern Era: A Documentary History", Scarecrow Press Inc., London, 1991. ISBN 0-8108-4345-5.
* Watson-Jones, Virginia, "Contemporary American Women Sculptors", Oryx Press, Phoenix, 1986. ISBN 0-89774-139-0
* de Zegher, Catherine, "Inside the Visible", MIT Press, Massachusetts, 1996.
* de Zegher, Catherine and Teicher, Hendel (Eds.), "3 X Abstraction", Yale University Press, New Haven, Drawing Center, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-300-10826-5.
* de Zegher, Catherine, "Eva Hesse Drawing", NY: The Drawing Center//New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006. ISBN 0-300-11618-7.

External links

* [http://www.ktpress.co.uk n.paradoxa: international feminist art journal] , founded in Dec 1996, scholarly writing about contemporary women artists and feminist theory.
* [http://www.csupomona.edu/~plin/women/womenart.html Women Artists Self-Portraits and Representations of Womenhood] from the Medieval Period to the Present
* [http://www.wendy.com/women/artists.html Women Artists in History]
* [http://www.nmwa.org National Museum of Women in the Arts]
* [http://faculty.pittstate.edu/~knichols/flaming.html Pre-Raphaelite Women, Part D: The Art-Sisters Gallery]
* [http://members.cox.net/academia/cassattxx.html Women's Art at the World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893]
* [http://www.english.uiowa.edu/courses/boos/galleries/womenartgall/index.html Gallery of Victorian and Edwardian Women Artists] at the University of Iowa
* [http://latest-art.co.uk/ UK's "Latest Art Magazine"] Polled Experts to list the 30 Greatest Women Artists. [http://latest-art.co.uk/pdfs/2/018_LA002.pdf Features] [http://latest-art.co.uk/pdfs/2/019_LA002.pdf six] [http://latest-art.co.uk/pdfs/2/020_LA002.pdf pages] [http://latest-art.co.uk/pdfs/2/021_LA002.pdf of] [http://latest-art.co.uk/pdfs/2/023_LA002.pdf artist] [http://latest-art.co.uk/pdfs/2/024_LA002.pdf profiles] .
* [http://www.myspace.com/colouringoutsidethelines Colouring Outside The Lines.] A UK zine interviewing female contemporary artists from around the world.


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  • List of Indian women artists — * Amrita Sher Gil * Anita Dube * Anjolie Ela Menon * Anju Dodiya * Anjum Chaturvedi * Anjum Singh * Anupam Sud * Archana Hande * Arpana Caur * Arpita Singh * Bhanu Athaiya * Bharti Kher * B. Prabha * Chameli Ramachandran * Dayanita Singh * Gargi… …   Wikipedia

  • Women's music — (or womyn s music, wimmin s music) is the music by women, for women, and about women (Garofalo 1992:242). The genre emerged as a musical expression of the second wave feminist movement (Peraino 2001:693) as well as the labor, civil rights, and… …   Wikipedia

  • Women in Photography International — Women In Photography International, WIPI, was founded in [1981] to promote the visibility of women working in the Photographic Arts. As an educational nonprofit organization, WIPI provides member benefits that accommodate changing interests and… …   Wikipedia

  • Women Make Movies — (WMM) is a multicultural, multiracial, non profit media arts organization which facilitates the production, promotion, distribution and exhibition of independent films and videotapes by and about women. Established in 1972 to address the under… …   Wikipedia

  • Women's writing in English — Women s writing as a discrete area of literary studies is based on the notion that the experience of women, historically, has been shaped by their gender, and so women writers by definition are a group worthy of separate study. Their texts emerge …   Wikipedia

  • Women in the workforce — Part of a series on Women in Society …   Wikipedia


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