- James King (Royal Navy officer)
Infobox Military Person
name= James King
lived= 1750 – 1784
Clitheroe, Lancashire, England
caption= Portrait of Captain James King from the National Library of Australia [http://nla.gov.au/nla.pic-an2292701]
allegiance= flagicon|United Kingdom
serviceyears= 1762 – 1784
Royal Navy Post captain
laterwork= Captain James King, FRS (1750–1784) , served under
James Cookon his last voyage around the world, specialising in taking important astronomical readings using a sextant. After Cook died he helped lead the ships on the remainder of their course, also completing Cook's account of the voyage.
Captain King was born in
Clitheroe, Lancashire, the son of the Reverend James King, who was at that time curate of St Mary Magdalene, Clitheroe. According to the parish registersyoung James King was baptised on 13 July 1750, presumably shortly after his birth. At an early age King entered Clitheroe Royal Grammar School, where he remained until he was 12 years old.
King entered the navy on 19th November 1762 (not unusual in those days for someone so young) under the patronage of his kinsman William Norton, serving under him first in the Assistance as an able seaman, although in fact he was treated as a
junior officer, and then as a midshipman in the William and Mary. After further service as an able seaman or midshipmanin the Gibraltar and Liverpool, King joined the Guernsey, Captain James Chads, on 15th March 1768 as an able seaman for service on the Newfoundland station under Commodore Hugh Palliser, a friend and patron of Captain Cook.
Having passed for
lieutenanton 7th March 1769, King was promoted to this rank on 10th January 1771, serving in several ships before being placed on half pay in May 1773. He was then granted leave to go abroad on his private affairs for one year, spending this time in Parisin scientific study. This was followed by a period with his brother Walter at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he made the acquaintance of the Reverend Thomas Hornsby, Savilian Professor of Astronomy, who recommended him for Cook's third voyage.
ervice on Captain Cook's third voyage
On board the Resolution King shared the duties of
astronomerwith Cook, taking astronomical observations on board by sextantto establish the Resolution's position at sea and on shore by sextant or by astronomical quadrant to establish the geographical position of salient points during the course of Cook's surveys. Thus King's geographical positions were an important contribution to the accuracy of the various surveys carried out during the voyage.
Following the death of Cook, King remained in the Resolution but on the death of
Charles Clerke, Cook's successor, King was appointed in command of the Discovery, the Resolution's consort, remaining in her for the rest of the voyage. After his return to England King was very much involved in the publication of the official account of Cook's third voyage, writing the third volume at Woodstock, near Oxford, where his brother Thomas was rector of St Mary Magdalene. But shortly after his return King was promoted post captainand appointed in command of the Crocodileon Channel service.
Then towards the end of 1781 he was appointed in command of
HMS Resistance, 40 guns, as escort for a large fleet of merchantmento the West Indies, returning to England shortly afterwards with his health much impaired. He then returned to Woodstock to continue to work on Cook's third voyage. After the publication of the three-volume account of the voyage, advancing tuberculosisdrove him to Nice, accompanied by his friends James Trevenen, who had served with him in the Resolution and Discovery, and Captain William Young, who had served with him in the Guernsey, where he died on 16 November 1784at the age of 34, although the memorial tablet in Woodstock parish church states erroneously that he died in his 32nd year. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Societyin 1782 in recognition of his astronomical observations during Cook' third voyage he was also made an honorary L.L.D. Oxon.
* [http://www.biographi.ca/009004-119.01-e.php?&id_nbr=1986 Biography at the "Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online"]
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