El Espectador

El Espectador

{| class="toccolours" cellpadding="3" cellspacing="0" style="float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; clear: right" width="43%"Infobox_Newspaper

caption ="El Espectador" front page, 18 September 2008 issue
type = Daily newspaper
format = Tabloid
price = $1,200 (Mon-Sat)
$3,000 (Sun)
foundation = 22 March 1887
owners = Julio Mario Santo Domingo
political = Centre-left
headquarters = Comunican S. A.
Avenida El Dorado 69-76
Bogotá, Colombia
editor = Jorge Cardona
chiefeditor = Élber Gutiérrez Roa
language = Spanish
circulation = 50,000 (Mon-Sat)cite web|author= |url = http://www.dinero.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?IdArt=47677 |title =Periódicos en busca de nuevos negocios |date=2008-05-09|publisher=Dinero|language=es]
190,000 (Sun)
ISSN = 0122-2856
publisher = Fidel Cano Correa
website = [http://elespectador.com elespectador.com]

"El Espectador" is a newspaper with national circulation within Colombia, founded by Fidel Cano Gutiérrez on 22 March 1887 in Medellín and published since 1915 in Bogotá. It changed from a daily to a weekly edition in 2001, following a financial crisis, and became a daily again since 11 May 2008cite web|author= |url = http://elespectador.com/node/12610/ |title =El Espectador impreso vuelve a ser diario|date=2008-05-07|publisher=El Espectador|language=es] cite web|last=Solano |first= Víctor|url = http://victorsolano.com/2008/05/03/el-espectador-vuelve-a-diario-el-11-de-mayo/|title =El Espectador vuelve a diario el 11 de mayo|date=2008-05-03|language=es] , a comeback which had been long rumouredcite web|last=Solano |first= Víctor|url = http://victorsolano.com/2008/01/13/%c2%bfpasara-este-ano-el-periodico/|title = ¿Pasará este año El Periódico?|date=2008-01-13|language=es] cite web|author=|url =http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?IdArt=111133|title = ‘El Espectador’ diario|publisher=Semana|date=2008-04-19|language=es] , in tabloid format (28 x 39.5 cm).

Since its first issue to present its motto has been "El Espectador will work for the good of the country with liberal criteria and for the good of the liberal principles with patriotic criteria". It was initially published twice a week, 500 issues each. It defined itself as a "political, literary, news and industrial newspaper". Years later it would become a daily and in 2001 became a weekly. Since then, the paper uses the slogan "El Espectador. Opinion is news", implying it now focuses in opinion articles, not in breaking news. This focus will continue in the daily edition started 11 May 2008cite web|last=Osorio |first=Marcela|url =http://elespectador.com/node/13051/ |title=¡Seguimos adelante!|publisher="El Espectador"|date=2008-05-11|accessdate=2008-05-11|language=es] .

In 1994, after conducting a survey, "Le Monde" considered "El Espectador" one of the best 8 daily newspapers in the world, along with "The New York Times" (United States), "Financial Times" (United Kingdom), "Izvestia" (Russia), "People's Daily" (China), "Al Ahram" (Egypt), "Asahi Shimbun" (Japan), and "Times of India".cite web|last=Cojean |first=Annick|url =http://www.lemonde.fr/cgi-bin/ACHATS/acheter.cgi?offre=ARCHIVES&type_item=ART_ARCH_30J&objet_id=349295|title=ENQUÊTE Le " New York Times " ou l'obsession de l'excellence Sûr de lui, réputé pour son esprit de sérieux et ses éditoriaux cinglants, le journal de référence américain veut maintenant se rapprocher de ses lecteurs|publisher="Le Monde"|date=1994-12-09|accessdate=2008-03-29|language=fr]

It is the oldest newspaper in Colombia, founded only 10 years after "The Washington Post", the oldest in the Americas. According to the latest "Estudio General de Medios" (EGM – Segunda Ola 2007 (II-2007)), "El Espectador" has 687,900 readers every week.cite web|author=El Espectador|url=http://elespectador.com/noticias/negocios/articulo-audiencia-de-elespectadorcom-crecio-79-ciento|title=Audiencia de Elespectador.com creció 79 por ciento|language=es|date=2007-12-03] It is a member of the Inter American Press Association and the Asociación de Diarios Colombianos (ANDIARIOS).

It has proclaimed itself as "neutral," but in 2007 its director openly said he did not agree with President Álvaro Uribe Vélez's government.cite web|last=Rueda|first=María Isabel|url =http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?idArt=101595|title = ¿Quién es el Fidel Cano que hoy dirige ‘El Espectador’ que otro Fidel Cano fundó hace 120 años?|work=Semana|language=es|date=2007-03-17]


Since its foundation, "El Espectador" acted as a speaker for Colombian Liberal Party, at the time opposed to the administrations of the conservative Regeneration. It was closed by the authorities several times:cite web|author= UDEA|url = http://biblioteca-virtual-antioquia.udea.edu.co/pdf/15/15_692338119.pdf|title = HISTORIA DEL PERIODISMO ANTIOQUEÑO|pages=pp. 15|language=es]

*8 July 1887, by Rafael Núñez administration, 134 days after its first issue, until 10 January 1888.
*27 October 1888, by the then designated Carlos Holguín, until 12 February 1891; previously, the Catholic Church had forbidden its followers to read the newspaper, because of the critics to the "lavishness of the Catholic Church in public celebrations" made by its director.cite web|url=http://ipsnoticias.net/nota.asp?idnews=40440|title=El Espectador cumple 120 años de protagonista|last=Martínez|first=Helda|date=2007-03-21|publisher=Inter Press Service|language=es]
*On 26 September 1892 the government fined the newspaper with $200.000 after considering one of its articles "subversive".
*8 August 1893, by Antioquia governor Abraham García, until 14 March 1896. Fidel Cano Gutiérrez was jailed.
*On 27 June 1896, until 27 April 1897, due to a favourable press law recently passed by the Congress.
*The outbreak of the Thousand Days War made "El Espectador" to suspend its activities between 19 October 1899 and 16 October 1903
*On 17 December 1904 it was suspended again, after facing difficulties and opposing Rafael Reyes administration. It appeared again on 2 January 1913, as a evening daily in Medellín.

Since 10 February 1915 "El Espectador" was simultaneously published in Medellín and Bogotá. Its Medellín edition was suspended on 20 July 1923.

In 1948, after the murder of Liberal Party chief Jorge Eliecer Gaitán, its circulation was suspended during three days. Since then, "El Espectador" had to deal with the censorship of the then ruling Conservative Party several times. On 9 November 1949, Luis Cano Villegas, its director, retired as a protest for the seizure of the entire edition by the government, being replaced by his brother Gabriel Cano Villegas. On 6 September 1952, its facilities, then located downtown Bogotá, as well as the building of competitor "El Tiempo" and the houses of Liberal Party leaders Eduardo Santos and Carlos Lleras Restrepo, were looted and partially destroyed, apparently with tolerance from the government. It reappeared on 16 September.

In 1955 the newspaper outspokenly opposed to the military government of Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, publishing several articles by Alberto Lleras Camargo, with a big effect on public opinion. In December, the government accused "El Espectador" of several accounting and tax irregularities, and fined the newspaper with $10,000 on 20 December 1955. On 6 January 1956 the National Taxes Direction imposed "El Espectador" a sanction of $600,000. Its directors, who were forbidden to respond the accusations on the paper, suspended its publication that day.

In order to replace "El Espectador", on 15 February 1956 appeared "El Independiente", directed by Alberto Lleras Camargo, who retired in April when the newspaper was closed during a few months. It was published again in 1957 but due to an agreement by the opposition newspapers, it suspended its publication on 5 May. Five days later, Rojas Pinilla was ousted. "El Independiente" circulated until 1 June 1958, when it was formally replaced by "El Espectador".

In 1964 its headquarters moved from downtown to western Bogotá, on the avenida 68, known at that area as "Avenida El Espectador". At the inauguration, its then director Gabriel Cano said: "if "El Tiempo" has the best corner in Bogotá, "El Espectador" has the best corner in the country."cite web|author= |url =http://www.cromos.com.co/cromos/Secciones/Articulo.aspx?idn=1813|title =Postales inolvidables|language=es|publisher=Revista Cromos|year=2007]

Throughout the 20th century "El Espectador" was the main Liberal newspaper, with "El Tiempo", both holding an important political influence. Among its main contributors it had some of the most important Colombian journalists at the time, like Luis Eduardo Nieto Caballero, Alberto Lleras Camargo, Eduardo Zalamea Borda, Gabriel García Márquez, Eduardo Caballero Calderón, Klim, Antonio Panesso Robledo, Inés de Montaña, Alfonso Castillo Gómez, José Salgar, as well as cartoonists Hernán Merino, Pepón, Consuelo Lago, and Osuna.

Journalism of ideas

During the 20th century "El Espectador" criticized other mass media in Colombia, which preferred to remain silent instead of denouncing the atrocities happening in the country.cite web|first=Guillermo|last=Cano Isaza|url = http://www.fundacionguillermocano.com/porGC/noticiero_oficial_militar_en_TV.php|title=Noticiero Oficial Militar en TV|publisher=Fundación Guillermo Cano|work=Libreta de Apuntes, El Espectador|date=1980-07-27|language=es] On early 1980s, the then daily published several articles denouncing illegal loans and other irregularities against the Grupo Grancolombiano, one of the most powerful economical groups at the time. As a retaliation, several big companies pulled their ads on the paper out, which was already facing some financial issues. "El Espectador" disavowed this fact and dedicated a editorial piece to its credibility and the credibility of those economical groups.cite web|first=Guillermo|last=Cano Isaza|url = http://www.fundacionguillermocano.com/porGC/la_credibilidad_de_un_periodico.php|title =La credibilidad de un periódico|publisher=Fundación Guillermo Cano|work=Libreta de Apuntes, El Espectador|date=1983-07-17|language=es]

"El Espectador" also demanded on its editorials freedom of the press and denounced the political censorship the independent media outlets had to deal with to not being closed,cite web|first=Guillermo|last=Cano Isaza|url = http://www.fundacionguillermocano.com/porGC/sobre_la_libertad_de_prensa.php|title=Sobre la libertad de prensa|publisher=Fundación Guillermo Cano|work=Editorial, El Espectador|date=1983-09-28|language=es] stating that "not even in the worst times of press censorship or political retaliation, some had to resort to crime in order to silence the press, in one of its more noble and higher democratic functions." It recognized that in Colombia "the death penalty ordered and executed from the lowest social holes has become an habit, as a revenge to the labour of social sanity the press is committed to." It concluded saying that "the siege and danger feeling —on the press— would negatively be reflected on the very own democratic system."

The newspaper rejected to be considered as "subversive opposition" and criticized Liberal president Julio César Turbay Ayala's government, which on its words wished to "have a totally aulic, extremely pro-government press, not silenced but flattering." To defend itself, the paper published 15 July 1979 a column named "Si eso es oposición..." ("If that's opposition...")cite web|first=Guillermo|last=Cano Isaza|url =http://www.fundacionguillermocano.com/porGC/si_eso_es_oposicion.php|title =Si eso es oposición...|publisher=Fundación Guillermo Cano|work=Libreta de Apuntes, El Espectador|date=1979-07-15|language=es] On the same text, the newspaper declared itself "neutral", considering that a democracy should not be polarized, "because in the times we are living, newspapers are increasingly more independent from governments, more devoted entirely to report and guide according to their honest knowledge and understanding," adding that the "unanimous, one-way, uniformed, official press is (intended) for dictatorships and not for democracies... and we believe that Colombia is still a democracy."

"El Espectador" also criticized, openly, drug trafficking:

Guillermo Cano's murder

As stated before, "El Espectador" stood firm against drug trafficking and often published articles on its crimes.

On 17 December 1986, the then director of "El Espectador", Guillermo Cano Isaza, was assassinated in front of the newspaper offices by gunmen paid by Pablo Escobar, after publishing several articles critical of Colombia's drug barons. Cano left the headquarters around 19:00 on his family station wagon. After he made a U-turn on the Avenida El Espectador, one of the hitmen approached the wagon Cano was driving, shot him on his chest eight times, and then ran away on a motorcycle identified with the licence plate FAX84. Cano was 61 years-old, and had been a journalist for 44. His murder is still considered unpunished.cite web|url=http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/61871|title=Release of one of the accused in journalist's murder a setback in the fight against impunity, says IAPA|author=Inter American Press Society|date=2004-10-08|publisher=International Freedom of Expression Exchange] cite web|url=http://www.ifex.org/en/content/view/full/80076|title=Launching of Guillermo Cano university chair among activities marking 20th anniversary of "El Espectador" editor's murder, still unpunished|author=Fundación para la Libertad de Prensa|date=2006-12-22|publisher=International Freedom of Expression Exchange] citeweb|url=http://www.fipcolombia.com/noticiaAmpliar.php?noticia=373|title=20 AÑOS DEL SACRIFICIO DE GUILLERMO CANO ISAZA|language=es|date=2006-12-07|author=Fundación Guillermo Cano Isaza|publisher=Centro de Solidaridad - Federación Internacional de Periodistas] cite web|url=http://mercury.websitewelcome.com/~imcom/index.php?idioma=us&showreporte=49|title=Case: Guillermo Cano Isaza|author=|publisher=Crimes Against Journalists, Impunity Project] The next day, "El Espectador"'s main headline was "Seguimos adelante" ("We are going on").

The World Press Freedom Prize, awarded annually by UNESCO since 1997, is named in his honour, for "his courage, his compromise with independent journalism and the tenacity with which he fought for his country", which "are an example for the rest of the world to follow. Guillermo Cano's fate exemplifies the price paid by journalists the world over in exercising their profession; journalists are imprisoned and ill-treated every day and the fact that these crimes, for the most part, go unpunished is even more alarming."cite web|url=http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=18594&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html|title=About the UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize|author=|publisher=UNESCO|date=2006-10-18]

On 2 September 1989 the paper's offices were bombed by the Medellín Cartel. The blast occurred around 06:30; it blew the building's roof up, destroyed the main entry and affected the newspaper's production. The bomb was hidden in a van parked minutes before it exploded in front of the main entry. The same day, 6 armed men broke into an exclusive island in Islas del Rosario, near Cartagena de Indias, and set fire to the Cano family's summer house.

Defence of the freedom of the press

On 29 May 2000 Reporters Without Borders issued a letter of protest to Interior Minister Humberto de La Calle Lombana, on the kidnapping of journalist Jineth Bedoyacite web|url=http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:2-gKENNKNfMJ:www.rsf.org/rsf/uk/rap2000/amer/colombia.html&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=17 |title=2000 Annual report - Colombia|author=|publisher=Reporters Without Borders] , at the time working for "El Espectador", allegedly carried out by members of the paramilitary United Self-Defence Forces of Colombia (AUC). Robert Ménard, RWB's secretary general, "stated that he was "scandalised" by this latest attack on Bedoya".cite web|url=http://www.google.com/search?q=cache:JZaZR73BXq0J:www.rsf.org/rsf/uk/html/ameriques/cplp/lp/290500.html&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&lr=lang_en |title=Journalist kidnapped|author=|publisher=Reporters Without Borders|date=2000-05-29] She would later join "El Tiempo".

On 23 August 1999, a group called Colombian Rebel Army (ERC) published a communiqué issuing death threats against 21 personalities engaged in the then ongoing peace process, accusing them of "promoting war between Colombians". Among those personalities two "El Espectador" contributors were mentioned, Alfredo Molano y Arturo Alape. On 19 January 1999, Molano left the country (he would return years later). Molano had condemned the massacre of 130 people perpetrated weeks before by members of AUC commanded by Carlos Castaño, who had referred to Molano as "paraguerrilla". On 18 September, Plinio Apuleyo Mendoza, who had worked for "El Espectador" and RCN Radio, went into exile.

Between February and May 2000, journalist Ignacio Gómez received at least 56 threatening letters. In an article published by "El Espectador", Gómez had revealed that a massacre where 49 peasants were killed was perpetrated by paramilitary militias supported by members of the Colombian Army. After escaping a kidnapping attempt in Bogotá on 24 May, Gómez sought refuge in the United States on 1 June 2000. He would return to Colombia one year latercite web|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=317|title= The press as a "military target" : armed groups against press freedom |last=Bourgeat|first=Régis|coauthors=Iván García|date=2001-11-22|publisher=Reporters Without Borders] and become part of "Noticias Uno" TV newscast.

On 21 March 2003 columnist Fernando Garavito left Colombia for the United States, after several death threats. He denounced human rights violations by AUC, as well as the alleged tolerance on drug barons in the past by the then presidential candidate Álvaro Uribe Vélez.cite web|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=6191 |title=Colombia - 2003 Annual Report| author=|publisher= Reporters Without Borders] On 8 February 2003 photojournalist Herminso Ruiz was beaten and had his camera confiscated by members of the Colombian National Police while he was covering El Nogal club bombing.cite web|last=Miembros de la Policía agreden a fotógrafo de El Espectador |url = http://www.flip.org.co/veralerta.php?idAlerta=102|title =Miembros de la Policía agreden a fotógrafo de El Espectador|language=es|date=2003-02-10|publisher=Fundación para la Libertad de Prensa] cite web|author=|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=10198|title =Colombia - Annual Report 2004|publisher=Reporters Without Borders] The incident was contempt by organizations as RWB.cite web|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=5103 |title=Concern about death threats against head of news photographers’ association |date=2003-03-07|publisher=Reporters Without Borders]

On May 2003 the newspaper, through an editorial written by its then director Ricardo Santamaría, reported on "interference" on an investigation it was carrying on the alleged irregularities in Banco del Pacífico, claiming that Police intelligence officials had obtained access to a draft of the report and sent it, through the Colombian National Police director, Teodoro Campo, to the then Interior Minister Fernando Londoño, who was a chairman of the bank. cite web|url=http://www.flip.org.co/veralerta.php?idAlerta=92|title= El Espectador denuncia interfrencia en investigación periodística |language=es |date=2003-05-12 |publisher=Fundación para la Libertad de Prensa] Organizations defending freedom of the press expressed their contempt and their "deep concern". Campo denied any involvement, while minister Londoño claimed the draft was sent anonymously to him.cite web|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=6866 |title=Police accused of spying on news weekly for the benefit of interior and justice minister|publisher=Reporters Without Borders|author=|date=2003-05-16]

On 18 November 2004, a Bogotá court sentenced columnist and film director Lisandro Duque to three days in jail and a 470 euros fine, for not publishing a rectification after a sentence for defamation, when in column published 13 April 2003 Duque criticized Claudia Triana de Vargas, manager of a film production company. Instead of rectifying, Duque wrote in a piece published 7 September that he had "no enough evidence" to support his criticism. Duque appealed the court sentence.

"El Espectador" in the 21st century

Presence on the web

On 29 May 1996 the then daily newspaper launched its website "elespectador.com" [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/19961103222924/www.elespectador.com/9605/29/homepage.htm|title =elespectador.com|date=1996-05-29|publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] . Its design format and layout have been changed several times [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/20000510163526/http://www.elespectador.com/|title =elespectador.com|date=2000-05-10|publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/20000816060804/www.elespectador.com/hoy/index.htm|title =elespectador.com|date=2000-08-16|publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/20020124160244/http://www.elespectador.com/|title=elespectador.com|date =2002-01-12|publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/20020927021934/http://www.elespectador.com/|title=elespectador.com|date =2002-09-26|publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/20040610231559/http://www.elespectador.com/|title=elespectador.com|date=2004-06-10 |publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] In 2006 later added the .com to its logo, comments to the articles and user registration. [cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://web.archive.org/web/20070210002416/www.elespectador.com/elespectador/|title=elespectador.com| date=2007-02-10|publisher=Internet Wayback Machine] Access hits to Elespectador.com grew 79% in 2007.

On 7 March 2008 elespectador.com was revamped, setting up four "editions": online, latest news, news map and print version. It also improved the registration system and the RSS feeds, and added tags, audios, and videos taken from "Noticias Caracol", newscast from sister network Caracol TV, uploaded to its YouTube channel. The website is built with Drupal. "Elespectador.com" received the Colombian Chamber of Computing and Telecommunications's "Premio Colombia en Línea 2008" award to the best online news website in the countrycite web|author="Cámara Colombiana de Informática y Telecomunicaciones"|url =http://www.ccit.org.co/www/htm/premio_internet/premio_col_linea2008.asp|title=Premio Colombia en Línea 2008|date =2008-10-02|publisher= |language=es] cite web|author="El Espectador"|url =http://elespectador.com/node/41726/|title=Elespectador.com, mejor sitio de noticias online del país|date =2008-10-02|publisher= |language=es] .

From daily to weekly

Despite "El Espectador" had been the Colombian newspaper with the second highest circulation, after "El Tiempo", the financial difficulties worsened and in 1997 the Cano family sold most of their shares in Comunican S.A., "El Espectador" publishing company, to Julio Mario Santo Domingo, who at the time owned "Cromos", Caracol Radio (later sold to Spanish group PRISA) and Caracol TV. Its headquarters moved to the Avenida El Dorado. In September 2001 "El Espectador" became a weekly newspaper.

RWB stated that "media diversity suffered a heavy blow" when the newspaper "downgraded itself to a weekly."cite web|url=http://www.rsf.org/article.php3?id_article=1383 |title= COLOMBIA - Annual report 2002 (1/2)|author=|publisher=Reporters Without Borders]

The Cali newspaper "El País" said:cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/misc/newsid_1518000/1518041.stm |title= Colombia: la crisis golpea El Espectador |language=es |author=|publisher=BBC Mundo|date=2001-08-31] "El Espectador" is a standard in defence of freedom, the fight against drug trafficking and corruption."

Since then, their editors Rodrigo Pardo, Carlos Lleras de la Fuente, Ricardo Santamaría, and
Fidel Cano Correa tried to recover the financial balance and the newspaper's circulation. As a weekly, it was published on Saturdays, with Sunday's date. Counting with the free time readers have available on weekends, "El Espectador" focused on opinion, investigation, and analysis pieces, recovering its circulation, influence, and earnings.

In 2007 Fidel Cano Correa stated in an interview with "Revista Semana" that " [the return to a daily edition] is just a possibility. We have doing very well during the last three years, especially the last one." The Spanish group PRISA was considered as an strategic partner, but the negotiation failed when Santo Domingo refused to cede the control of the paper to PRISAcite web|url=http://www.semana.com/wf_InfoArticulo.aspx?idArt=111688 |title= De regreso |language=es |author=|publisher=Revista Semana|date=2008-05-10] . On 11 May 2008 "El Espectador" became a daily again, changing from broadsheet to tabloid format.

Daily focus, supplements, and alliances

Every day of the week, except Sunday, "El Espectador" devotes around 10 pages to a specific "focus":
*Monday: "Negocios" (Business)
*Thursday: "Deportes" (Sports)
*Wednesday: "Internacional" (World news)
*Thursday: "Vivir" (Living)
*Friday: "Cultura" (Culture)
*Saturday: "Gente" (People)

It also publishes three magazines, published once in a month each: "Autos"/"Motos", "Espacios", and "Discovery Health". On Mondays "El Espectador" publishes a 6-page edition of "The New York Times International Weekly"cite web|url=http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=105317&p=irol-pressArticle&ID=1200194&highlight= |title= The New York Times International Weekly Launches in Three Additional Newspapers Worldwide |author=Business Wire|publisher=The New York Times Company|date=2008-09-23] cite web|url=http://elespectador.com/node/35144/ |title= ‘The New York Times’ en El Espectador |language=es |author=|publisher="El Espectador"|date=2008-08-29 [http://static.elespectador.com/nytimes/nytimes_29092008.pdf see sample] ] , and on Tuesdays a two-paged Fox Sports minisection. It also syndicates articles from "Harvard Business Review" and "El País".


Since 2004, Lucie Lacava's Lacava Design has been in charge of "El Espectador"'s design for its print editioncite web|url=http://www.lacavadesign.ca/en/featuredprojects/elespec/index.html |title= Featured projects - El Espectador | |author=|publisher=Lacava Design] . "El Espectador" uses Hoefler & Frere-Jones's Mercury and Gotham typefaces since thencite web|url=http://cuatrotipos.wordpress.com/2008/05/25/el-espectador-de-colombia-de-nuevo-a-diario/ |title= El Espectador de Colombia, de nuevo a diario | |author=|publisher=Cuatro Tipos|date=2008-05-25|language=es] .

Current management and employees


*Gonzalo Córdoba Mallarino


*Fidel Cano Correa (2004-present)

Editorial board

*Héctor Abad Faciolince
*Ramiro Bejarano
*Alejandro Gaviria
*Armando Montenegro
*Pilar Reyes


*Jorge Cardona, editor-in-chief
*Sara Araújo, Arts and People.
*Olga Lucía Barona, Sports.
*Angélica Lagos, International.
*Leonardo Rodríguez, elespectador.com
*Norbey Quevedo, Investigations.
*Juan David Laverde, Crime and Law
*Hugo García Segura, Politics
*Luis F. Gutiérrez, Business
*Fernando Araújo Vélez, Bogotá

Regular columnists


* Héctor Abad Faciolince
* Fernando Araújo Vélez
* Ramiro Bejarano Guzmán
* Mauricio Botero Caicedo
* Álvaro Camacho Guizado
* Iván Cepeda Castro
* Juan Esteban Constain
* Humberto de la Calle
* Cristina de la Torre
* Lisandro Duque Naranjo
* Alejandro Gaviria
* Iván Mejía Álvarez
* Alfredo Molano Bravo
* Armando Montenegro
* Luis Fernando Montoya
* William Ospina
* Hernán Peláez Restrepo
* Hugo Sabogal
* Eduardo Sarmiento
* Harry Sason
* María Antonieta Solórzano
* Tola y Maruja
* María Emma Wills
* Ernesto Yamhure
* Felipe Zuleta Lleras


* María Elvira Bonilla
* Luis Carvajal Basto
* Roberto J. Camacho
* Álvaro Forero Tascón
* Germán González
* Salomón Kalmanovitz
* Lorenzo Madrigal
* Santiago Montenegro
* Mario Morales
* Mauricio Rodríguez
* Santiago Rojas


* Eduardo Barajas Sandoval
* Antonio Casale
* Tulio Elí Chinchilla
* Marcela Lleras
* Andrés Marocco
* Iván Mejía Álvarez
* Aura Lucía Mera
* Daniel Pacheco
* Hernán Peláez Restrepo
* César Rodríguez Garavito
* Reinaldo Spitaletta
* Rodrigo Uprimny


* Danilo Arbilla
* Fernando Carrillo Flórez
* Pascual Gaviria
* Hernán González Rodríguez
* Andrés Hoyos
* José Fernando Isaza
* Patricia Lara Salive
* Cecilia Orozco Tascón
* Hernando Roa Suárez
* Juan Pablo Ruiz Soto
* Arlene B. Tickner


* Rodolfo Arango
* Luis Eduardo Garzón
* Gustavo Gómez Córdoba
* María Teresa Herrán
* Ana Milena Muñoz de Gaviria
* Rafael Orduz
* Ángela María Orozco
* Uriel Ortiz Soto
* Elisabeth Ungar Bleier
* Klaus Ziegler


* Ricardo Arias Trujillo
* Ana María Cano Posada
* Hugo Chaparro Valderrama
* Juan David Correa Ulloa
* Jorge Iván Cuervo R.
* Francisco Gutiérrez Sanín
* Esteban Carlos Mejía
* Mario Morales
* Lucas Ospina
* Mario Fernando Prado
* Yesid Reyes Alvarado
* Augusto Trujillo Muñoz
* Juan Gabriel Vásquez
* Carlos Villalba Bustillo
* Juan Villoro


* Rocío Arias Hofman
* Juan Carlos Botero
* Diana Castro Benetti
* Manuel Drezner
* Mauricio García V.
* Julio César Londoño
* Adolfo Meisel Roca
* Sergio Otálora Montenegro
* Gustavo Páez Escobar
* Julián Posada
* Lola Salcedo Castañeda

yndicated columnists

*Paulo Coelho
*Umberto Eco
*Christopher Hitchens
*Nicholas D. Kristof
*Tomás Eloy Martínez

Former Publishers

*Ricardo Santamaría (2003)
*Carlos Lleras de la Fuente (1999 - 2002)
*Rodrigo Pardo (1998 - 1999)
*Juan Guillermo Cano and Fernando Cano (1986 - 1997)
*Guillermo Cano Isaza (1952 - 1986)
*Gabriel Cano (1919 - 1923: Medellín edition; 1949 - 1958 Bogotá edition)
*Luis Cano (1919 - 1949)
*Fidel Cano Gutiérrez (1887 - 1919)


External links

* [http://elespectador.com El Espectador web page]
** es [http://elespectador.com/ultimasnoticias Latest news]
** es [http://elespectador.com/impreso Print edition]
** es [http://elespectador.com/mapadenoticias News map]
** es [http://elespectador.com/videos Videos]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Espectador — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Personas en la procesión del Cristo del Gran Poder tomando fotos …   Wikipedia Español

  • espectador — espectador, ra adjetivo,sustantivo masculino y femenino 1. Que asiste a un espectáculo público: el público espectador. La obra gustó mucho a los espectadores. 2. Que mira con atención: No intervino en la discusión, estaba como mero espectador …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • espectador — espectador, ra adjetivo y sustantivo presente, circunstante, mirón. Mirón designa con cierta ironía, burla o desdén a la persona que presencia pasivamente un juego, trabajo o suceso calle­jero. → espectadores. (↑espectadores) …   Diccionario de sinónimos y antónimos

  • espectador — |èct...ô| s. m. 1. Aquele que assiste a espetáculo. 2. Pessoa que presencia algo. = TESTEMUNHA 3. Aquele que observa algo. = OBSERVADOR   ‣ Etimologia: latim spectator, oris   • Confrontar: expectador.   ♦ [Portugal] Variante de espetador após o… …   Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa

  • espectador — espectador, ra (Del lat. spectātor, ōris). 1. adj. Que mira con atención un objeto. 2. Que asiste a un espectáculo público. U. m. c. s.) …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • espectador — {{#}}{{LM E16185}}{{〓}} {{SynE16608}} {{[}}espectador{{]}}, {{[}}espectadora{{]}} ‹es·pec·ta·dor, do·ra› {{《}}▍ adj./s.{{》}} {{<}}1{{>}} Que mira con atención: • Yo aquí solo soy un espectador y no quiero intervenir.{{○}} {{<}}2{{>}} Que asiste a …   Diccionario de uso del español actual con sinónimos y antónimos

  • espectador — (Del lat. spectator, oris.) ► sustantivo 1 ESPECTÁCULOS Persona que presencia un espectáculo público: ■ ha aumentado el número de espectadores de teatro este año. ► adjetivo 2 Que mira con interés o atención: ■ observaba con ojos espectadores el… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • espectador — (m) (Básico) persona que observa durante una actuación u otro evento organizado Ejemplos: A su concierto acudieron más de dos mil espectadores. Los espectadores se levantaron para aplaudir. Sinónimos: asistente, público (m) (Básico) persona que… …   Español Extremo Basic and Intermediate

  • espectador — s y adj 1 Persona que presencia o mira un espectáculo o cualquier acto dirigido a un público: Algunos espectadores agredieron al árbitro , Ha aumentado el número de espectadores de los noticieros televisivos , El espectador es dueño de una… …   Español en México

  • espectador — es|pec|ta|dor Mot Agut Nom masculí …   Diccionari Català-Català

  • espectador(es) — Sinónimos: ■ asistente, concurrente, presente, oyente ■ concurrencia, público, auditorio, audiencia, asistencia …   Diccionario de sinónimos y antónimos