- Energy quality
Energy quality the contrast between different forms of energy, the different
trophic levels in ecological systems and the propensity of energy to convert from one form to another. The concept refers to our empirical experience of the characteristics, or qualia, of different energy forms as they flow and transform. It appeals to our common perceptionof the heatvalue, versatility, and environmental performance of different energy forms and the way a small increment in energy flow can sometimes produce a large transformation effect on both energy physical stateand energy. For example the transition from a solidstate to liquidmay only involve a very small addition of energy. Methods of evaluating energy quality are sometimes concerned to develop a system of ranking energy qualities in hierarchical order.
Since before antiquity there has been deep
philosophical, aestheticand scientific interest in the contrast of qualitywith quantity. In some respects the history of modern and postmodernthought can be characterized by the phenomenological approach to these two concepts. A central question has been whether the many different qualitative aspects of the world can be understood in terms of rational quantities, or whether the qualitative and quantitative are irreconcilable: that is, there is no "rational quality", or quale ratio. Many scientists and analytic philosophers say they are not, and therefore consider some qualitative phenomena like, for instance, spirituality, and astrologyto be unquantifiable, unanalysable by scientific methods, and therefore ungrounded in physical reality. The notion of energy quality therefore has a tendency to be linked with phenomena many scientists consider unquantifiable, or at least incommunicable, and are consequently dismissed out of hand.
At the same time many people have also recognised qualitative differences in the way things can be done by different entities (both physical and biological). Humans, for example have qualitatively different capacities than many other mammals, due, in part, to their
opposable thumb. In the attempt to formalise some of the qualitative differences, entities were grouped according to distinguishing features or capacities. Different schools of thought used different methods to make distinctions. Some people chose taxonomicand genome structure, while others chose energetic function as the basis of classifications. The former are often associated with biology, while the latter with the trophic food chain analysis of ecology. These can be considered attempts to formalise quantitative, scientific studies of the qualitative differences between entities. The efforts were not isolated to biology and ecology, since engineers were also interested in quantifying the amount of work that qualitatively different sources of energy could provide.
According to Ohta (1994, pp. 90-91) the ranking and scientific analysis of energy quality was first proposed in
1851by William Thomson under the concept of "availability". This concept was continued in Germany by Z. Rant, who developed it under the title, "die Exergie" (the exergy). It was later continued and standardised in Japan. Exergyanalysis now forms a common part of many industrial and ecological energy analyses. For example, I.Dincer and Y.A. Cengel (2001, p. 132) state that energy forms of different qualities are now commonly dealt with in steam power engineeringindustry. Here the "quality index" is the relation of exergy to the energy content (Ibid.). However energy engineers were aware that the notion of heat quality involved the notion of value - for example A. Thumann wrote, "The essential quality of heat is not the amount but rather its 'value'" (1984, p. 113) - which brings into play the question of teleologyand wider, or ecological-scale goal functions. In an ecological context S.E. Jorgensen and G.Bendoricchio say that exergy is used as a goal function in ecological models, and expresses energy "with a built-in measure of quality like energy" (2001, p. 392).
Energy quality evaluation methods
There appear to be two main kinds of methodology used for the calculation of energy quality. These can be classed as either receiver or donor methods. One of the main differences that distinguishes these classes is the assumption of whether energy quality can be upgraded in an energy transformation process.
Receiver methods: view energy quality as a measure and indicator of the relative ease with which energy converts from one form to another. That is, how much energy is received from a transformation or transfer process. For example, A. Grubler [http://www.iiasa.ac.at/Research/TNT/WEB/Publications/Transition_in_Energy_Use/transitions-euse-ene_encyclop_2004.pdf] used two types of indicators of energetic quality "pars pro toto": the hydrogen/carbon (H/C) ratio, and its inverse, the carbon intensity of energy. Grubler used the latter as an indicator of relative environmental quality. However Ohta says that in multistage industrial conversion systems, such as a hydrogen production system using solar energy, the energy quality is not upgraded (1994, p. 125).
Donor methods: view energy quality as a measure of the amount of energy used in an energy transformation, and that goes into sustaining a product or service (H.T.Odum 1975, p.3). That is how much energy is donated to an energy transformation process. These methods are used in ecological physical chemistry, and ecosystem evaluation. From this view, in contrast with that outlined by Ohta, energy quality "is" upgraded in the multistage trophic conversions of ecological systems. Here, upgraded energy quality has a greater capacity to feedback and control lower grades of energy quality. Donor methods attempt to understand the "usefulness" of an energetic process by quantifying the extent to which higher quality energy controls lower quality energy.
Energy quality in physical-chemical science (direct energy transformations)
Constant energy form but variable energy flowT.Ohta suggested that the concept of energy quality may be more intuitive if one considers examples where the form of energy remains constant but the amount of energy flowing, or transferred is varied. For instance if we consider only the inertial form of energy, then the energy quality of a moving body is higher when it moves with a greater velocity. If we consider only the heat form of energy, then a higher temperature has higher quality. And if we consider only the light form of energy then light with higher frequency has greater quality (Ohta 1994, p. 90). All these differences in energy quality are therefore easily measured with the appropriate scientific instrument.
Variable energy form, but constant energy flowThe situation becomes more complex when the form of energy does not remain constant. In this context Ohta formulated the question of energy quality in terms of the conversion of energy of one form into another, that is the transformation of energy. Here, energy quality is defined by the relative ease with which the energy transforms, from form to form.
If energy A is relatively easier to convert to energy B but energy B is relatively harder to convert to energy A, then the quality of energy A is defined as being higher than that of B. The ranking of energy quality is also defined in a similar way. (T.Ohta 1994, p. 90).
Nomenclature: Prior to Ohta's definition above, A.W.Culp produced an energy conversion table describing the different conversions from one energy to another. Culp's treatment made use of a subscript to indicate which energy form is being talked about. Therefore, instead of writing "energy A", like Ohta above, Culp referred to "J"e"", to specify electrical form of energy, where" J" refers to "energy", and the "e"subscript refers to electrical form of energy. Culps notation anticipated Scienceman's (1997) later maxim that all energy should be specified as form energy with the appropriate subscript.
Energy quality in ecological physical chemistry (direct and indirect energy transformations)
Ecological physical chemistry is concerned with the energy conversions where the energy forms and flows are not held constant, and how the form changes over successive indirect transformation steps in an ecological food chain for example. However in developing an accounting system for these energy conversions, theorists found that they needed a reference point where the energy form and average flow is held constant.
cquote|The concept of energy quality enables the analyst to account for the previous indirect as well as direct requirements of energy flow. Such total energy flow requirements are analygous to cost in economic analysis. because the calculation of those energy requirements is based on a set of processes operating at optimum energy efficiency, the energy quality calculations are assumed to identify the total energy cost that is in balance with maximum utility. Odum, Wang, Alexander, Gilliland 1983, "A manual for using energy analysis for plant siting", Report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, FIN B6155.
Constant energy form and constant energy flowIn order to try and make things more easily understood a method is used that is the inverse of Ohta's approach mentioned above. That is, the energy quality determined with reference to a base constant energy form and flow. This base is then contrasted against varying energy forms and flows. This method was employed by
Howard T. Odumin the discipline known as systems ecology, where the base reference with an averaged constant flow is the solar energy form. This was referred to as the "solar energy transformation ratio" and given the value 1. With the subsequent development of the emergynomenclature the phrase, "solar energy transformation ratio" was shortened to the term "solar transformity", where "transformity" simply means, "energy transformation ratio" (H.T.Odum 1994).
Variable energy form, and variable energy flowIn using this approach H.T.Odum viewed energy quality from the understanding that different energy forms have different amounts of energy available and can vary and amplify the flows of other energy forms in ways that encourage the further transformation of lower quality energy forms. From this view, the actual flow of calories or joules can decrease as energy is used and dispersed throughout the world. The result of such energy transformation processes can be products, information, services or commodities that are understood to be higher ‘quality’ than the original energy forms. Although the base reference energy form flow is held constant all others are allowed to vary. Energy quality in this sense means that, “the flows become either very concentrated of very high in information content, in either case capable of controlling, amplifying and causing work that would not be otherwise possible” (H.T.Odum 1994, p. 251). H.T.Odum and colleagues used the generic term "energy transformation ratio", or "transformity" to refer to the energy quality "factor". This ratio contrasts two energy forms that are varied during the flow of a transformation process.
Energy quality in biophysical economics (indirect energy transformations)
The notion of energy quality was also recognised in the economic sciences. In the context of
biophysical economicsenergy quality was measured by the amount of economic output generated per unit of energy input (C.J.Cleveland 2000, p. 1). The estimation of energy quality in an economic context is also associated with embodied energymethodologies. Another example of the economic relevance of the energy quality concept is given by Brian Fleay. Fleay says that the "Energy Profit Ratio (EPR) is one measure of energy quality and a pivotal index for assessing the economic performance of fuels. Both the direct and indirect energy inputs embodied in goods and services must be included in the denominator." (2006; p.10) Fley calculates the EPR as the energy output/energy input.
Ranking energy quality
Energy abundance and relative transformation ease as measure of hierarchical rank and/or hirarchical position
Ohta sought to order energy form conversions according to their quality and introduced a hierarchical scale for ranking energy quality based on the relative ease of energy conversion (see table to right after Ohta, p. 90). It is evident that Ohta did not analyse all forms of energy, for example, water is left out of his evaluation. It is important to note that the ranking of energy quality is not determined solely with reference to the efficiency of the energy conversion. This is to say that the evaluation of "relative ease" of an energy conversion is only partly dependent on transformation efficiency. As Ohta wrote, "the turbine generator and the electromotor have nearly the same efficiency, therefore we cannot say which has the higher quality" (1994, p. 90). Ohta therefore also included, 'abundance in nature' as another critierion for the determination energy quality rank. For example, Ohta said that, "the only electrical energy which exists in natural circumstances is lightning, while many mechanical energies exist." (Ibid.). (See also table 1. in [http://www.exergy.se/ftp/japan85.pdf Wall's article] for another example ranking of energy quailty).
Transformity as an energy measure of hierarchical rank
Like Ohta, H.T.Odum also sought to order energy form conversions according to their quality, however his hierarchical scale for ranking was based on extending ecological system food chain concepts to thermodyanmics rather than simply relative ease of transformation . For H.T.Odum energy quality rank is based on the amount of energy of one form required to generate a unit of another energy form. The ratio of one energy form input to a different energy form output was what H.T.Odum and colleagues called
transformity: "the EMERGY per unit energy in units of emjoules per joule" (H.T.Odum 1988, p. 1135).
Eugene Green Energy Standard
Renewable energy development
Pirsig's metaphysics of Quality
* M.T. Brown and S. Ulgiati (2004) 'Energy quality, emergy, and transformity: H.T. Odum's contributions to quantifying and understanding systems, "Ecological Modelling", Vol. 178, pp. 201-213.
* A.W. Culp Jr. (1979) "Principles of Energy Conversion", McGraw-Hill Book Company
* I.Dincer and Y.A. Cengel (2001) 'Energy, Entropy and Exergy Concepts and Their Roles in Thermal Engineering', "Entropy", Vol. 3, pp. 116-149.
* B.Fleay (2006) [http://www.aph.gov.au/senate/committee/rrat_ctte/oil_supply/submissions/sub74.pdf Senate Rural and Regional Affairs and Transport Committee Inquiry into Australia’s Future Oil Supply and Alternative transport Fuels] , Submission by
Brian FleayB.ENG, M.ENG SC., MIEAUST, MAWA.
* S.Glasstone (1937) "The Electrochemistry of Solutions", Methuen, Great Britain.
* S.E.Jorgensen and G.Bendoricchio (2001) "Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling", Third Edition, Developments in Environmental Modelling 21, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.
* T.Ohta (1994) "Energy Technology:Sources, Systems and Frontier Conversion", Pergamon, Elsevier, Great Britain.
* H.T.Odum (1975a) "Energy Quality and Carrying Capacity of the Earth", A response at prize awarding ceremony of Institute La Vie, Paris.
* H.T.Odum (1975b) " [ Energy Quality Interactions of Sunlight, Water, Fossil Fuel and Land] ", from Proceedings of the conference on Water Requirements for Lower Colorado River Basin Energy Needs.
* H.T.Odum (1988) 'Self-Organization, Transformity, and Information', "Science", Vol. 242, pp. 1132-1139.
* H.T.Odum (1994) "Ecological and General Systems: An introduction to Systems Ecology", Colorado University Press, (especially page 251).
* D.M. Scienceman (1997) 'Letters to the Editor: Emergy definition', "Ecological Engineering", 9, pp. 209-212.
* A.THumann (1984) "Fundamentals of Energy Engineering".
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