Travertine is a
sedimentary rock. It is a natural chemical precipitate of carbonate minerals; typically Aragonite, but often recrystallized to or primarily Calcite. Basically, calcium carbonateis deposited from the water of mineral springs or rivulets saturated with calcium bicarbonate. The spring water can either be hot, warm or cold. The amount of deposits may increase with the water's temperature or when biotic materialaccelerates the precipitation. The ornate columns of travertine in caves is one example of an inorganic chemical sedimentary rock.
When carbon dioxide-rich water percolates through rocks in
limestoneareas, the water dissolves the limestone (typical karst process) and becomes saturated with it. When the environment the water runs through changes significantly (e.g. drop in pressure and/or change in temperature) this causes the water to release the carbon dioxide as gas, much like fizzy drinks. The calcium carbonate then recrystallizes; small debris, scrub and living biotic material such as moss, algae, and cyanobacteriaare encrusted. The biotic material may survive and continue growing on top. Rich deposits of aged, dried and hardened travertine were mined by the Romans. The rock typically remains quite porous, with numerous cavities. When exceptionally porous, it is known as calcareous tuff Fact|date=July 2008 (German: Kalktuff). When pure and fine, travertine is white, but often is brown to yellow due to impurities (other than carbonate minerals).
Extensive deposits exist at
Tivoli, Italy, near Rome. In fact, travertine derives its name from this town. Tivoli was known as Tibur in ancient Roman times. The ancient name for the stone was "lapis tiburtinus", meaning tibur stone, which has been corrupted to travertine.
Detailed studies of the Tivoli travertine deposits revealed diurnal and annual rhythmic banding and laminae which have potential use in
geochronology[ Folk, R. L., et al; (1985) "Bizarre forms of depositional and diagenetic calcite in hot spring travertines", in Carbonate Cements; SEPM Special Pub. 36.] .
Central Europe's last postglacial palaeoclimatic optimum (Atlantic Period, 8000-5000 B.C.), huge "Calcareous Tuff" of karst spring deposits formed. Important geotopes are found at the Swabian Alb, mainly in valleys at the foremost northwest ridge of the cuesta, in many valleys of the eroded periphery of the karstic Franconian Jura, at the northern Alpine foothills, and the northern Karst Alps. On a smaller scale these karst processes are still working. Travertine was a very important building material for housing and representative buildings since the Middle Ages.
Travertine has formed 16 huge, natural dams in a valley in Croatia known as Plitvice Lakes National Park. The travertine clings to moss and rocks in the water, and has built up over several millennia to form waterfalls up to 70 m in height. [ [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/fallinglakes/water.html Nature . Land Of The Falling Lakes | Pbs ] ]
Other beautiful cascades of natural lakes formed behind travertine dams can be seen in Band-i-Amir (Afghanistan), HuangLong Valley (Sichuan, China),
Semuc Champey( Guatemala), and Pamukkale(Turkey). Many geyser fields also have colorful travertine deposits.
Use as a building material
Travertine is often used as a
building material. The largest building in the world constructed mostly of travertine is the Colosseumin Rome. Other notable buildings using travertine extensively include the Sacré-CœurBasilica in Parisand the Getty Centerin Los Angeles, California. The travertine used in the construction was imported from Tivoli. The website of the Getty Center contains [http://www.getty.edu/visit/see_do/architecture.html more information] about the use of travertine in its construction, including some videos of travertine being quarried and cut for use. The stone is most widely used in Italy, Greece and Turkey.
Travertine is one of several natural stones that are used for paving patios and garden paths. It is sometimes known as travertine limestone, sometimes as travertine marble; these are the same stone, even though it is neither
limestonenor marble. The stone is characterised by pitted holes and troughs in its surface. Although these troughs occur naturally, they suggest to some eyes that considerable wear and tear has occurred over many years. Some installers use a grout to fill these holes, whereas others leave them open — travertine can even be purchased "filled" or "unfilled." It can be effectively polished to a smooth, shiny finish and comes in a variety of colors from grey to coral-red. Travertine is most commonly available in tilesizes for floor installations.
Travertine is one of the most frequently used stones in
modern architecture, and is commonly seen as façade material, wall cladding, and flooring. Architect Welton Becketwas one of the most frequent users of travertine, incorporating it extensively into many if not most of his projects. The entire first floor of the Becket-designed UCLA Medical Centerhas thick travertine walls.
There are two or three small travertine producers in the western United States. U.S. demand for travertine is about 0.85 million tonnes, almost all of it imported. Most of the imports come from Turkey, Mexico is next, then Italy, and then Peru. A decade ago, Italy had a near monopoly on the world travertine market.
* Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, "Manual of Mineralogy", 20th ed., Wiley, p. 496 ISBN 0-471-80580-7
* [http://epswww.unm.edu/facstaff/lcrossey/diagenesis/sjbtravert.htm New Mexico travertine study]
* [http://www.minerals.net/mineral/carbonat/aragonit/aragonit.htm Minerals.net Aragonite]
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Travertine — Trav er*tine, n. [F. travertin, It. travertino, tiburtino, L. lapis Tiburtinus, fr. Tibur an ancient town of Latium, now Tivoli.] (Min.) A white concretionary form of calcium carbonate, usually hard and semicrystalline. It is deposited from the… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
travertine — 1797, from It. travertino a kind of building stone, from L. tiburtinus, from Tiburs, adjective from Tibur (modern Tivoli), region in Latium … Etymology dictionary
travertine — [trav′ər tēn΄, trav′ərtin] n. [It travertino, altered < tiburtino < L ( lapis) Tiburtinus, (stone) of Tibur (now Tivoli)] a light colored, dense type of tufa, as dripstone or flowstone, deposited in caves or around limy springs, lakes, or… … English World dictionary
travertine — /trav euhr teen , tin/, n. a form of limestone deposited by springs, esp. hot springs, used in Italy for building. Also, travertin /trav euhr tin/. [1545 55; < It travertino, equiv. to tra across ( < L trans TRANS ) + (ti)vertino < L Tiburtinus,… … Universalium
travertine — 1. Hard calcareous mineral deposited by flowing water, that is the same as the calcareous variety of sinter and comparable to the softer tufa. The term is normally used only for deposits formed outside caves, where plants and algae cause the… … Lexicon of Cave and Karst Terminology
travertine — noun Etymology: French travertin, from Italian travertino, trevertino, from Latin tiburtinus, adjective, of travertine, literally, of Tibur (Tivoli) Date: 1730 a mineral consisting of a massive usually layered calcium carbonate (as aragonite or… … New Collegiate Dictionary
travertine — A limestone characterized by irregularly shaped hollows. It is used most for architecture (often cladding other materials), and is also used for outdoor sculpture. Travertine is quarried in the Tiber Valley near Rome … Glossary of Art Terms
travertine — noun a) Any of several light, porous forms of calcite deposited from solution; found most often as stalactites and stalagmites. b) A similar form of limestone used as a facing material in building … Wiktionary
travertine — n. type of limestone deposited at the mouth of a spring … English contemporary dictionary
travertine — [ travətɪn] noun white or light coloured calcareous rock deposited from mineral springs, used in building. Origin C18: from Ital. travertino, tivertino, from L. tiburtinus of Tibur (now Tivoli, near Rome) … English new terms dictionary