Bone: Tibia
Plan of ossification of the tibia. From three centers.
Gray's subject #61 256
MeSH Tibia

The tibia (English pronunciation: /ˈtɪbɪə/), shinbone, or shankbone is the larger and stronger of the two bones in the leg below the knee in vertebrates (the other being the fibula), and connects the knee with the ankle bones. The tibia is named for the Greek aulos flute, also known as a tibia. It is commonly recognized as the strongest weight bearing bone in the body.


In humans

The tibia is found next to the fibula. It is the second largest bone in the human body, the largest being the femur. The tibia articulates with the femur superiorly, the fibula laterally and with the talus inferiorly.

Sex differences

In the male, its direction is vertical, and parallel with the bone of the opposite side. In the female, it has a slightly oblique direction downward and laterally, to compensate for the greater obliqueness of the femur. Studies are inconclusive, however.


It is prismoid in form, expanded above, where it enters into the knee-joint, contracted in the lower third, and again enlarged but to a lesser extent towards the ankle joint.

The superior tibiofibular articulation is an arthrodial joint between the lateral condyle of the tibia and the head of the fibula. The inferior tibiofibular articulation (tibiofibular syndesmosis) is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the lower end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia. The tibia is connected to the fibula by an interosseous membrane, forming a type of joint called a syndesmosis. The forward flat part of the tibia is called the fibia, often confused with the fibula.

Blood supply

The tibia derives its arterial blood supply from two sources:[1]

  1. the nutrient artery (main source)
  2. periosteal vessels derived from the anterior tibial artery


The tibia has been modeled as taking an axial force during walking that is up to 4.7 bodyweight. Its bending moment in the sagittal plane in the late stance phase is up to 71.6 bodyweight times millimetre.[2]

In other animals

The structure of the tibia in most other tetrapods is essentially similar to that in humans. The tuberosity of the tibia, a crest to which the patellar ligament attaches in mammals, is instead the insertion point for the tendon of the quadriceps muscle in reptiles, birds, and amphibians, which have no patella.[3]

Additional images

See also


  1. ^ Nelson G, Kelly P, Peterson L, Janes J (1960). "Blood supply of the human tibia". J Bone Joint Surg Am 42-A: 625–36. PMID 13854090. 
  2. ^ Wehner T, Claes L, Simon U. (2009). Internal loads in the human tibia during gait. Clin Biomech 24(3):299-302. PMID 19185959 doi:10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.01.002
  3. ^ Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p. 205. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained within it may be outdated.

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • tibia — [ tibja ] n. m. • 1541; mot lat. « flûte », puis « os » à l époque impériale ♦ Le plus gros des deux os de la jambe, en forme de prisme triangulaire. Tibia et péroné. Fracture du tibia. Partie antérieure de la jambe, où se trouve le tibia. Tibias …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • tibia — TÍBIA, tibii, s.f. Os lung şi gros al piciorului, situat între genunchi şi gleznă, lângă peroneu, cu care formează scheletul gambei. [pr.: bi a] – Din fr., lat. tibia. Trimis de ana zecheru, 13.09.2007. Sursa: DEX 98  TÍBIA s. (anat.) fluier,… …   Dicționar Român

  • Tibia — Tibia …   Википедия

  • Tibia — (lat.) bezeichnet das Schienbein den Unterschenkel bei Gliederfüßern, siehe Tibia (Gliederfüßer) eine Gattung von Meeresschnecken, siehe Tibia (Schnecken) ein antikes Rohrblattinstrument, siehe Aulos eine Knochenflöte namentlich: Tibia… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • tibia — f. anat. Hueso par, largo y voluminoso que se halla en la parte anterior e interna de la pierna, junto al peroné. Se articula con el fémur por la parte superior, con el astrágalo (del pie) por la parte inferior y con el peroné, por el lateral.… …   Diccionario médico

  • Tibia —   [lateinisch, eigentlich »ausgehöhlter Stab«] die, /...biae,    1) Anatomie: das Schienbein (Bein). Bei Insekten die Schiene als Teil des Beins.    2) Musik: ursprünglich eine altrömische Knochenflöte, später lateinische Bezeichnung für ein dem …   Universal-Lexikon

  • tibia — (n.) lower leg bone, 1726, from L. tibia shinbone, also pipe, flute, in which sense it originally came into English (1540s). Of unknown origin. The Latin plural is tibiæ …   Etymology dictionary

  • tibia — tȋbia ž DEFINICIJA glazb. 1. pov. a. prvobitno koštana svirala b. puhaći instrument s dvostrukim jezičkom, ekvivalent grčkom aulosu 2. kod orgulja, jedan od registara iz skupine flauta ETIMOLOGIJA lat. tibia …   Hrvatski jezični portal

  • tibia — (Del lat. tibĭa). 1. f. Anat. Hueso principal y anterior de la pierna, que se articula con el fémur, el peroné y el astrágalo. 2. Zool. Una de las piezas, alargada en forma de varilla, de las patas de los insectos, que por uno de sus extremos se… …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • tibia — [tib′ē ə] n. pl. tibiae [tib′ē ē΄] or tibias [L < ?] 1. the inner and thicker of the two bones of the human leg between the knee and the ankle; shinbone: see SKELETON 2. a corresponding bone in the leg of other vertebrates 3. the fourth… …   English World dictionary

  • Tibia — Tib i*a, n.; pl. {Tibi[ae]}. [L.] 1. (Anat.) The inner, or preaxial, and usually the larger, of the two bones of the leg or hind limb below the knee. [1913 Webster] 2. (Zo[ o]l.) The fourth joint of the leg of an insect. See Illust. under… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

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