- Burgundian (party)
The Burgundian party was a political allegiance in
Francethat formed during the reign of Charles VI during the latter half of the Hundred Years' War. During that era the term "Burgundian" also applied to loyal subjects of the dukes of Burgundy.
The Dukes of Burgundy had inherited a large number of lands scattered from what is now the border of Switzerland up to the North Sea. The Duchy of Burgundy had been granted as an
appanageto Philip the Bold in the 14th century, and this was followed by other territories inherited by Philip and his heirs during the late 14th and 15th centuries, including the County of Franche-Comté (aka the County of Burgundy), Flanders, Artois, and many other domains in what are now Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlandsand northeastern France. Prosperous textile manufacture in the Low Countriesmade this among the wealthiest realms in Europe.
Partisan use of the term "Burgundian" arose from a feud between
John II, Duke of Burgundyand Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans. The latter was the brother of King Charles VI, the former was his cousin. When madness interrupted the king's ability to rule they vied for power in a bitter dispute. Popular rumor attributed an adulterous affair to the Duke of Orléans and French queen Isabeau of Bavaria. Supporters of the two dukes became known as "Burgundians" and "Orleanists," respectively.
Other than in Burgundy's own lands, the Duke's supporters were particularly powerful in
Paris, where the butchers' guild, notably, closely supported him.
The partisan terms outlasted the lives of these two men. John, Duke of Burgundy ordered the assassination of Louis, Duke of Orléans in
1407. Burgundian partisans at the University of Parispublished a treatise justifying this as tyrannicidein the belief that the Duke of Orléans had been plotting to kill the king and usurp the throne. Leadership of his party passed nominally to his son, Charles, but in fact to the young duke's father-in-law, Bernard VII, Count of Armagnac. After Orleans's capture by the English at Agincourt in 1415and Armagnac's murder by a Burgundian mob in Paris in 1417, leadership of the party devolved upon the young Dauphin, who retreated to Bourges.
1417, then, Burgundy controlled both Paris and the person of the king. However, the whole dispute was proving deleterious to the war effort against the English, as both sides focused more on fighting one another than on preventing the English from conquering Normandy. In 1419, the Duke and the Dauphin negotiated a truce to allow both sides to focus on fighting the English. However, in a further parley, the Duke was murdered by the Dauphin's supporters as revenge for the murder of Orleans twelve years before.
Burgundian party leadership passed to
Philip III, Duke of Burgundy. Duke Philip entered an alliance with England. Due to his influence and that of the queen, Isabeau, who had by now joined the Burgundian party, the mad king was induced to sign the Treaty of Troyeswith France(or should this be England) in 1420, by which Charles VI recognized Henry V of Englandas his heir, disinheriting his own son the Dauphin.
When Henry V and Charles VI both died within months of each other, leaving Henry's son
Henry VI of Englandas heir to both England and France, Philip the Good and the Burgundians continued to support the English. Nevertheless, dissension grew between Philip and the English regent, John, Duke of Bedford. Although family ties between Burgundy and Bedford (who had married the Duke's sister) prevented an outright rupture during Bedford's lifetime. Burgundy gradually withdrew support for the English and began to seek an understanding with the Dauphin, by now Charles VII of France. The two sides finally reconciled at the Treaty of Arras in 1435, a treaty which allowed the French king to finally return to his capital.
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