imagesize = 220px
image_caption = The
Iron Pagoda, or Youguo Pagoda of Kaifeng, built in 1049 AD during the Song Dynasty
mapsize = 220px
map_caption = Kaifeng in Henan
dot_x = |dot_y =
pushpin_map_caption =Location in China
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = China
subdivision_type1 = Province
timezone = China Standard
utc_offset = +8
latd=34 |latm=47 |lats=28 |latNS=N
longd=114 |longm=20 |longs=53 |longEW=E
blank_info =¥7,250 per capita (2004)
blank1_name =Major Nationalities
blank1_info =Han, Hui
blank2_name =County-level divisions
blank3_name =Township-level divisions
footnotes = Kaifeng (zh-stpw|s=wd|开wd|封|t=wd|開wd|封|p=Kāifēng|w=K'ai-feng), formerly known as Bianliang (zh-cp|c=汴梁 or 汴樑|p=Biànliáng), Bianjing (zh-cp|c=汴京|p=Biànjīng), Daliang (zh-cp|c=大梁 or 大樑|p=Dàliáng), or simply Liang (zh-cp|c=梁 or 樑|p=Liáng), is a
prefecture-level cityin eastern Henanprovince, People's Republic of China. Located along the southern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhouto the west, Xinxiangto the northwest, Shangqiuto the east, Zhoukouto the southeast, Xuchangto the southwest, and the province of Shandongto the northeast.
prefecture-level cityof Kaifeng administers 5 districts and 5 counties.
Shunhe Hui District(顺河回族区)
*Qi County (杞县)
Kaifeng is one of the Seven Ancient Capitals of China.
364 BC, the state of Wei during the Warring States Periodfounded a city called Daliang as its capital in this area. During this period, the first of many canals in the area was constructed; it linked a local river to the Huang He. When the State of Wei was conquered by the Qin, Kaifeng was destroyed and abandoned except for a mid-sized market town, which remained in its place.
Early in the
7th century, Kaifeng was transformed into a major commercial hub when it was connected to the Grand Canal as well as a canal running to western Shandong Province.
781( Tang Dynasty), a new city was reconstructed and named Bian (汴). Bian was the capital of the Later Jin ( 936- 946), Later Han ( 947- 950), and Later Zhou ( 951- 960) of the Five Dynasties Period. The Song Dynastymade Bian its capital when it overthrew the Later Zhou in 960, and shortly afterward, they further expanded the city.
Song Dynasty, called Dongjingor Bianjingthen, Kaifeng was the capital with a population of over 400,000, living both inside and outside the city wall. Typhuswas an acute problem of the city.
1049, Youguosi Pagoda (佑國寺塔), or Iron Pagoda(鐵塔) as it is called today, was constructed, which measures 54.7 m in height. It has survived the destruction of wars and floodings and become the oldest landmark in this ancient city. Another Song Dynastypagoda, Bo Ta (繁塔), from 974, has been partially destroyed.
Another well-known sight was the
astronomical clock towerof the engineer, scientist, and statesman Su Song( 1020- 1101AD). It was crowned with a rotating armillary spherethat was hydraulic-powered (i.e. by waterwheeland clepsydra clock), yet it incorporated an escapementmechanism two hundred years before they were found in clockworks of Europe, and featured the first known endless power-transmitting chain drive.
Kaifeng reached its peak of importance in the
11th century, when it was a commercial and industrial center at the intersection of four major canals. During this time, the city was surrounded by three rings of city walls and probably had a population of 600,000 to 700,000.
It is believed that Kaifeng was the largest city in the world from 1013 to 1127. [http://geography.about.com/library/weekly/aa011201a.htm]
This period ended in
1127, when the city fell to Jurcheninvaders (see Jingkang Incident) and came subsequently under the rule of the Jin Dynasty. While it remained an important administrative center, only the city area inside the inner city wall of the early Song Dynasty remained settled and the two outer rings were abandoned.
One major problem associated with Kaifeng as the Imperial capital of the
Song Dynastywas its location. While it was conveniently situated along the Grand Canalfor logistic supply, Kaifeng was militarily vulnerable due to its position on the flood plainsof the Yellow River.
Kaifeng served as the Jurchen's "southern capital" from 1157 (other sources say 1161) and was reconstructed during this time. [http://www.san.beck.org/AB3-China.html#9] [http://www.upkorea.net/news/photo/7345-2-7037.pdf] But they kept their main capital further north, until
1214, when they were forced to move the imperial court southwards to Kaifengin order to flee the Mongolonslaught. In 1234they succumbed to combined Mongoland Song Dynastyforces. Mongols took control, and in 1279they conquered all of China.
At the beginning of the
Ming Dynastyin 1368, Kaifeng was made the capital of Henan Province.
1642, Kaifeng was flooded by the Ming army with water from Yellow River to prevent the peasant rebel Li Zichengfrom taking over. After this disaster, the city was abandoned again.
Under the celebrated Qing emperor Kangxi (
1662), Kaifeng was rebuilt. However, another flooding occurred in 1841, followed by another reconstruction in 1843, which produced the contemporary Kaifeng as we know it.
Kaifeng is also known for having the oldest extant Jewish community in China, the
Kaifeng Jews. In 1163, when China was Islamised by the Persian Caliph, a Jewish prince of the line of David called Rosh-ha-golah was sent by the Jewish Exilarch (a distant relative of the Caliph) to Kaifeng, to marry a princess of the old Wei kingdom and establish a synagogue there. In 1840 a descendant of this line was called Rosenfeld (from Rosh-ha-golah) and was a textile merchant in Berdychiv, Russia which was then called "the Jerusalem of the Volhynia". Rosenfeld headed a movement called Haskalah of which he was the chief maskil and he had Yiddish theatre produced as part of this movement in the Rosenfeld textile factories both in Berdychiv and in Lodz, Poland "the second city of the Haskalah". Rosenfeld purchased the Astor House Hotel (now called the Pujiang Fandian) across the street from the Russian Embassy in Shanghai about 1840. Rosenfeld exported cotton from Kaifeng to Berdychiv and Lodz until 1900 when he removed to Russian Hill in San Francisco where the Rosenfeld daughter married Albert Less, a member of the Levi-Strauss family. The jeans brand now known as "Levis" may have originally been produced from Rosenfeld cotton imported from Kaifeng.
It was here, too, that in 1969, the former Chairman of the People's Republic of China
Liu Shaoqi, died in prison from medical neglect. There is a photograph of Jacob Rosenfeld http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
This Jacob Rosenfeld, known as General Luo, was an Austrian cousin of the wealthy textile manufacturing family who owned the Astor House Hotel in Shanghai (1840-1900). He was a medical doctor and there is a hospital in China named after this Jacob Rosenfeld, General Luo. It is also extremely important to note, concerning the history of the Jews of Kaifeng, that China was Islamised when conquered by the Persian Caliph from Bagdad circa 1163 AD. This was the whole reason that the Resh Galuta, the Jewish Exilarch in Bagdad, was allowed to establish a synagogue and a Jewish community in Kaifeng. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Resh_Galuta [NB "Character of the Exilarchate in the Arabic era"] He sent a descendant of the house of David http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David who was considered a prophet (Dawood) by the Muslims, who married a Wei princess who converted to Judaism, thus establishing a dynasty within the Jewish community of Kaifeng. This is very important to understand, in order to understand why the Muslim community in Kaifeng is still very protective of Kaifeng's Jews to this day.
Kaifeng offers a wide range of food specialities such as steaming pie and Chinese dumpling. In the evening, Kaifeng's streets turn into restaurants while hundreds open their stands and begin selling their food in the famous
night market. Often people from the nearby Zhengzhoucome to Kaifeng to spend an evening with their family as the atmosphere is very appealing. Less adventurous Western tourists may prefer to eat inside the restaurants and just have their drinks outside because they might not want to try chicken feet, pork feet or bucks. Particularly famous is Kaifeng's five-spice bread (wǔxiāng shāobǐng), which, like pita, can be opened and filled.
DaXiangGuo Temple (大相国寺) Famous Buddhist temple first built in 555 A.D..
BaoGong Ancestral Hall (包公祠) An ancestral hall built in remembrance of a respectable official from the Song Dynasty.
Colleges and universities
Henan University(河南大学) (founded 1912)
Kaifeng University(开封大学) (founded 1980)
Kaifeng High School(开封高中) (founded 1902)
Ma Si Guang University(马思光大学) (founded 1988)
1642 Kaifeng Flood
* [http://www.kaifeng.gov.cn Government website of Kaifeng] (in Simplified Chinese)
s-ttl|title=Capital of China (as
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Kaifeng — Kāifēng · 开封 Pays Chine Statut administratif … Wikipédia en Français
KAIFENG — [K’AI FONG] Située dans la province chinoise du Henan, au cœur de la grande plaine du Nord et sur la rive sud du fleuve Jaune, Kaifeng (alors appelée Daliang) connaît sa première période de gloire à l’époque des Royaumes combattants: le roi Hui… … Encyclopédie Universelle
KAIFENG — (formerly P ien liang), capital of Honan province, central China. Jews arrived in Kaifeng probably before 1127 from India or Persia. They were an ethnic unit of approximately 1,000 in all. It is believed that their daily language was New Persian… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Kaifeng — (chino simplificado: 开封, chino tradicional: 開封, pinyin: Kāifēng), llamada antiguamente Daliang, es una ciudad en la provincia de Henan, en la República Popular China. Está situada a orillas del río Amarillo y a unos 70 kilómetros de la capital… … Wikipedia Español
Kaifeng — Kaifeng, Stadt in der Provinz Henan, China, 6 km südlich des Hwangho, 507 800 Einwohner; Chemiefachhochschule, Museum; Baumwoll und Seidenindustrie, Landmaschinenbau, Getreide und Ölmühlen. Kaifeng ist Eisenbahnknotenpunkt und Marktort für den… … Universal-Lexikon
Kaifeng — (chino simplificado: 开封, chino tradicional: 開封, pinyin: Kāifēng), llamada antiguamente Daliang, es una ciudad en la provincia de Henan, en la República Popular China. Está situada a orillas del río Amarillo y a unos 70 kilómetros de la capital… … Enciclopedia Universal
Kaifeng — Basisdaten Großregion: Nordchina Provinz: Henan Status: Bezirksfreie Stadt Untergliederung: 5 Stadtbezirke, 5 Kreise … Deutsch Wikipedia
Kaifeng — /kuy fung /, n. Pinyin, Wade Giles. a city in NE Henan province, in E China: a former provincial capital. 330,000. * * * or K ai feng City (pop., 1999 est.: 569,300), northern Henan province, China. In the 4th century BC it became the capital of… … Universalium
kaifeng — ˈkī|fəŋ adjective Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: from Kaifeng, city in east central China : of or from the city of Kaifeng, China : of the kind or style prevalent in Kaifeng … Useful english dictionary
Kaifeng — Original name in latin Kaifeng Name in other language Gorad Kajfehn, K ai feng hsien, K ai feng shih, Kai Feng, Kai feng Fu, Kai fng Fu, Kaifeng, Kajfehn, Kajfeng, Kajfyn, Kchaj feng, Keyfeng shehiri, Keyfng shehiri, Khai Phong, K’ai feng hsien,… … Cities with a population over 1000 database