- Robert M. Parker, Jr.
name = Robert Parker
caption = Parker in Las Vegas, 2005
birthname = Robert McDowell Parker, Jr.
birthdate = birth date and age|1947|7|23
occupation = Wine critic
nationality = American
subject = Wine
Robert M. Parker, Jr. (born
July 23 1947) is a leading U.S. wine critic with an international influence. His ratings on a 100-point scale and his florid tasting notes, published in his newsletter " The Wine Advocate", define modern American wine criticism and are a major factor in setting the prices for newly-released Bordeaux wine. Wines made specifically to earn high Parker points are often called "Parkerized". Because of his influence and the change of certain "traditional" wine styles represented by Parkerized wines, Robert M. Parker is sometimes the target of criticism from those whose tastes are different.
Parker was born in
Baltimore, Maryland. He is an honors graduate of the University of Maryland, College Park, with a major in History and a minor in Art History. He continued his education at University of Maryland, Baltimore, graduating in 1973 with a Juris Doctordegree. For over ten years he was an attorney for the Farm Credit Banks of Baltimore; he resigned in March 1984 to devote full attention to writing about wine.
In 1975, he began writing a guide to wine. Parker wanted to be a
consumer advocate, free of the conflicts of interest that might taint the opinions of wine critics who also make a living selling wine. Three years later in 1978, he published a direct-mail newsletter called "The Baltimore-Washington Wine Advocate", which became the "The Wine Advocate" in 1979. The first issue was sent free to mailing lists Parker purchased from a several major wine retailers. For its second issue in August 1978, the magazine had 600 charter subscribers.
Parker received worldwide attention when he "called" the 1982 vintage in
Bordeauxas superb, contrary to the opinions of many other critics, such as San Francisco critic Robert Finigan, who felt it was too low-acid and ripe. The debate about whether 1982 is a vintage for the ages continues through the early 2000s, but on the wine market the prices of 1982 Bordeaux remain above other vintages.
More than twenty years later, "The Wine Advocate" has over 50,000 subscribers, primarily in the United States, but with significant readership in over 37 other countries. [ Robert M. Parker, Jr. ] While other wine publications have more subscribers, "The Wine Advocate" is still considered to exert a significant influence on wine consumers' buying habits, particularly in America. "
New York Times" wine critic Frank Prialasserted that "Robert M. Parker Jr. is the most influential wine critic in the world." [ Prial, Frank J. Decantations: Reflections on Wine by the New York Times Wine Critic. NY: St. Martin's Grifin, 2001.]
In addition to writing and tasting for "The Wine Advocate", which is published six times a year in
Parkton, Maryland, Parker has been a contributing editor for " Food and Wine Magazine" and " BusinessWeek". He has also written periodically for the English magazine " The Field" and has been the wine critic for France's "L'Express" magazine, the first time a non-Frenchman has held this position. [ About Robert M. Parker, Jr. ]
Impact of Parker on the world of wine
Parker is considered to have had a noticeable impact on
* the profession of wine critics, by stressing the need for independence from the wine business
* consumers' buying habits, by introducing his now famous 100-point rating system
* the quality of the wines produced
* the prices of wines sold on the market
A new role for the wine critic
Until the seventies, wine criticism was usually a complementary activity to the production or trade of wine. The possible ensuing conflicts of interests were accepted by consumers interested more in gaining an introduction to the world of wine and less in getting good value for money. Hence Pre-Parker wine critics almost always had some links to the production or trade of wines. [Agostini & Guichard, pp. 54-58]
However, two wine critics stood out on some aspects that would later play an important role in inspiring and defining Robert Parker Specify|date=April 2008:
Robert Lawrence Balzerfor his charisma. Like his contemporary fellows, Balzer rarely wrote negative statements about wines. He even once published under his name a book that had been written by a wine grower named Paul Masson. [Agostini & Guichard, p. 60] But Balzer will remain known to the world of wine for two contributions: he was the first to organise a blind tasting (before the famous Paris judgment) and the first to talk with such empathy and love about wine.Specify|date=April 2008
Robert Finigancan be considered Parker's precursor on many aspects. In the monthly "Robert Finigan's Private Guide to Wine", launched in 1972, Finigan aimed to offer pro-consumer and independent wine criticism, just as Parker did some years later [Agostini & Guichard, p. 61-5] . Finigan aimed to help consumer decision-making by developing standard evaluation criteria; his qualitative comments were straightforward and understandable, and each wine was positioned on a quality scale (exceptional, above average, average, below average). To maintain his independence, Finigan bought all his wines in retail stores and always tasted them blind.Specify|date=April 2008
According to Elin McCoy, Parker is a consumer advocate who admires
Ralph Naderand has been critical of most wine critics, who traditionally have been part of the wine industry and have had vested interests. According to statements Parker has made in his own publications and to the press, he considers his commitment to be to his readers rather than to producers, and he believes that a producer’s reputation and prestige is unimportant compared to the wine in the glass.
Mike Steinberger,cite web|last= Steinberger |first= Mike, "The World of Fine Wine" |title= Everyone a Critic. The Future of Wine Writing |url= http://www.finewinemag.com/docs/SteinbergerWineWriting.pdf |date= March, 2008 ] however, Parker has inadvertently made becoming a wine critic in the future almost impossible since (partly due to his scoring system's success) it is now prohibitively expensive to taste the very wines one should criticise. If it behoves a critic to understand, say, Lafite 1982,2000,2003 and 2005 before assessing the latest vintage, this requires the critic to have drank wine worth tens of thousands of euros before he or she can even begin, in a way that was not true when he himself became a connoisseur in the 1970s.
Parker's 100-point rating system
One of the most influential and controversial features of Parker's wine criticism is his 100-point rating system, which he devised with his friend Victor Morgenroth. The system was designed to counter what Parker believed to be confusing or inflated ratings by other wine writers, many of whom he accused of a conflict of interest, as they often had a financial interest in the wines they rated. The scale, since widely imitated in publications such as the "
Wine Spectator", ranks wine on a scale from 50 to 100 points, on color and appearance, aroma and bouquet, flavor and finish, and overall quality level or potential. Therefore, 51 rather than 100 different ratings are possible. Many of his competitors, such as Hugh Johnson and Jancis Robinson), argue that the quality of a wine is too subjective to be assigned a numerical rating with such a high degree of implied precision. While most American reviewers have adopted point systems like Parker's, many British reviewers still prefer a 20-point system, as in the cases of Jancis Robinsonand Clive Coates.
It is common for retailers in North America to mark wines with Parker's point scores on printed cards on the shelves. Large numbers of consumers, collectors and investors, especially in the increasingly important
United Stateswine market, make purchasing decisions based on the scores that Mr. Parker awards based on his taste. Parker himself cautions that buyers should read the tasting notes to determine the wine is made in a style they will like. As he states on his website,
Scores, however, do not reveal the important facts about a wine. The written commentary that accompanies the ratings is a better source of information regarding the wine's style and personality, its relative quality vis-à-vis its peers, and its value and aging potential than any score could ever indicate. ... [T] here can never be any substitute for your own palate nor any better education than tasting the wine yourself. [ Robert M. Parker, Jr. The Wine Advocate Rating System. eRobertParker.com. http://dat.erobertparker.com/info/legend.asp ]
Parker argues that he scores wines on how much pleasure they give him. He and others have said that it is the obscurity, corruption, and other problems of the appellation system that made his consumer-oriented approach necessary and inevitable. For example, the
Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855was based entirely on recent wine prices of that time. However, in the many decades since, many châteaux sold much of their vineyards, others bought additional vineyards far away, and the original winemakers have been long dead. Parker says this has created injustice for consumers because the traditional classifications cause mediocre wine to be sold for too much, and good wine to be sold for too little. He says the 1855 classifications "should be regarded by both the wine connoisseur and the novice as informational items of historical significance only." [Robert M. Parker, Jr., Bordeaux (2005), French version, p. 1184]
A common criticism of Parker is that his tasting methodology is fundamentally flawed.Fact|date=April 2008 Parker, himself, stated on
60 Minutesthat a wine tells him everything he needs to know in five seconds.Fact|date=April 2008 This philosophy combined with mammoth tastings in which Parker will run through between fifty and one hundred wines in quick succession, have led critics to conclude that in such tastings the only thing that can stand out is excessive levels of oak and alcohol.Fact|date=April 2008 A long standing criticism of this tasting philosophy has also been that fundamental chemical flaws in a wine tend to be seen as positives, as they help a wine stand out as distinctive among the scores of wines given their five second evaluation in quick succession. In fact, over time, Parker has shown a pronounced affinity for wines displaying excessive levels of brettanomycesand volatile acidity.Fact|date=April 2008 This has been derided as the inevitable "smelling salt effect" of Parker's tasting and evaluation methods.Fact|date=April 2008
Impact on the supply: the "Parkerization" of wine
Another controversy revolves around Parker's impact on the style of fine wines. Parker is highly critical of "industrial wines with little flavor and no authenticity" [ [http://www.upenn.edu/gazette/1105/1105arts01.html Gazette | All Things Ornamental: The Arts ] ] and he believes that there are still undiscovered regions and wines that can successfully challenge the wine establishment. Critics such as Golo Weber claim that Parker likes less-acidic, riper wines with significant amounts of oak, alcohol, and extract. If indeed something like the "Parker taste" exists, it may be less the result of Parker's own preferences than of a trend initiated by
Émile Peynaudthe French oenologistand father of the so called "international wines" [Agostini and Guichard, (2007), pages 195-6.] . In the seventies, wine makers avoided the harvesting late, when the grapes were mature, in order to avoid the risks of end-of-season rains. Peynaud proposed instead that wine makers should wait until the grape was really mature or even over-mature. He also insisted on a control of malolactic fermentationthrough the use of stainless steel vessels.
This new approach to wine making led to changes in
viticultureand wine making practices, such as reducing yields by green harvesting, harvesting as late as possible for maximum ripeness, not filtering the wine, and the use of new techniques such as microoxygenationto soften tannins. [ Taber, George M. Judgment of Paris: California vs France and the Historic 1976 Paris Tasting that Revolutionized Wine. NY: Scribner, 2005.] These widespread changes in technique have been called "Parkerization" and have led to fears of a homogenization of wine styles around the world, as Parker's "tastes are irrevocably changing the way some French wines are made". [cite news | title=Wine competition pits France v US | publisher= BBC News| date=2006-05-25 | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5013910.stm | accessdate=2007-12-18 ] Indeed, certain low-producing "boutique" wineries, among many others, have received high scores from Parker for wines made in this style. Parker himself disputes the notion of growing homogeneity and argues for the opposite: "When I started tasting wines, in the 1970s, we were on a slippery slope. There was a standardization of wines, where you couldn't tell a Chianti from a cabernet. That's pretty much stopped now." [Citation | last = Langewiesche | first = William | author-link = | title = "The Million-Dollar Nose" | newspaper = The Atlantic Monthly | pages = 42-70 | year = 2000 | date = December | url = http://www.erobertparker.com/info/milliondollarnose4.asp] .
Because of his powerful influence, his experiences have ranged from having two chateau owners offer him the sexual favours of their daughters to receiving death threats.McCoy, pages 159-160.] On one occasion the manager of
Château Cheval Blanc, Jacques Hebrard, was outraged at Parker's evaluation and asked Parker to retaste. Upon arriving, Parker was attacked by Hebrard's dog as the manager stood idly by and watched. When Parker asked for a bandage to stop the bleeding from his leg, Parker says Hebrard instead gave him a copy of the offending newsletter. Hebrard denies that Parker was bleeding.
Wine critic Prial says "The Bordeaux wine establishment feels threatened by these new-style wines...and is engaged in an increasingly bitter fight against Parker and his influence." [ Prial, Frank J. Decantations: Reflections on Wine by the New York Times Wine Critic. NY: St. Martin's Grifin, 2001. ]
Impact on the market
Impact on prices
There are several evidences that Parker's rating scale had a dual effect on prices and sales:
* Many customers buy only wines he rates at 90-95 points ("outstanding" in Parker's system) or above: this drove the prices for 90+ wines very high, and also made wines rated from 75-79 ("above average") or even 80-89 ("very good") hard to sell, even though some of these may in fact be excellent bargains. The saying in the wine trade is that if Parker gives a wine a score of below 80 it can't be sold at any price, but if he gives it a score above 90 it becomes too expensive for most customers.
* With great reviews for the 2000 vintage, many raised their prices to unheard of levels.Fact|date=December 2007
* When Parker declined to review the 2002 vintage in barrel, they were forced to drop their prices to previous levels.
* According to one Bordeaux shipper cited by McCoy, "the difference between a score of 85 and 95 [for one wine] was 6 to 7 million
Euros" and a "bottle rated 100 can multiply its price fourfold" [ McCoy, Elin (2005)] .
* Château Quinault, which used to have hard time selling its wine at 100 francs a bottle, saw its 1998 vintage go up in half a day to 125 francs after Parker rated it 92 [ Agostini, Guichard (2007), p. 185] .
* According to a 2005 economic analysis [ Hadj Ali, Lecocq, Visser (2005)] , Parker's scores would inflate the prices of already highly rated wines but, for the less good ones, it would not decrease their sales nor even increase their prices [ Agostini, Guichard (2007), p. 186] .Whatever his influence, Parker alone cannot impact the market price for a wine if he is alone against the mainstream. The famous controversy around the
Château Pavie2003 is an example of this: despite Parker's positive ratings, the wine in bottle sold 30% cheaper than " en primeur". [Agostini, Guichard (2007), p. 185]
Creation of new market segments
More than on prices, Parker has had a definite influence on the creation of
Limits to Parker's influences
Parker is an avid fan of Bordeaux, and some critics observe that his world of wine is largely limited to France. For example, his "Parker's Wine Buyer's Guide", with over 1,600 pages, devotes less than a single page (just two paragraphs) to all of South Africa's wines. This may help explain why so many of the honors he has received have come from France.Or|date=December 2007
Burgundy proved much more difficult to Parker than Bordeaux, in particular because of the Faiveley case. In the 3rd edition of his Wine Buyer's Guide (1993), Parker reported rumours according to which "the Faiveley wines tasted abroad would be less rich than those one can taste on the spot [...] " [Agostini and Guichard (2007), page 209, translated from French: " [...] les vins de Faiveley dégustés à l'étranger sont moins riches que ceux que l'on peut goûter sur place [...] "] . In other words: Faiveley would be cheating. In February 1994, Parker was requested to appear in front of the Paris "tribunal de grande instance". Even though the case was settled outside court, it left a bitter taste, as a number of Burgundy wine makers supported Faiveley's defense against Parker. The latter never really managed to get into Burgundy: this is probably why he delegated this region to Pierre-Antoine Rovani as of April 1997.
Parker has stated very clearly, both in "The Wine Advocate" and his books, the high ethical standards on which his advice stands: independence and impartiality constitute his two most important values. By abiding by them, Parker seeks to guarantee that his valuations will be pro-consumer and not pro-industry. McCoy, Agostini & Guichard allege several examples where Parker's independence and impartiality might be called into question:
* McCoy mentions [McCoy (2005), p. 73] a positive article written by Parker in the second issue of "The Baltimore/Washington Wine Advocate" on McArthur Liquors and its manager Addy Bassin. However, in that article Parker does not mention that it was the same Addy Bassin who sold Parker the mailing list of customers who received the first issue of "The Baltimore/Washington Wine Advocate".
* In issue 164 of "The Wine Advocate", Parker writes a long article on Jeffrey Davies, a wine trader based in Bordeaux. As Agostini and Guichard point out [Agostini and Guichard (2007), pages 82-3] , what Parker did not mention was that he has tasted wines with Davies, not merely alone, as he has repeatedly stated an impartial wine critic should do. Davies advised Parker not to publish his comments on the 2004 Bordeaux in issue 164, as Parker had planned, because they would have suffered from their comparison with the much better 2003 and 2005. Parker followed Davies' advice and published those comments in the following issue.
* The second issue of "The Baltimore/Washington Wine Advocate" informs the reader that "Robert Parker has no interest, direct or indirect, financial or any other, in importing, distributing or selling wines" [Agostini and Guichard, page 80. Translated from French: "Robert Parker n’a pas d’intérêt, direct ou indirect, financier ou autre, dans l’importation, la distribution et la vente de vins."] . This changed in the early nineties, when Parker invested with his stepbrother in an Oregon vineyard: les "Beaux-Frères". ["Beaux-frères" means "brothers-in-law" in French] Robert Kacher is in charge of distributing half of the production of the Beaux-Frères vineyard. Parker does not assess the wines of this property for "obvious reasons", [The Wine Advocate's standard introductory paragraph] and promised in the "The Wine Advocate" never to review any wines produced there. [Elson, John. "Time" [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,966261-2,00.html The Man with a Paragon Palate] (December 14, 1987)]
* It has been charged that two of Parker’s four tasting crews had or still have an interest in the distribution or the sale of wines. Until January 1, 2007, David Schnildknecht spent half of his time importing and distributing wines, and the other half critiquing wine for "The Wine Advocate". Today he is a full-time critic for "The Wine Advocate". [Agostini and Guichard (2007) page 84]
Kevin Zralyis the vice-president of Smith and Wollensky Restaurants, a group of 17 restaurants with an impressive list of wines on the menu. [Agostini and Guichard (2007), page 85]
* It has been pointed out that Robert Parker is godfather to Alain Raynaud's daughter, Marie. [McCoy (2005), page 155] Alain Raynaud is the co-owner of Château la Croix-de-Gay in Pomerol, owner of
Château Quinaultin Saint-Émilion and was the President of the "Union des grands crus de Bordeaux" (Bordeaux Great Growths Union) between 1994 and 2000.
Parker has written eleven books on wine that have been best sellers in the United States and in translation in
France, Japan, Germany, Swedenand Russia.
* 1985 - "Bordeaux" (revised and expanded, 1991) Received the Glenfiddich Award as England's top wine book of 1986. The 1991 revised and expanded edition was the winner of the IACP Award (International Association of Cooking Professionals) as the top wine book of the year in 1992. The 1994 French language edition spent three months on France's "Best Seller" list. The German language edition won that country's top prize for books on wine and
gastronomy, the " Goldene Feder."
* 1987 - "Parker's
Wine Buyer's Guide" (New editions were published in 1989, 1993, 1995, 1999 and 2002) In 1997/1998, "Le Guide Parker" (the French language edition) spent 27 weeks on France's "Best Seller" list.
* 1987 - "
The Wines of the Rhône Valley and Provence" Received the Tastemaker's Awardin 1989 as the top wine book of the year published in the U.S. and The Wine Guild's Wine Book of the Year Award in The United Kingdom.
* 1990 - "Burgundy"
* 1997 - "
The Wines of the Rhone Valley"
* 2005 - "The World's Greatest Wine Estates"
Awards and recognition
* 1993 - Chevalier de l'
Ordre National du Mérite
* 1993 - Wine and Vine Communication Award from
* 1995 - Declared Honorary Citizen of
Chateauneuf du Pape
* 1997 -
James Beard FoundationWine and Spirits Professional of 1997
* 1999 - Chevalier de l'Ordre de la
* 2002 - Commendatore dell’Ordine al merito della Repubblica italiana
* 2005 - Officier de la
* 2008 - Elected to the Wine Media Guild Hall of Fame
Robert Parker is one of only a handful of foreigners to have received France's two highest Presidential honors and is the first wine critic to have received such recognitions in France and Italy.
Globalization of wine
List of wine personalities
* Agostini, Hanna and Guichard, Marie-Françoise (2007). "Robert Parker, anatomie d'un mythe; portrait non autorisé du plus grand dégustateur de tous les temps" (in French). Paris: Scala
* Hadj Ali, Hela, Lecocq, Sébastien and Visser, Michael (2005). "The impact of Gurus: Parker Grades and en Primeur Wine prices", study presented at the Royal Economic Society annual conference. Nottingham University, March 22, 2005
* Hughes, Samuel. "Taste: The wine advocate and his empire." Pennsylvania Gazette,
October 25, 2005. [http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:IblTuaRFgwoJ:www.upenn.edu/gazette/1105/1105arts01.html+Parkerize+wine&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=3]
* [http://www.erobertparker.com/ eRobertParker.com official site]
* [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v27/n03/shap01_.html Hedonistic Fruit Bombs] , a February 2005 article in "
London Review of Books", with biographical information.
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