- Group N
This contrasts with the Group A all-out competition production-derived vehicles. Group N cars are limited in terms of modifications made from standard specification. Group N was introduced by the FIA in 1982 to replace the outgoing Group 1 as "standard touring cars".
To qualify for homologation, a minimum of 2500 cars of the competing model have to be built in one year, out of 25,000 for the entire range of the model (e.g.: 2500 Subaru Impreza WRX, out of 25,000 Subaru Impreza).
While Group A became the standard category for international touring car racing, Group N found a home as a more economic class in national touring car racing. In many countries, there would often be two touring car championships, one for Group A and one for Group N. The category had some brief success with the demise of the Supertouring class in the late 1990s, when a few national regulations were relaxed to allow a greater number of modifications, in the guise of Super Production.
The category is still used in circuit racing all over the world, notably in Japan who has the long running Super Taikyu (スーパー耐久 Super Taikyu , translated as Super Endurance), as well as in the Italian ETCS endurance series run by Peroni Promotion, but was once again relegated to a secondary status with the introduction of Super 2000, the class of cars currently run in the World Touring Car Championship.
In Rallying, the Production World Rally Championship is run under Group N rules. The cars used were modified road cars, often based on turbocharged, four wheel drive versions of standard small cars such as the Subaru Impreza WRX and the Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution, although a wide range of vehicles is homologated by the FIA for use in Group N. Apart from FIA sanctioned events, a lot of rallies at national levels are run under Group N.
The range of modifications allowed is quite narrow - few mechanical engine modifications are allowed (save for lightening within set limits and baffled sumps) although the choice of ECU is free, and this can liberate some extra power itself, and most of the modifications allowed are to promote longevity rather than increased performance, although the boundaries of these two areas are blurring. Furthermore, cars with forced induction engines are fitted with a restrictor in front of the charger to limit power.
Originally, Group N meant that all the interior trim had to be present (including the rear seat), whereas this has now changed to allow removal of the trim aside from the dashboard and replacement of the door trim. The springs and dampers are free, as are the internals of the gearbox and the final-drive ratio, providing that the homologated gear ratios and gearchange pattern are respected. This allows the use of 'Dog Leg' engagement gearboxes, providing quicker gearchanges and longer gearbox life. There is provision for strengthening of the suspension components and bodyshell, providing this doesn't alter the operating principle.
The FIA and many national motorsport associations are moving towards making rallying championships based in Group N, in an attempt to reduce costs, reinforce the link between motorsport and the car that the member of the public drives, and to reduce the environmental impact of motorsport. The GpN 4WD Turbo rally car category is currently undergoing the process of being renamed as R4 for 2011. The key areas being standard road car bodywork and driven wheels to be retained as the road car that can be bought from the showroom.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
group — [gruːp] noun [countable] 1. also group of companies ORGANIZATIONS a large business organization that consists of several companies that all have the same owner: • Burmah Castrol, the lubricants group • the sale of the Rover Group to BMW … Financial and business terms
Group — can refer to: Sociology * Group action (sociology) * Group behaviour * Groups of people, a description of various different human groups ** Peer group ** Workgroup * Group dynamics * Group (sociology), a sub set of a culture or of a society *… … Wikipedia
Group f/64 — was a group of famous San Francisco photographers who espoused a common philosophy and photographic style. The group was created in 1932, and it is usually listed as including: * Ansel Adams+ * Imogen Cunningham+ * John Paul Edwards+ * Consuelo… … Wikipedia
Gröûp X — (also known as Gröûp X: Arabian Rap Sensations) is a faux Arabian rock band, claiming to be from the fictional village of Cramshananteen, Saudi Arabia. They play a mix of rap and rock. They are known for using comically accented and mangled… … Wikipedia
Group C — was a category of auto racing, introduced into sports car racing by the FIA in 1982, along with Group A for touring cars and Group B for GTs. It was designed to replace both Group 5 Special Production Cars (closed top touring prototypes like… … Wikipedia
GROUP-E — Collaboration Software Entwickler endo7 Aktuelle Version 1.7.25 (31. März 2011) Betriebssystem … Deutsch Wikipedia
group — n Group, cluster, bunch, parcel, lot mean a collection or assemblage of persons or of things. Group implies some unifying relationship, however tenuous (as a similarity of activity, of purpose, or of nature), and ordinarily a degree of physical… … New Dictionary of Synonyms
Group 1 — * Group 1 element an element classification for Alkali metal * Group 1 (racing) a FIA classification for auto racing that preceded Group N * Group 1 thoroughbred horse races, are the leading events in the sport. * Group 1 Automotive a publicly… … Wikipedia
Group 4 — may refer to: * Group 4 element an element classification * Group 4 (racing) an FIA classification for cars in auto racing and rallying * Group 4 Securicor a prominent British security company * IB Group 4 subjects a subject group for the… … Wikipedia
group — group, social group A number of individuals, defined by formal or informal criteria of membership, who share a feeling of unity or are bound together in relatively stable patterns of interaction. The latter criterion is necessary in order to… … Dictionary of sociology
group — [gro͞op] n. [Fr groupe < It gruppo, a knot, lump, group < Gmc * kruppa, round mass: see CROP] 1. a number of persons or things gathered closely together and forming a recognizable unit; cluster; aggregation; band [a group of houses] 2. a… … English World dictionary