Godwit

Godwit

Taxobox
name = Godwits


image_caption = Bar-tailed Godwit "Limosa lapponica"
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Aves
ordo = Charadriiformes
familia = Scolopacidae
genus = "Limosa"
genus_authority = Brisson, 1760
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = 4, see text.

The godwits are a group of large, long-billed, long-legged and strongly migratory wading birds of the genus "Limosa". They form large flocks on coasts and estuaries in winter.

They can be distinguished from the curlews by their straight or slightly upturned bills, and from the dowitchers by their longer legs. The winter plumages are fairly drab, but three species have reddish underparts when breeding. The females are appreciably larger than the males.

Although not common tablefare today, they were once a popular British dish. Sir Thomas Browne writing in the seventeenth century noted that godwits "were accounted the daintiest dish in England."

Godwits are shore birds (family Scolopacidae), large sandpipers with long legs and bills. Their long, subtly upcurved bills allow them to probe deeply in the sand for aquatic worms and mollusks. Godwits frequent tidal shorelines, breeding in northern climates in summer and migrating south in winter. In their winter range, they flock together where food is plentiful. The combination of long legs and long almost straight bill distinguishes the godwits from both the curlews and the dowitchers

Family Scolopacidae

* Genus "Limosa"
** Black-tailed Godwit, "Limosa limosa"
** Hudsonian Godwit, "Limosa haemastica"
** Bar-tailed Godwit, "Limosa lapponica"
** Marbled Godwit, "Limosa fedoa"

In addition, there are one or 2 species of fossil prehistoric godwits. "Limosa vanrossemi" is known from the Monterey Formation (Late Miocene, approx. 6 mya) of Lompoc, USA. "Limosa gypsorum" of the Late Eocene (Montmartre Formation, some 35 mya) of France may have actually been a curlew or some bird ancestral to both curlews and godwits (and possibly other Scolopacidae), or even a rail, being placed in the monotypic genus "Montirallus" by some (Olson, 1985). Certainly, curlews and godwits are rather ancient and in some respects primitive lineages of scolopacids (Thomas "et al.", 2004), further complicating the assignment of such possibly basal forms.

A female bar-tailed godwit holds the record for the longest non-stop flight for a land bird.

References

* Olson, Storrs L. (1985): Section X.D.2.b. Scolopacidae. "In:" Farner, D.S.; King, J.R. & Parkes, Kenneth C. (eds.): "Avian Biology" 8: 174-175. Academic Press, New York.

* Thomas, Gavin H.; Wills, Matthew A. & Székely, Tamás (2004): A supertree approach to shorebird phylogeny. "BMC Evol. Biol." 4: 28. doi|10.1186/1471-2148-4-28 [http://www.pubmedcentral.org/picrender.fcgi?artid=515296&blobtype=pdf PDF fulltext] [http://www.pubmedcentral.org/articlerender.fcgi?artid=515296#supplementary-material-sec Supplementary Material]

* ScienceDaily.com - Bird Completes Epic Flight Across The Pacific [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070915131205.htm]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • Godwit — God wit (g[o^]d w[i^]t), n. [Prob. from AS. g[=o]d good + wiht creature, wight.] (Zo[ o]l.) One of several species of long billed, wading birds of the genus {Limosa}, and family {Tringid[ae]}. The European black tailed godwit ({Limosa limosa}),… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • godwit — [gäd′wit] n. [orig. prob. echoic of cry] any of a genus (Limosa, family Scolopacidae) of brownish shorebirds with a long bill that curves slightly upward …   English World dictionary

  • godwit — /god wit/, n. any of several large, widely distributed shorebirds of the genus Limosa, as the New World L. haemastica (Hudsonian godwit), having a long bill that curves upward slightly. [1545 55; of obscure orig.] * * * ▪ bird  any of four… …   Universalium

  • godwit — /ˈgɒdwɪt / (say godwit) noun any of several large shorebirds of the genus Limosa, all with long, slightly up curved bills, two species of which, the bar tailed godwit, Limosa lapponica, and the black tailed godwit, Limosa limosa, regularly… …   Australian English dictionary

  • godwit — griciukai statusas T sritis zoologija | vardynas atitikmenys: lot. Limosa angl. godwit rus. веретенник, m pranc. barge, f ryšiai: platesnis terminas – kuolingos siauresnis terminas – kanadinis griciukas siauresnis terminas – laplandinis griciukas …   Paukščių pavadinimų žodynas

  • godwit — noun Etymology: origin unknown Date: 1552 any of a genus (Limosa) of shorebirds that are related to the curlews and sandpipers and have a long slender slightly upturned or straight bill …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • godwit — noun /ˈɡɒdwɪt/lang=en Any of four species of long billed, migratory wading birds in the genus Limosa, of the family Scolopacidae. Syn: yarwhelp, yarwip …   Wiktionary

  • godwit — n. large wading bird with a long bill and long leggs …   English contemporary dictionary

  • godwit — noun a large, long legged wader with a long straight or slightly upcurved bill. [Genus Limosa: four species.] Origin C16: of unknown origin …   English new terms dictionary

  • godwit — god·wit …   English syllables


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