choral symphonyby Jean Sibelius, see Kullervo (Sibelius). For the brachiopod genus, see " Kullervo (brachiopod).
In the Finnish
Kalevala, Kullervo was the ill-fated son of Kalervo. He is the only irredeemably tragic character in Finnish mythology.
The story of Kullervo is laid out in runes (chapters) 31 through 36 of the Kalevala
Rune 31 - Kullervo, son of Evil
Untamo is jealous of his brother Kalervo, and the strife between brothers is fed by numerous petty disputes. Eventually Untamo's resentment boils into open warfare, and he kills all of Kalervo's tribe save for Kalervo's daughter Untamala, who submits to Untamo. Shortly afterwards, Untamala gives birth to a baby boy she names "Kullervo" (Pearl of Combat).
When Kullervo is three months old, he is heard uttering vows of revenge and destruction on Untamo's tribe. Untamo tries three times to have Kullervo killed (by drowning, fire and crucifixion). Each time, the infant Kullervo is saved by his latent magical powers.
Untamo then allows the child to grow up, then tries three times to find employment for him as a servant in his household, but all three attempts fail as Kullervo's wanton and wild nature makes him unfit for any domestic task. In the end, Untamo decides to rid himself of the problem by selling Kullervo into
Rune 32 - Kullervo as a shepherd
The boy is raised in isolation because of his status as a slave, his fierce temper, and frightening signs of early magical talent. The only memento that the boy retains from life in a loving family is an old knife that came along with him as an infant.
The wife of
Ilmarinenenjoys tormenting the slave boy, now a youth, and sends Kullervo out to tend herd on her livestock with a loaf of bread with stones baked in it, along with a lengthy poem invoking the various deities to grant protection and prosperity to the herd.
Rune 33 - Kullervo and the cheat-cake
Kullervo sits down to eat, but the heirloom knife breaks on one of the stones in the bread. Kullervo is overwhelmed with rage, and, being unusually naturally gifted at magic, casts a curse that makes the cows
Ilmarinen's wife is milking turn into bears, who kill her.
Rune 34 - Kullervo finds his tribe-folk
Kullervo then flees from slavery and finds that his family is actually still alive except for his sister, who has disappeared and is feared dead.
Rune 35 - Kullervo's evil deeds
Kullervo's father has no more success than Untamo in finding work suited for his son, and thus sends the young man to collect tributes due to the tribe. On the way back he meets a beggar-girl and seduces her without knowing or caring who she is. Afterward she realizes that she is his sister, and out of shame she commits suicide. The distraught Kullervo returns to his family to break the news.
Rune 36 - Kullervo's victory and death
Kullervo vows revenge on Untamo. One by one, his own family tries to dissuade him from the fruitless path of evil and revenge, and eventually rejects him, apart from his mother whose maternal love cannot be swayed even when she knows his course of action is wrong. Kullervo hardens his heart and refuses to reconsider, or even to pause to follow funeral rites when he hears his father, brother, sister and mother die in turns.
Kullervo goes on and obtains from
Ukkohis magic broadsword, which he uses to exterminate Untamo and his tribe. When he returns home, he finds the dead bodies of his own family littered about the homestead, untended. His mother's spirit gives him directions to woodland nymphs who can shelter him, but he finds instead the body of his sister, who committed suicide.
Kullervo then asks of Ukko's sword if it will have his life. The sword eagerly accepts, noting that as a weapon it doesn't care who it's used to kill. Kullervo commits suicide by throwing himself on his sword. On hearing the news, Väinämöinen comments that children should never be given away or ill-treated in their upbringing, lest like Kullervo they grow evil and bereft of wisdom or honor.
Kullervo is fairly ordinary in
Finnish mythology, in being a naturally talented magician. However, he is the only irredeemably tragic character in Finnish mythology. He showed great potential, but being raised badly, he became an ignorant and vengeful man.
death poemof Kullervo in which he, like Macbeth, interrogates his blade, is justly famous. Unlike the daggerin Macbeth, Kullervo's swordreplies, bursting into song: it affirms that if it gladly participated in his other foul deeds, it would gladly drink of his blood also.
Some literary critics have suggested that Kullervo's character is a bitter metaphorical representation of
Finland's frequent struggles for independence. This proposal is contested.
The story of Kullervo is unique among ancient myths in its realistic depiction of the effects of child abuse.
Parallels in Popular Culture
The tale of
Túrin Turambarin J.R.R. Tolkien's " The Silmarillion" (expanded in " Unfinished Tales" and finally in " The Children of Húrin") has similarities with this myth, as it has with the stories of Oedipusand Sigurdthe Völsung. Poul Andersonwrote a novel " The Broken Sword", whose owner converses with a talking sword before committing suicide. Michael Moorcock's tragic hero Elric of Melnibonélikewise contains many elements that are inspired by Kullervo; a notable similarity between the two is the near-identical reply of each protagonist's weapon to its master before his suicide.
The character of
Anakin Skywalkerin the Star Warsmovies has some similarities to Kullervo: Anakin is a slave with no father, vents his rage through his potent Force power, kills the murderers of his mother, and dies by his own choice (although a self-sacrifice, not a suicide).
Kullervo in Music and Theater
"Kullervo" is the subject of an 1892 choral symphony in five movements for full
orchestra, two vocal soloists, and male choir by Jean Sibelius. It was opus 7 for Sibelius and his first successful work.
"Kullervo" is the subject of a 1988
operaby Aulis Sallinen.
"Kullervo" is also the subject of a brief symphonic poem composed in 1913 by
In 2006 a Finnish metal band
Amorphisreleased its seventh studio album Eclipse, which tells the story of Kullervo according to a play by Paavo Haavikko. The play has been translated into English by Anselm Hollo.
Hilliard Ensemblecommissioned an English language setting of Kullervo's story, "Kullervo's Message", from Veljo Tormis.
* [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/kveng/kvrune31.htm John Martin Crawford's English translation of the Kalevala (1888). Hosted at Sacred Texts]
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