- Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a man-made
canalin Panamawhich joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. One of the largest and most difficult engineeringprojects ever undertaken, it had an enormous impact on shippingbetween the two oceans, replacing the long and treacherous route via the Drake Passageand Cape Hornat the southernmost tip of South America. A shipsailing from New York to San Franciscovia the canal travels 9,500 km (6,000 miles), well under half the 22,500 km (14,000 miles) route around Cape Horn. [cite book|url=http://www.czbrats.com/AmPan/index.htm |title=The Americans in Panama |first=William R. |last=Scott |publisher=Statler Publishing Company |location=New York, NY |year=1913] Although the concept of a canal near Panamadates back to the early 16th century, the first attempt to construct a canal began in 1880 under French leadership. After this attempt failed and saw 21,900 workers die, the project of building a canal was attempted and completed by the United Statesin the early 1900s, with the canal opening in 1914. The building of the 77 km (48 miles) canal was plagued by problems, including disease (particularly malariaand yellow fever) and landslides. By the time the canal was completed, a total of 27,500 workmen are estimated to have died in the French and American efforts.
Since opening, the canal has been enormously successful, and continues to be a key conduit for international maritime trade. The canal can accommodate vessels from small private
yachts up to large commercial vessels. The maximum size of vessel that can use the canal is known as " Panamax"; an increasing number of modern ships exceed this limit, and are known as "post-Panamax" or "super-Panamax" vessels. A typical passage through the canal by a cargo ship takes around nine hours. 14,011 vessels passed through in 2005, with a total capacity of 278.8 million tons, making an average of almost 40 vessels per day.
While the Pacific Ocean is west of the isthmus and the Atlantic to the east, the journey through the canal from the Pacific to the Atlantic is one from east to west. This is a result of a the isthmus's "curving back on itself" in the region of the canal. The Bridge of the Americas at the Pacific end is about a third of a degree of longitude east of the end near Colon on the Atlantic.cite web |url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/maritime/reports/table01.pdf |format=PDF |title=Panama Canal Traffic — Fiscal Years 2002 – 2004 |publisher=Panama Canal Authority |accessdate=2007-09-03]
The earliest mention of a canal across the
Isthmus of Panamadates back to 1534, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperorand King of Spain, ordered a survey for a route through Panama that would ease the voyage for ships traveling to and from Spainand Peru. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html |title=A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts|publisher=Panama Canal Authority |accessdate=2007-09-03; Chapter 3, " [http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/early.html Some Early Canal Plans] "] During his expedition of 1788–1793 Alessandro Malaspinademonstrated the feasibility of a canal and outlined plans for its construction. [cite book |last= Caso |first= Adolph | coauthors= Marion E. Welsh |title= They Too Made America Great |year= 1978 |publisher= Branden Books |isbn= 0828317143 |pages= p. 72; online at [http://books.google.com/books?id=7q3WTS1IREkC Google Books] ]
Given the strategic situation of
Panamaand its narrow isthmusseparating two great oceans, other forms of trade links were attempted over the years. The ill-fated Darien schemewas an attempt launched by the Kingdom of Scotlandin 1698 to set up an overland trade route, but was defeated by the generally inhospitable conditions, and abandoned two years later in 1700. [cite web|url=http://www.kinnaird.net/darien.htm |title=Darien Expedition |notes=extensive background, including a detailed description, maps, lists of ships and people involved, and chronology |accessdate=2007-09-03] Finally, the Panama Railwaywas built across the isthmus, opening in 1855. This overland link greatly facilitated trade and this vital piece of infrastructure was a key factor in the selection of the later canal route.
An all-water route between the oceans was still seen as the ideal solution, and the idea of a canal was enhanced by the success of the
Suez Canal. The French, under Ferdinand de Lesseps, began construction on a sea-level canal ("i.e.", without locks) through what was then Colombia's province of Panama, on January 1, 1880. The French began work in a rush with insufficient prior study of the geologyand hydrologyof the region.cite book|chapterurl=http://www.czbrats.com/Builders/FRCanal/failure.htm |chapter=The French Failure |title=America's Triumph in Panama |first=Ralph E. |last=Avery |publisher=L.W. Walter Company |location=Chicago, IL |year=1913] Among other problems, sea level on the Caribbean side of Panama is lower than on the Pacific side. In addition, disease, particularly malariaand yellow fever, sickened and killed vast numbers of employees, ranging from laborers to top directors of the French company. Public health measures were ineffective because the role of the mosquitoas a disease vectorwas then unknown. These conditions made it impossible to maintain an experienced work force as fearful technical employees quickly returned to France. Even the hospitals contributed to the problem, unwittingly providing breeding places for mosquitoes inside the unscreened wards. Actual conditions were hushed-up in France to avoid recruitment problems. In 1893, after a great deal of work, the French scheme was abandoned due to disease and the sheer difficulty of building a sea-level canal, as well as lack of French field experience, such as downpours causing steel equipment to rust. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html |title=Read our history: The French Canal Construction |publisher=Panama Canal Authority |accessdate=2007-09-03] The high toll from disease was one of the major factors in the failure; as many as 21,900 workers are estimated to have died during the main period of French construction (1881–1889).
According to Stephen Kinzer's 2006 book "Overthrow", in 1898 the chief of the French Canal Syndicate (a group that owned large swathes of land across Panama), Philippe Bunau Varilla, hired
William Nelson Cromwell(of the US law firm Sullivan & Cromwell) to lobby the US Congressto build a canal across Panama, and not across Nicaragua.
In 1902, after having run into a 10-cent Nicaraguan postal stamp produced in the US by the American Bank Note Company erroneously depicting a fuming Momotombo volcano (which was nearly dormant and stands more than 160 km (100 miles) from the proposed Nicaraguan canal path) and taking advantage of a particularly volcanic year in the
Caribbean, Cromwell planted a story in the " New York Sun" reporting that the Momotombo volcano had erupted and caused a series of seismic shocks. He thereafter sent leaflets with the above stamps pasted on them to all U.S. Senators as witness to the volcanic activity in Nicaragua. On June 19, 1902, three days after senators received the stamps, they voted for the Panama route for the canal. For his lobbying efforts, Cromwell received the sum of $800,000. [cite book |last=Kinzer |first=Stephen |title=Overthrow |publisher=Henry Holt and Company |year=2006 |pages=58-59 |isbn=0-8050-8240-9]
In November 1903, Phillipe Bunau-Varilla, Panama's ambassador to the United States, signed the
Hay-Bunau Varilla Treaty, granting rights to the United States to build and indefinitely administer the Panama Canal. Bunau-Varilla, although serving as Panama's ambassador, was a French citizen, and was not authorized to sign treaties on behalf of Panama without the review of the Panamanians.Fact|date=July 2008 This treaty became a contentious diplomatic issue between the two countries, culminating in riots in which 21 Panamanians and 4 U.S. soldiers were killed on Martyr's Day, January 9, 1964. The issues were resolved with the signing of the Torrijos-Carter Treatiesin 1977, returning the former Canal Zone territories to Panama.
United States, under President Theodore Roosevelt(with John Frank Stevensas Chief Engineer from 1905–1907), bought out the French equipment and excavations for US$40 million, and began work on May 4, 1904, after helping Panama achieve the separation from Colombia by deploying troops and naval forces to prevent Colombia from suppressing the rebellion against Colombian governance, created by the United States of America. The United States paid Colombia $25,000,000 in 1921, seven years after completion of the canal, for redress of President Roosevelt's role in the creation of Panama, and Colombia recognized Panama under the terms of the Thomson-Urrutia Treaty.
Chief Engineer (1905–1907),
John Frank Stevens', primary achievement in Panama was in building the infrastructure necessary to complete the canal. He rebuilt the Panama Railwayand devised a system for disposing of soil from the excavations by rail. He also built proper housing for canal workers and oversaw extensive sanitation and mosquito-control programmes that eliminated yellow feverand other diseases from the Isthmus. Stevens argued the case against a sea level canal like the French had tried to build. He successfully convinced Theodore Roosevelt of the necessity of a canal built with dams and locks.
A significant investment was made in eliminating disease from the area, particularly yellow fever and
malaria, the causes of which had originally been theorized by Cuban physician/scientist Dr. Carlos Finlayin 1881 who had identified the mosquitoas the vectorthat causes the disease and whose theory and investigative work had recently been confirmed by Dr. Walter Reedwhile in Cubawith U.S. Armymotivation during the Spanish-American War(see Health measures during the construction of the Panama Canal). With the diseases under control, and after significant work on preparing the infrastructure, construction of an elevated canal with locks began in earnest and was finally possible. The Americans also gradually replaced the old French equipment with machinery designed for a larger scale of work (such as the giant hydraulic crushers supplied by the Joshua Hendy Iron Works), quickening the pace of construction, President Roosevelt had the former French machinery mintedinto medals for all workers who spent at least two years on the construction to commemorate their contribution to the building of the canal. These medals featured Roosevelt's likeness on the front, the name of the recipient on one side, and the worker's years of service, as well as a picture of the Culebra Cut on the back.cite web|url=http://historywired.si.edu/object.cfm?ID=195|title=The Roosevelt Medal|publisher=National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution|accessdate=2008-06-05]
In 1907 Roosevelt appointed
George Washington Goethalsas Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal. The building of the canal was completed in 1914, two years ahead of the target date of June 1, 1916. The canal was formally opened on August 15, 1914 with the passage of the cargo ship "Ancon". [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/index.html|title=Read our history: American Canal Construction|publisher=Panama Canal Authority|accessdate=2007-09-03] Coincidentally, this was also the same month that fighting in World War I(the Great War) began in Europe. The advances in hygieneresulted in a relatively low death toll during the American construction; still, 5,609 workers died during this period (1904–1914). [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/history/history/end.html|title=A History of the Panama Canal: French and American Construction Efforts|publisher=Panama Canal Authority|accessdate=2007-09-03] This brought the total death toll for the construction of the canal to around 27,500.
By the 1930s it was seen that water supply would be an issue for the canal; this prompted the building of the
MaddenDam across the Chagres Riverabove Gatun Lake. The dam, completed in 1935, created Madden (later Alajuela) Lake, which acts as additional water storage for the canal. [ [http://www.pancanalsociety.org/Articles/Arts%20Column/art_Jan_25_01.html Article on flooding of Alhajuela Lake in 2001] , with pictures of Madden Dam.] [ [http://www.pancanalsociety.org/Articles/Arts%20Column/art_April_19_99.html Article on Mr. Richard Bilonick] , who was the engineer in charge during the construction of the Madden Dam.] In 1939, construction began on a further major improvement: a new set of locks for the canal, large enough to carry the larger warships which the U.S. had under construction, or planned for future construction. The work proceeded for several years, and significant excavation was carried out on the new approach channels, but the project was canceled after World War II. [ [http://www.czbrats.com/Articles/3rdlocks/3rdlocks.htm "Enlarging the Panama Canal"] , Alden P. Armagnac, [http://www.czbrats.com/ CZ Brats] ] [ [http://www.czimages.com/CZMemories/thirdlocks/tcindex.htm "Enlarging the Panama Canal for Bigger Battleships"] , notes from [http://www.czbrats.com/ CZ Brats] ]
After the war, United States' control of the canal and the Canal Zone surrounding it became contentious as relations between Panama and the U.S. became increasingly tense. Many Panamanians felt that the canal zone rightfully belonged to Panama; student protests were met by the fencing in of the zone and an increased military presence. [ [http://www.czbrats.com/Jackson/martyrs/martyrs.htm "The Martyrs of 1964"] , by Eric Jackson] Negotiations toward a new settlement began in 1974, and resulted in the
Torrijos-Carter Treaties. Signed by President of the United States Jimmy Carterand Omar Torrijosof Panamaon September 7, 1977, this set in motion the process of handing the canal over to Panamanian control for free as long as Panama signed a treaty guaranteeing the permanent neutrality of the canal (Neutrality Treaty) and allowed the U.S. to come back anytime. Though controversial within the U.S., the treaty led to full Panamanian control effective at noon on December 31, 1999, and control of the canal was handed over to the Panama Canal Authority (ACP).
Before this handover, the government of Panama held an international bid to negotiate a 25-year contract for operation of the canal's container shipping ports (chiefly two facilities at the Atlantic and Pacific outlets), which was won by the firm
Hutchison Whampoa, a Hong Kong-based shipping concern whose owner, Li Ka Shing, is the wealthiest man of Chinese descent in the world.
The canal consists of artificial lakes, several improved and artificial channels, and three sets of locks. An additional artificial lake, Alajuela Lake (known during the American era as Madden Lake), acts as a reservoir for the canal. The layout of the canal as seen by a ship passing from the Pacific end to the Atlantic is as follows: [cite web|url=http://historicals.ncd.noaa.gov/historicals/histmap.asp |title=Historical Map & Chart Project |accessdate=2007-09-03 |publisher=
* From the
buoyed entrance channel in the Gulf of Panama(Pacific side), ships travel 13.2 km (8.2 mi) up the channel to the Miraflores locks, passing under the Bridge of the Americas
* The two-stage Miraflores lock system, including the approach wall, is 1.7 kilometres (1.1 mi) long, with a total lift of 16.5 meters (54 ft) at mid-tide
* The artificial
Miraflores Lakeis the next stage, 1.7 kilometers (1.0 mi) long, and 16.5 metres (54 ft) above sea level
* The single-stage Pedro Miguel lock, which is 1.4 kilometres (0.8 mi) long, is the last part of the ascent with a lift of 9.5 meters (31 ft) up to the main level of the canal
* The Gaillard (Culebra) Cut slices 12.6 kilometres (7.8 mi) through the
continental divideat an altitude of 26 metres (85 ft), and passes under the Centennial Bridge
Chagres River(el Río Chagres), a natural waterway enhanced by the damming of Lake Gatún, runs west about 8.5 kilometres (5.3 mi), merging into Lake Gatun
Gatun Lake, an artificial lake formed by the building of the Gatun Dam, carries vessels 24.2 kilometers (15.0 mi) across the isthmus
* The Gatún locks, a three-stage flight of locks 1.9 kilometres (1.2 mi) long, drop ships back down to sea level
* A 3.2 kilometer (2.0 mi) channel forms the approach to the locks from the Atlantic side
* Limón Bay (Bahía Limón), a huge natural harbour, provides an anchorage for some ships awaiting passage, and runs 8.7 kilometres (5.4 mi) to the outer breakwater
Thus, total length of the canal is 47.9 miles (77.1 kilometres).
Canal lock size
Initially the locks at Gatun had been designed as 28.5 metres wide. In 1908 the
United States Navyrequested that the locks should be increased to have a width of at least 36 metres which would allow for the passage of US naval ships. Eventually a compromise was made and the locks were to be constructed to a width of 33 meters. Each lock is 300 metres long with the walls ranging in thickness from 15 metres at the base to 3 metres at the top. The central wall between the parallel locks at Gatun has a thickness of 18 metres and stands in excess of 24 metres in height. The lock gates are made from steel and measure an average of 2 metres thick, 19.5 metres in length and stand 20 metres in height. [cite web|url=http://www.eclipse.co.uk/~sl5763/panama.htm |title=The Panama Canal |accessdate=2007-10-18] It is the size of the locks, specifically the Pedro Miguel Locks, along with the height of the Bridge of the Americasat Balboa, which limits the size of ships that may use the canal and determines the Panamax.
Tolls for the canal are decided by the
Panama Canal Authorityand are based on vessel type, size, and the type of cargo carried. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/maritime/tariff/1010-0000.html |title=Maritime Operations — Tolls |publisher=Panama Canal Authority]
container ships, the toll is assessed per the ship's capacity expressed in twenty-foot equivalent units or TEUs. One TEU is the size of a container measuring convert|20|ft|m|0 by convert|8|ft|m|0 by 8.5 feet (6 m by 2.4 m by 2.6 m). Effective May 1, 2007, this toll is US$54 per TEU. A Panamaxcontainer ship may carry up to TEU|4,400. A reduced toll is charged for container ships carrying no cargo or passengers.
Most other types of vessel pay a toll per "PC/UMS net ton", in which one "ton" is actually a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.8 m³). (The calculation of
tonnagefor commercial vessels is quite complex.) As of 2007, this toll is US$3.26 per ton for the first 10,000 tons, US$3.19 per ton for the next 10,000 tons, and US$3.14 per ton thereafter. As with container ships, a reduced toll is charged for freight ships "in ballast".
Small vessels are assessed tolls based on their length. As of 2007, these are:
The most expensive regular toll for canal passage to date was charged on May 16, 2008 to the 964-foot (295 m) "
Disney Magic" cruise liner, which paid just over US$331,200. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2008/06/10/business/LA-FIN-Panama-Canal-Record.php " Disney cruise ship pays record fee to cross Panama Canal"] , International Herald Tribune, June 11, 2008] The least expensive toll was 36 cents to American adventurer Richard Halliburtonwho swam the canal in 1928. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/noticiero/canal-faqs/index.html |title=Panama Canal Authority FAQ] The average toll is around US$54,000. The highest fee for priority passage charged through the Transit Slot Auction System was US$220,300, paid on August 24, 2006 by the Panamaxtanker "Erikoussa", [ [http://ediciones.prensa.com/mensual/contenido/2007/04/24/hoy/negocios/960466.html "Récord en pago de peajes y reserva". "La Prensa". Sección Economía & Negocios. Edition 2007-04-24] ] bypassing a 90-ship queue waiting for the end of maintenance works on the Gatun locks, thus avoiding a 7-day delay. The normal fee would have been just US$13,430. [ [http://mensual.prensa.com/mensual/contenido/2006/08/25/hoy/negocios/714407.html "Cupo de subasta del Canal alcanza récord". La Prensa. Sección Economía & Negocios. Edición 25/08/2006 in Spanish.] ]
Ninety-four years since its opening, the canal continues to enjoy great success. Even though world shipping — and the size of ships themselves — has changed markedly since the canal was designed, it continues to be a vital link in world trade, carrying more cargo than ever before, with less overhead costs. Nevertheless, the canal faces a number of potential problems.
Efficiency and maintenance
There were fears that efficiency and maintenance would suffer following the U.S. withdrawal; however, this does not appear to be the case, and the canal's efficiency appears to be improving under Panamanian control. [cite web|url=http://www.smithsonianmag.si.edu/smithsonian/issues04/mar04/panama.html |title=A Man, A Plan, A Canal: Panama Rises |work=Smithsonian Magazine |month=March |year=2004 |publisher=Smithsonian Institution] Canal Waters Time (CWT), the average time it takes a vessel to navigate the canal, including waiting time, is a key measure of efficiency; according to the ACP, CWT is decreasing.
The Panama Canal Authority claims that the waterway's rate of accidents is at a record low. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/cgi-bin/news/boletin.cgi?submit=Consulta&item=126 |title=Tonnage Increases; Canal Waters Time and Accidents Drop |publisher=Panama Canal Authority |date=2003-12-09]
Increasing volumes of imports from
Asiawhich previously landed on the U.S. west coast ports are now passing through the canal to the American east coast. [cite news|url=http://www.colliers.com/Content/Attachments/Corporate/Services/NewYorkTimes112204.htm |title=New York Port Hums Again, With Asian Trade |first=Eric |last=Lipton |work=New York Times |date=2004-11-22] The total number of vessel transits in fiscal year1999 was 14,336; this fell to a low of 13,154 in 2003, due at least in part to global economic factors, but has risen to 14,194 in 2006 (the canal's fiscal year runs from October to September). However, this has been coupled with a steady rise in average ship size and in the numbers of Panamaxvessels passing, so that the total tonnage carried has risen steadily from 227.9 million PC/UMS tons in fiscal year 1999 to 296.0 million tons in 2006. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/general/reporte-anual/index.html |title=Annual Reports |publisher=Panama Canal Authority] Given the negative impact of vessel size on the rate of transits (for example, the inability of large vessels to cross in the Gaillard Cut), this represents significant overall growth in canal capacity, despite the reduction in total transits. The canal set a traffic record on March 13, 2006, when 1,070,023 PC/UMS tons transited the waterway, [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/cgi-bin/news/boletin.cgi?submit=Consulta&item=189 |title=Panama Canal Breaks Two Records in Two Days |publisher=Panama Canal Authority |date=2006-03-21| accessdate=2006-04-25] beating the previous record of 1,005,551 PC/UMS tons set on March 16, 2004. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/cgi-bin/news/boletin.cgi?submit=Consulta&item=136 |title=Panama Canal Sets Historic Record in PC/UMS Tonnage |publisher=Panama Canal Authority |date=2004-04-02 |accessdate=2006-04-25] The canal administration has invested nearly US$1 billion in widening and modernising the canal, with the aim of increasing capacity by 20%. [cite web|url=http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/panama.canal/stories/operation/ |title=Transfer heavy on symbolism, light on change |first=Steve |last=Nettleton |publisher=CNN Interactive |year=1999] The canal authority cites a number of major improvements, including the widening and straightening of the Gaillard Cut to reduce restrictions on crossing vessels, the deepening of the navigational channel in Gatun Lake to reduce draft restrictions and improve water supply, and the deepening of the Atlantic and Pacific entrances of the canal. This is supported by new vessels, such as a new drill barge and suction dredger, and an increase of the tug boat fleet by 20%. In addition, improvements have been made to the operating machinery of the canal, including an increased and improved tug locomotive fleet, the replacement of more than 16 kilometres of locomotive track, and new lock machinery controls. Improvements have been made to the traffic management system to allow more efficient control over ships in the canal. [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/projects/overview.html |title=Modernisation & Improvements |publisher=Panama Canal Authority]
bucket dredge works to deepen and widen the canal.
The withdrawal of the U.S. has allowed Panama to sell excess electricity produced by the canal's dams, which was previously prohibited by the U.S. governmentFact|date=September 2008. Only 25% of the
hydroelectric powerproduced in the canal system is required to run the canalFact|date=September 2008
The canal is presently handling more vessel traffic than had ever been envisioned by its builders. In 1934 it was estimated that the maximum capacity of the canal would be around 80 million tons per year; [cite book|url=http://www.czimages.com/CZMemories/thirdlocks/tlpage3.htm |title=The Land Divided - A History of the Panama Canal and other Isthmian Canal Projects |first=Gerstle |last=Mack |year=1944] as noted above, canal traffic in 2005 consisted of 278.8 million tons of shipping.
Despite the gains which have been made in efficiency, the canal is soon expected to approach its maximum capacity. An additional complication is that the proportion of large (close to Panamax-sized) ships transiting the canal is increasing steadily; this may result in a further reduction in the number of transits, even if cargo tonnage rises. In any case, if the canal is to continue to serve the needs of world shipping, action will be required to increase its capacity.
Despite having enjoyed a privileged position for many years, the canal is increasingly facing competition from other quarters. Although remote, speculation continues over a possible new canal through
Colombia, Nicaragua or the Isthmus of Tehuantepecin Mexico, that will be capable of accommodating post-Panamax vessels, and two private proposals for a railway linking ports on the two coasts.Fact|date=February 2007
Critics have also voiced their concerns over the planned increase in canal tolls, suggesting that the
Suez Canalmay become a viable alternative for cargo en route from Asia to the U.S. east coast. Nevertheless, demand for the Panama Canal continues to rise.
The increasing rate of melting of ice in the
Arctic Oceanhas led to speculation that the Northwest Passagemay become viable for commercial shipping at some point in the future. This route would save 9,300 kilometres (5,800 mi) on the route from Asia to Europe compared with the Panama Canal, possibly leading to a diversion of some traffic to that route. However, such a route would still hold significant problems due to ice, as well as unresolved territorial issues. [cite web|url=http://www.washingtontimes.com/specialreport/20050612-123835-3711r.htm |title=Northwest Passage redux |first=Levon |last=Sevunts |work=The Washington Times |date=2005-06-12 |accessdate=2006-02-23] [cite web|url=http://www.defensenews.com/story.php?F=1429085&C=america |title=Conservative Leader Harper Asserts Canada's Arctic Claims |first=Michel |last=Comte publisher=DefenceNews.com (Agence France-Presse) |date=2005-12-22 |accessdate=2006-02-23.]
A significant problem is the decreasing average amount of water in
Gatún Lake, caused largely by deforestation. 202,000 m³ (52 million U.S. gallons) of fresh water from the lake are drained into the sea by the locks every time a ship transits the canal; [cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/eng/noticiero/canal-faqs/index.html |title=Panama Canal Authority FAQ |publisher=Panama Canal Authority] and although there is sufficient annual rainfall to replenish the water used by the canal in a year, the seasonal nature of this rainfall means that the water must be stored from one rainy season to the next. Although Gatún Lake can store some of this water, the rainforesthas traditionally played a major role by absorbing this rain, and then releasing it at a steady rate into the lake. With the reduction in vegetation, rain flows quickly down the deforested slopes into the lake, from where the excess is spilled out into the ocean. This results in a shortfall of water during the dry season, when there is comparatively little water flowing to the lake to replenish it. Deforestation also causes siltto be more easily eroded from the area around Gatún Lake and collect at its bottom, reducing its capacity.
Another interesting fact is that the mean sea level on either side of the canal is different. The Pacific side sea level is about 20cm higher than that of the Atlantic side due to differences in ocean conditions (e.g. water densities) and weather conditions. [cite web|url=http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/puscience/ |title=Sea Level: Frequently asked questions and answers |publisher=Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory]
With demand rising, the canal is positioned to be a significant feature of world shipping for the foreseeable future. However, changes in shipping patterns — particularly the increasing numbers of post-Panamax ships — will necessitate changes to the canal if it is to retain a significant market share. It is anticipated that by 2011, 37% of the world's container ships will be too large for the present canal, and hence a failure to expand would result in a significant loss of market share. The maximum sustainable capacity of the present canal, given some relatively minor improvement work is estimated at between 330 and 340 million PC/UMS tons per year; it is anticipated that this capacity will be reached between 2009 and 2012. Close to 50% of transiting vessels are already using the full width of the locks.cite web|url=http://www.pancanal.com/esp/plan/documentos/propuesta/acp-proposla-relevant-information.pdf |format=PDF |title="Relevant Information on the Third Set of Locks Project |publisher=Panama Canal Authority |date=2006-04-24 |accessdate=2006-04-25]
An enlargement scheme similar to the 1939 Third Lock Scheme, to allow for a greater number of transits and the ability to handle larger ships, has been under consideration for some time. [cite web|url=http://www.businesspanama.com/investing/why_invest/panama_canal.php |title=The Panama Canal |publisher=Business in Panama |notes=an article on proposed future development of the canal |accessdate=2007-09-03] This enlargement scheme had been approved by the government of Panama. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4876322.stm |title=Panama Canal set for $7.5bn revamp |first=Jane |last=Monahan |publisher=BBC News |date=2006-04-04] This proposal to expand the Canal was approved on a national referendum by approximately 80% on October 22, 2006. [cite web|url=http://msnbc.msn.com/id/10627208/ |title=Panama approves $5.25 billion canal expansion |publisher=
Third set of locks project
The current plan is for two new flights of locks to be built parallel to and operated in addition to the old locks: one to the east of the existing Gatún locks, and one south west of Miraflores locks, each supported by approach channels. Each flight will ascend from ocean level direct to the Gatún Lake level; the existing two-stage ascent at Miraflores / Pedro Miguel will not be replicated. The new lock chambers will feature sliding gates, doubled for safety, and will be 427 metres (1,400 ft) long, 55 metres (180 ft) wide, and 18.3 metres (60 ft) deep; this will allow for the transit of vessels with a beam of up to 49 metres (160 ft), an overall length of up to 366 metres (1,200 ft) and a draft of up to 15 metres (50 ft), equivalent to a container ship carrying around 12,000 20-foot (6.1 m) long containers (TEU).
The new locks will be supported by new approach channels, including a 6.2 kilometre (3.8 mi) channel at Miraflores from the locks to the Gaillard Cut, skirting around Miraflores Lake. Each of these channels will be 218 metres (715 ft) wide, which will require post-Panamax vessels to navigate the channels in one direction at a time. The Gaillard Cut and the channel through Gatún Lake will be widened to no less than 280 metres (918 ft) on the straight portions and no less than 366 metres (1,200 ft) on the bends. The maximum level of Gatún Lake will be raised from reference height 26.7 metres (87.5 ft) to 27.1 metres (89 ft).
Each flight of locks will be accompanied by nine water reutilisation basins (three per lock chamber), each basin being approximately 70 metres (230 ft) wide, 430 metres (1410 ft) long and 5.50 metres (18 ft) deep. These gravity-fed basins will allow 60% of the water used in each transit to be reused; the new locks will consequently use 7% less water per transit than each of the existing lock lanes. The deepening of Gatún Lake, and the raising of its maximum water level, will also provide significant extra water storage capacity. These measures are intended to allow the expanded canal to operate without the construction of new reservoirs.
The estimated cost of the project is US$5.25 billion. The project is designed to allow for an anticipated growth in traffic from 280 million PC/UMS tons in 2005 to nearly 510 million PC/UMS tons in 2025; the expanded canal will have a maximum sustainable capacity of approximately 600 million PC/UMS tons per year. Tolls will continue to be calculated based on vessel tonnage, and will not depend on the locks used.
The new locks are expected to open for traffic in 2015. The present locks, which will be 100 years old by that time, will then have greater access for maintenance, and are projected to continue operating indefinitely. An article in the February 2007 issue of "Popular Mechanics" magazine describes the plans for the canal, focusing on the engineering aspects of the expansion project. [cite web|url=http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/transportation/4212183.html |title=The Panama Canal's Ultimate Upgrade |first=Brad |last=Reagan |work=Popular Mechanics |month=February |year=2007]
On September 3, 2007, work commenced on the expansion of the canal, with thousands of
Panamaniansat Paraiso, Panama City, witnessing a huge explosionbite into a hill. However the event was marred by the death of a worker, killed when his truck hit an electricity pylon. The first phase of the project will be dry excavationsof the 218 meter (715 ft) wide trenchconnecting the Culebra Cutwith the Pacific coast, removing 47 million cubic metersof earth and rock. The tendering process for the $3 billion project to build a new set of locks will begin later this year. [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/newsOne/idUSN0334522620070904 Reuters: Work starts on biggest-ever Panama Canal overhaul] ]
Canal Zone Police
Panama Canal Zone
* McCullough, David. (1977). "The Path Between the Seas: The Creation of the Panama Canal, 1870-1914". New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-22563-4
* Mellander, Gustavo A.(1971) "The United States in Panamanian Politics: The Intriguing Formative Years". Daville,Ill.:Interstate Publishers. OCLC 138568.
* Mellander, Gustavo A.; Nelly Maldonado Mellander (1999). "Charles Edward Magoon: The Panama Years". Río Piedras, Puerto Rico: Editorial Plaza Mayor. ISBN 1563281554. OCLC 42970390.
* Parker, Matthew. (2007). "Panama Fever: The Epic Story of One of the Greatest Human Achievements of All Time - The Building of the Panama Canal". New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-51534-4
* Murillo, Luis E. (1995). "The Noriega Mess: The Drugs, the Canal, and Why America Invaded". 1096 pages, illustrated. Berkeley: Video Books. ISBN 0-923444-02-5.
* " [http://gozonian.org/naramain.shtml 2700 digitised National Archives public domain images] " Photos of the building and early days of the Panama Canal digitised by " [http://gozonian.org/ GoZonian.org] " from the US National Archives and Records Administration. Originally from 8 x 10 glass plates.
* " [http://www.sil.si.edu/Exhibitions/Make-the-Dirt-Fly/ Making the Dirt Fly, Building the Panama Canal] " Smithsonian Institution Libraries
* [http://www.pancanal.com Official website of the Panama Canal Authority] — Has a simulation that shows how the canal works
* [http://www.canalmuseum.com Canalmuseum] — Panama Canal History, Documents, Photographs and Stories
* [http://www.czbrats.com/cz_brats.htm Canal Zone Brats] — Comprehensive information on the canal and the zone
* [http://www.czbrats.com/Menus/Builders_menu.htm History of the Canal Zone] — including much canal information, from CZ Brats
* [http://www.latinbusinesschronicle.com/reports/reports/0106/panamajack.htm Latin Business Chronicle] — Panama Canal: Chinese Control?
* [http://www.pancanal.com/eng/photo/camera-java.html Panama Canal Webcams]
* [http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-9040875966564826702 Time Lapse Video of the Canal] (created using one week of web cam footage).
* [http://www.mypanamalive.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcategory&id=34&Itemid=46 More information about Panama Canal]
* [http://ships.galutschek.at/panama_canal/ Video Clips of a Canal Transit (no time lapse)]
* [http://www.7is7.com/otto/travel/slideshows/panamacanal.html Slideshow of a ship passing through the Miraflores locks]
* [http://www.teddyroosevelt.com TeddyRoosevelt.com: The Man that Built the Panama Canal]
* [http://www.Alonsoroy.com Dr. Alonso Roy's short essays on Panama Canal History]
* [http://web.archive.org/web/20040604011605/www.judicialwatch.org/1241.shtml Judicial Watch, Inc. v. Panama Canal Commission case] (archived)
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?q=Panama+canal&ll=9.277994,-79.913006&spn=0.115880,0.204826&t=k&hl=en Satellite view in Google Maps]
* [http://www.eclipse.co.uk/~sl5763/panama.htm General information regarding Panama Canal]
* [http://en.structurae.de/projects/data/index.cfm?ID=p00033 Structurae: Panama Canal]
* [http://www.janes.com/business/news/fr/fr060822_1_n.shtml Taking the waters in Panama] Foreign Report, 22 August 2006
* University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections -- [http://content.lib.washington.edu/cgi-bin/queryresults.exe?CISOOP=adv&CISORESTMP=%2Fsite-templates%2Fsearch_results-sub.html&CISOVIEWTMP=%2Fsite-templates%2Fitem_viewer.html&CISOMODE=thumb&CISOGRID=thumbnail%2CA%2C1%3Btitle%2CA%2C1%3Bsubjec%2CA%2C0%3Bdescri%2C200%2C0%3B0%2CA%2C0%3B10&CISOBIB=title%2CA%2C1%2CN%3Bsubjec%2CA%2C0%2CN%3Bdescri%2CK%2C0%2CN%3B0%2CA%2C0%2CN%3B0%2CA%2C0%2CN%3B10&CISOTHUMB=3%2C5&CISOTITLE=10&CISOPARM=%2Ffishimages%3Asubjec%3Apanama&x=29&y=0 Freshwater and Marine Image Bank -- Panama Canal] An ongoing digital collection of images related to the Panama Canal.
* [http://www.calisphere.universityofcalifornia.edu/browse/azBrowse/Panama+Canal Early stereographic images of the Panama Canal construction] , University of California Riverside, California Museum of Photography, Keystone-Mast Collection, via Calisphere.
* [http://www.ppl.nl/index.php?option=com_wrapper&view=wrapper&Itemid=82 Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law] Peace Palace Library
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