Maxakalían languages

Maxakalían languages
Linguistic classification: Macro-Gê
  • Maxakalían
Maxkali languages.png

The Maxakalían languages (also Mashakalían) were first classified into the Gê languages. It was only in 1931 that Loukotka separated them from the Gê family. Alfred Métraux and Curt Nimuendaju Unkel considered the Maxakalían family isolated from others. John Alden Mason suggests a connection to a hypothetical Macro-Gê stock, and Aryon Dall’Igna Rodrigues confirms it, although they see more indications about it than evidences.

Family division

Mason lists

  • Caposhó (†)
  • Cumanaxó (†)
  • Maconí (†)
  • Maxakalí
  • Monoshó (†)
  • Panyame (†)

All of the above are extinct, except for the modern Maxakalí. Linguist List lists them as dialects of a single language.

The Pataxó, Malalí and Coropó languages (also extinct) seem to have a few resemblances with this family, but are not so strongly connected for Mason; Coropó is now thought to be Purian. The modern Pataxó use part of their old vocabulary in their daily life, mixed with some idioms from other modern indigenous peoples they are related with nowadays. Approximately 1200 speakers of modern Maxakalí are in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Campbell (1997) lists:

  1. Malalí (†)
  2. Pataxó (aka Patashó) (†)
  3. Maxakalí (aka Mashakalí, Mashacalí; other alternative names: Caposho, Cumanasho, Macuni, Monaxo, Monocho)


  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (Ed.). (2005). Ethnologue: Languages of the world (15th ed.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. ISBN 1-55671-159-X. (Online version:
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1990). Language history in South America: What we know and how to know more. In D. L. Payne (Ed.), Amazonian linguistics: Studies in lowland South American languages (pp. 13–67). Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-2927-0414-3.
  • Kaufman, Terrence. (1994). The native languages of South America. In C. Mosley & R. E. Asher (Eds.), Atlas of the world's languages (pp. 46–76). London: Routledge.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Macro-Gê languages — Infobox Language family name=Macro Jê altname=Macro Gê region=Brazil familycolor=American fam1=Je Tupi Carib? child1=Jê child2=Borôro child3=Maxakalían child4=Kamakã child5=Purían child6=Karirí child7=Krenák (Botocudo) child8= Rikbaktsa child9=… …   Wikipedia

  • Mayan languages — Maya language redirects here. For other uses, see Maya language (disambiguation). Mayan Geographic distribution: Mesoamerica: Southern Mexico; …   Wikipedia

  • Indigenous languages of the Americas — Yucatec Maya writing in the Dresden Codex, ca. 11–12th century, Chichen Itza Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses which… …   Wikipedia

  • Austro-Asiatic languages — Austro Asiatic Mon–Khmer Geographic distribution: South and Southeast Asia Linguistic classification: One of the world s major language families Proto language: Proto Mon–Khmer …   Wikipedia

  • Dravidian languages — For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). Dravidian Geographic distribution: South Asia Linguistic classification: Dravidian Proto language: Proto Dravidian Subdivisions: Northern Cen …   Wikipedia

  • Indo-European languages — Indo European redirects here. For other uses, see Indo European (disambiguation). See also: List of Indo European languages Indo European Geographic distribution: Before the 16th century, Europe, and South, Central and Southwest Asia; today… …   Wikipedia

  • Sino-Tibetan languages — Sino Tibetan Geographic distribution: East Asia Linguistic classification: One of the world s major language families. Subdivisions: Sinitic Tibeto Burman ISO 639 …   Wikipedia

  • Oto-Manguean languages — Oto Manguean Geographic distribution: Currently Mexico; previously Mesoamerica and Central America Linguistic classification: Not positively related to any other language families. Subdivisions: Oto Pamean Chinantecan Tl …   Wikipedia

  • Niger–Congo languages — Niger–Congo Niger–Kordofanian (obsolete) Geographic distribution: Sub Saharan Africa Linguistic classification: one of the world s primary language families Subdivisions: Dogon …   Wikipedia

  • Nilo-Saharan languages — Nilo Saharan Geographic distribution: Central and East Africa Linguistic classification: One of the world s primary language families Subdivisions: Eastern Sudanic Central Sudanic ? Kadu Maban …   Wikipedia