- Russian presidential election, 2008
The Russian Presidential election of 2008, held on
March 2, 2008resulted in the election of Dmitry Medvedevas the third President of Russia. Mr. Medvedev, whose candidacy was supported by incumbent president Vladimir Putinand five political parties ( United Russia, Fair Russia, Agrarian Party, Civilian Power, Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"), received 71% of the vote, defeated candidates from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia and the Democratic Party of Russia. [ [http://exile.ru/articles/detail.php?ARTICLE_ID=8606&IBLOCK_ID=35 Reintroducing: The Democratic Party Of Russia] , The eXile, June 15, 2007.] [ [http://www.reuters.com/article/reutersEdge/idUSL2949331420080130?sp=true Presidential candidate Bogdanov denies Kremlin ties] , Reuters, January 30, 2008.]
The fairness of the election was disputed, with official monitoring groups giving conflicting reports. Some reported that the election was free and fair, while others reported that not all candidates had equal media coverage and that
Kremlinopposition was treated unfairly. Monitoring groups found a number of other irregularities, but made no reports of fraud or ballot stuffing. Most agreed that the results reflected the will of the people.
OSCEelection monitoring group refused to monitor the election because of what it called "severe restrictions on its observers by the Russian government", a charge Russia vehemently rejected, calling the decision "unacceptable".
Following his appointment as First Deputy Prime Minister, many political observers expected Medvedev to be nominated as Putin's successor for the 2008 presidential elections. [ [http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2007/01/19EAFDE9-0C0D-43BC-99A5-BBD88912B086.html Russia: President's Potential Successor Debuts At Davos] . January 31, 2007.] There were other potential candidates, such as
Sergey Ivanovand Viktor Zubkov, but on December 10, 2007, President Putin announced that Medvedev was his preferred successor. Four parties supporting Putin also declared Medvedev to be their candidate to the post - United Russia, Fair Russia, Agrarian Party of Russiaand Civilian Power. [ru icon [http://lenta.ru/news/2007/12/10/medvedev/ Дмитрий Медведев выдвинут в президенты России] Lenta.ru] United Russiaheld its party congresson December 17, 2007where by secret ballotof the delegates, Medvedev was officially endorsed as their candidate in the 2008 presidential election. [ [http://www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=12188392&PageNum=0 United Russia endorses D Medvedev as candidate for presidency] ITAR-TASS, December 17, 2007.] He formally registered his candidacy with the Central Election Commission on December 20, 2007and said he would step down as chairman of Gazprom, since under the current laws, the president is not permitted to hold another post. [ [http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601085&sid=aO3DYm6Qk.Nc Medvedev Registers for Russian Presidency, Will Leave Gazprom] ,Bloomberg, December 20, 2007.] Sources close to Gazprom and Medvedev have told the Vedomostinewspaper that Medvedev may be replaced by Putin at Gazprom. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20071221/wl_nm/putin_gazprom_dc_2 Putin may become Gazprom chairman] , Reuters, December 21, 2007.] His registration was formally accepted as valid by the Russian Central Election Commission on January 21, 2008. [ru icon [http://cikrf.ru/postancik/Zp080688.jsp О регистрации Дмитрия Анатольевича Медведева кандидатом на должность Президента Российской Федерации] , Decision No. 88/688-5 of the Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation, January 21, 2008.]
In January 2008, Medvedev launched his presidential campaign with stops in the regions. [ [http://news.yahoo.com/s/nm/20080117/wl_nm/russia_medvedev_dc_1 Putin's successor dismisses fears of state "grab"] , Reuters, January 17, 2008.] In his first speech since he was endorsed, Medvedev announced that, as President, he would appoint Vladimir Putin to the post of prime minister to head the Russian government. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/11/world/europe/medvedev-speech.html Speech by Dmitry A. Medvedev] , New York Times, December 11, 2007] Although constitutionally barred from a third consecutive presidential term, such a role would allow Putin to continue as an influential figure in Russian politics [ [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2007/11/08/011.html Drive Starts to Make Putin 'National Leader'] The Moscow Times, November 8, 2007] Putin pledged that he would accept the position of prime minister should Medvedev be elected president. Election posters portrayed the pair side-by-side with the slogan "Together we will win" ("Lang|ru|Вместе победим"). [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7136556.stm BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Profile: Dmitry Medvedev ] ] The poster depicts both politicians as the same height, yet Medvedev is 10 cm shorter than Putin. ["Wiadomosci", shown on TVP1 (Poland) on 1 March 2008]
Four candidates registered their nomination with the Central Electoral Commission:
*Andrey Bogdanov, leader of the
Democratic Party of Russia. Registered candidate on January 24.
Dmitry Medvedev- Deputy Prime Minister since 2005. He was supported by incumbent president Vladimir Putinand the parties United Russia, Fair Russia, Agrarian Party, Russian Ecological Party "The Greens"and Civilian Power. Registered candidate on January 21.
Vladimir Zhirinovsky- Deputy Speaker of the State Dumaand leader of the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia. He ran for the presidency on three prior occasions: in 1991, 1996 and 2000. His best result was third with 7.81% support. Registered candidate on December 26. [ [http://www.cikrf.ru/postancik/Zp070620.jsp Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации ] ]
Gennady Zyuganov- Leader of the Communist Party of the Russian Federationand former presidential candidate, who ran for President in 1996 (when he came short just a few percent of the votes) and 2000, but not in 2004. [Kommersant Moscow. [http://www.kommersant.com/p-10880/Zyuganov_Presidential_Election/ Zyuganov Announces His Presidential Bid] . 2007-6-11] Officially nominated on December 15, 2007with 215 of 218 votes in favor. [ITAR-TASS [http://www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=12182727&PageNum=0 Communist leader Zyuganov nominated for Russia presidency] . 2007-12-15.] Registered candidate on December 26. [ [http://www.cikrf.ru/postancik/Zp070623.jsp Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации ] ] Boris Nemtsov, former Vice Prime Minister in Sergei Kiriyenko's Cabinet, was nominated by the Union of Right Forceson December 18, 2007[ [http://www.kyivpost.com/bn/28019/ Kyiv Post. Russian opposition party SPS nominates Nemtsov as presidential candidate ] ] and became a registered candidate on December 22. [ [http://www.cikrf.ru/postancik/Zp070638.jsp Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации ] ] He withdrew his bid on December 26, 2007and called on his supporters to vote for Kasyanov instead. [ [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20071226/94208045.html RIA Novosti - Russia - Opposition candidate Nemtsov quits Russian presidential race ] ]
Central Election Commission disqualified a number of candidates.
Mikhail Kasyanov, a former Prime Minister and current leader of the People's Democratic Union, was the fifth candidate. It was not known if Kasyanov would continue his candidacy after Garry Kasparov had entered the race, but on December 8, 2007he reaffirmed he would run in the election. [People's Daily Online. [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/90853/6317339.html Russian ex-PM nominated presidential candidate] . 2007-12-8.] Registered candidate on December 14. He had registered successfully, but later it was decided that too many of his signatures of support were forged [ [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2008/01/23/011.html Investigators Target Kasyanov Camp ] ] and he was disqualified. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7211622.stm BBC NEWS | Europe | Kasyanov barred from Russian poll ] ] Kasyanov appealed the decision to the Supreme Court, [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6349816.html Former Russian PM challenges refusal to register him as presidential candidate - People's Daily Online ] ] which rejected the appeal on February 6, 2008. [ [http://english.people.com.cn/90001/90777/6351794.html Russian court rejects former PM's request to enter presidential race - People's Daily Online ] ] Bogdanov has also had a similar criminal investigation opened against him, but it was reported that even if the accusations are proven, his candidacy will not be dismissed. [News.ru. [http://www.newsru.com/russia/31jan2008/podpisi.html Прокуратура выявила факт подделки подписей в поддержку Богданова. Но участь Касьянова ему не грозит] . 2008-01-31.]
Vladimir Bukovsky- Soviet-era dissident. [The Moscow Times. [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2007/05/29/013.html Bukovsky to Run for President] 2007-5-29] On August 3, 2007he received a new Russian passportat the Russian Embassy in London. He arrived in Moscowin October to launch his campaign. His bid was refused on the grounds that he didn't live in Russia in the last 10 years. [ [http://www.cikrf.ru/postancik/Zp070644.jsp Об отказе в регистрации группы избирателей, созданной для поддержки самовыдвижения Владимира Константиновича Буковского кандидатом на должность Президента Российской Федерации, и ее уполномоченных представителей] ]
Nikolai Kuryanovich- Ultra nationalist member of the State Duma; an open admirer of both Adolf Hitlerand Joseph Stalin. [BBC News. [http://www.bbc.co.uk/mediaselector/check/player/nol/newsid_7100000/newsid_7106700?redirect=7106706.stm&news=1&nbram=1&nbwm=1&bbwm=1&bbram=1&asb=1 Neo-Nazis on rise in Russia] .]
Oleg Shenin- The leader of the small, hard line Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Shenin), which should not be confused with the larger UCP-CPSU. His bid was not registered due to bureaucratic mistakes in his documents. [ЦентрИзбирКом [http://www.cikrf.ru/postancik/Zp070627.jsp . Постановление Об отказе в регистрации группы избирателей, созданной для поддержки самовыдвижения Олега Семеновича Шенина кандидатом на должность Президента Российской Федерации, и ее уполномоченных представителей] ]
Many Russian politicians publicly indicated their intention to run for President in 2008, but failed to submit their nomination:
Garry Kasparov, former World Chess Championand United Civil Frontleader. Before announcing his candidacy, he was previously inclined to endorse Viktor Gerashchenko. [Washingtonpost.com. [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/06/14/AR2007061402096_pf.html Accidental Allies in Russian Politics] . 2007-6-15.q] He failed to nominate by the deadline, citing government obstructions in finding a suitable congress venue as the reason. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/13/world/europe/13russia.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Kasparov Says He Was Forced to End Bid for Presidency] , Andrew Kramer, The New York Times, December 13, 2007]
Alexander Donskoy, mayor of Arkhangelsk. He was charged with abuse of office, detained for several months and released on March 6, 2008 with a probationary sentence. [ [http://svobodanews.ru/Article/2008/03/06/20080306192652010.html Мэр Архангельска получил три года условно; приговор будет оспорен] ru icon, Igor Kluchnikov, Radio Svoboda, March 6, 2008] La Russophobe. [http://larussophobe.wordpress.com/2007/03/08/putin-seizes-total-control-of-2008-election-sham/ Putin Seizes Total Control of 2008 "Election" Sham] Retrieved on 2007-11-27.]
Viktor Gerashchenko- Former head of the Central Bank and former deputy of the nationalist Rodinaparty who has now joined the Other Russiacoalition. He was initially the favored candidate of Garry Kasparov.
Sergei Gulyayev- Former St Petersburg Yablokoregional legislator who announced his intention to run, despite the fact that Yabloko's leader has also declared his intention to stand. [The Moscow Times. [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2007/06/26/014.html Gulyayev to Run for President] . 2007-6-26.] Gulyayev was the fourth candidate from the Other Russiacoalition to announce his candidacy.
Gennadiy Seleznyov- Former Speaker of the Duma(in 1995-2003); former member of the CPRF; leader of the socialist Party of Russia's Rebirth.
Grigory Yavlinsky, Leader of the Yablokoparty, who also stood for the presidency in 1996 and in 2000, [The Moscow Times. [http://www.themoscowtimes.com/stories/2007/06/18/011.html Yavlinsky Ready to Run in '08] . 2007-6-18.] was widely expected to run for the presidency as a candidate of united liberal parties. However, at the Yabloko congress, on December 14, 2007, it was announced that Yavlinsky and his party would support the candidacy of Bukovsky. [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/12/14/europe/EU-POL-Russia-Presidential-Election.php Liberal Yavlinsky, perennial Russian candidate, not running for president] ]
Fair Russiaannounced on December 7, 2007that they would not nominate their own candidate and would support another party's candidate instead (likely United Russia's). [RIA Novosti [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20071207/91354495.html A Just Russia party will not nominate presidential candidate] . 2007-12-7.]
According to opinion polls taken prior to the election, up to 82% of people said that they would vote for
Dmitry Medvedev, the candidate endorsed by Vladimir Putin as his preferred successor. The second most popular candidate was Gennady Zuganov, Leader of the Communist Party of Russia, who was expected to receive between 6% and 15% of the vote. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7216102.stm BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Rivals in Kremlin race ] ] An opinion poll by the Yury Levada Analytical Center, taken in September after Vladimir Putinannounced he would head the electoral list of United Russiain the 2007 Parliamentary elections, showed a commanding lead for Sergei Ivanovand Dmitry Medvedev, with 34% and 30% of the vote respectively. Viktor Zubkovand Sergei Glazyevreceived only 4% of the vote each. [Angus Reid Global Monitor. [http://www.angus-reid.com/polls/view/ivanov_leads_zubkov_negligible_in_russia/ Ivanov Leads, Zubkov Negligible in Russia] 2007-10-3.]
During the pre-election debates on the Star TV on
February 20, Nikolai Gotsa, a representative of Bogdanov, accused Vladimir Zhirinovsky and his party of lying to and betraying their supporters. He accused them of voting in favor of government initiatives they criticize when in public. Zhirinovsky replied fiercely, insulting Gotsa and calling him a "sick man, a schizoid", " bastard", and punched him when they went off the cameras. Bogdanov and Gotsa launched a legal issue against Zhirinovsky. On February 28, in another debate, Bogdanov claimed he had a personal talk with Zhirinovsky, and that the latter had threatened his life and demanded to withdraw the issue. [ [http://www.itar-tass.com/eng/level2.html?NewsID=12414064&PageNum=0 Bogdanov versus Zhirinovsky, five-year prison term asked] ]
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, in its capacity as an international election standards watchdog, refused to monitor the election because of what it called severe restrictions on its observers by the Russian government. [ [http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/03/03/russia.election/index.html Vote rig claim after Putin ally landslide - CNN.com ] ] After weeks of negotiations, Russia agreed to increase the observer numbers for the ODIHR mission and extend the time frame for its visit, but the ODIHR claimed that the offer still didn't meet their requirements, insisting that it needed to send at least 50 of its observers to Russia on February 15, five days before the date proposed by Moscow, in order effectively monitor the election campaign. [ [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080207/98680172.html Wr
RIA Novosti, February 7, 2008]
Russia responded by insisting that it was complying fully with its international obligations and that its invitation for 400 monitors meets international standards. It accused the OSCE of attempting to politicize the dispute and that it suspected ODIHR's intention from the outset was to boycott the election, saying that the ODIHR had displayed "contempt for basic ethical norms ... which, it seems, indicates that ODIHR from the start was not even trying to agree on mutually acceptable conditions for monitoring." [http://www.nationalpost.com/news/world/story.html?id=292473 Election watchdog scraps plans to monitor Russian vote]
National PostRetrieved on March 19, 2008]
Russian Foreign Minister
Sergey Lavrovstated that cquote|The Russian side consented to 25 observers arriving this week and the rest of them on February, 25. Our proposal was denied. The Office (OSCE) insisted it will not send its observers to Russia unless Moscow accepts its demands. This is an ultimatum a self-respecting country cannot accept [ [http://russiatoday.ru/election/news/21582 300+ monitor Russian poll; OSCE skips] , Russia Today, March 2, 2008] .
Russia's Foreign Ministry spokesman, Mikhail Kamynin, said "The ODIHR flatly rejected a compromise without providing any clear explanations for its position. We believe such actions are unacceptable." Kamynin added that Moscow "deeply regretted" the OSCE refusal, accusing the organization, which he said generally sends 10-20 experts to observe election campaigns one or two weeks ahead of polls, of political bias against Russia. [http://en.rian.ru/russia/20080207/98680172.html Wr
RIA Novosti, February 7, 2008]
An incident arose during the election when three out of nine members of the
BiyskElectoral Commission refused to sign the protocols citing widespread falsifications in their "Priobsky Division". The rest of commission decided to approve the protocols as the alleged abuse was not reported during the election. [ [http://www.fedpress.ru/federal/polit/vibori/id_89970.html Voices of outrage in a Biysk territorial election commission] ru icon, "FederalPress" March 5 2008]
Representatives from the GOLOS monitoring group stated that "the Election Day was held in a relatively quiet atmosphere in contrast to the State Duma election day. Such large-scale violations observed then as campaigning next to polling stations, transporting of voters, intimidation of voters and others were practically non-existent." They did however report irregularities in the election. [http://golos.org/IMG/doc/GOLOS_statement_ENG_for_website.doc STATEMENT # 3 OF GOLOS ASSOCIATION ON THE RESULTS OF SHORT-TERM MONITORING OF PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS ON MARCH 2, 2008] , The
GOLOS Association, Moscow, March 3, 2008]
Commonwealth of Independent Statesobserver mission said the election was free, fair and in line with international standards. "The CIS observer mission states that the election is a major factor in the further democratization of public life in the Russian Federation, and recognizes it as free, open and transparent," said Nauryz Aidarov, head of the CIS mission. [http://en.rian.ru/world/20080303/100488297.html PACE says Medvedev won Russian polls, but doubts fairness] , RIA Novosti, March 3, 2008.]
Observers from the
Shanghai Cooperation Organizationsaid the election was free, fair and in line with international standards. [http://russiatoday.ru/election/news/21638 Thumping mandate for Medvedev] Russia TodayRetrieved on March 19, 2008
An observing group from
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europestated that the result of the election was a "reflection of the will of an electorate whose democratic potential was, unfortunately, not tapped". They said "In the elections, which had more the character of a plebiscite on the last eight years in this country, the people of Russia voted for the stability and continuity associated with the incumbent President and the candidate promoted by him. The President-elect will have a solid mandate given to him by the majority of Russians." [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/03/russia.eu Russia election not free or fair, say observers] by Luke Harding, The Guardian, March 3, 2008 ] [ [http://assembly.coe.int/ASP/Press/StopPressView.asp?ID=2013 Russian Presidential election: for an election to be good it takes a good process, not just a good election day] , PACE, Strasbourg, March 3, 2008]
The head of Russia's electoral commission
Vladimir Churovsaid that media coverage for the presidential election had been "fair but not equal". [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7270323.stm Russia official admits media bias] BBC NewsRetrieved on March 19, 2008]
The Economist" reported that Mr Medvedev has been mentioned over six times more often than his three rivals in 1,000 different news sources, according to figures from SCAN, a media database owned by Interfax, but stated that this could be due to Medvedev's high profile job as chairman of the state-owned gas monopoly, Gazprom. [ [http://www.economist.com/research/articlesBySubject/displaystory.cfm?subjectid=7933596&story_id=10757103 No contest] The economist [Feb 28th 2008] ]
A report by the "
Herald Tribune" described Medvedev's election as "the culmination of Putin's efforts to consolidate control over the government, business and the news media since taking office eight years ago." [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/2008/03/02/europe/russia.php Medvedev is victor in Russia election] by Clifford J. Levy Herald Tribune, March 2, 2008 ] .
Novaya Gazeta" claimed that there were forged election protocols and cases when independent observers were not allowed to monitor the election process. [ [http://www.novayagazeta.ru/data/2008/16/11.html Фальсификация] Retrieved on March 12, 2008] Journalist Victor Shenderovichclaims that only 3.5% of voters came to the elections in certain North Caucasus regions according to independent observers, whereas the Central Election committee reporter more than 90% turnaround. [ [http://www.echo.msk.ru/programs/plsyrok/499824-echo/ retrieved on March 12, 2008] ]
Russia Today, many in the Western media portrayed Russia's presidential election as nothing but a farce. It reported that the claims of rigging the election were not supported by the various international election monitoring organizations in attendance [ [http://www.guide2womenleaders.com/Slovakia_Parliament.htm Slovakia Parliament ] ] .
Political analyst and
United Russiamember, Sergei Markov, said that the outcome of this poll was predetermined because of how much support the Russian people show for Vladimir Putin's policies. "The Russian people have seen how successful these policies have been, and they want them to continue", he says. Markov cited fears that the West would interfere and change the course of the election, like they did in Ukraineand Georgia. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7263293.stm#markov Viewpoints: Russian presidential election] BBCRetrieved on March 12, 2008]
* [http://trendlines.ca/electrussia.htm TrendLines Research International Election Projections] Monthly Tracking chart of polling sentiment for the 3 leading contenders in next Russian Presidential election.
* [http://www.vybory.izbirkom.ru/region/region/izbirkom?action=show&root=1&tvd=100100022249920&vrn=100100022176412®ion=0&global=1&sub_region=0&prver=0&pronetvd=null&vibid=100100022249920&type=227 Official results] ru icon
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/7263293.stm BBC NEWS Viewpoints: Russian presidential election] Six Russians give their views on the election and predict the outcome.
* [http://www.youtube.com/v/xGfwlkGNrBM] ; [http://www.youtube.com/v/-E2ieEsmqBM] - YouTube videos of electoral officials in
Moscowtrying to prevent the observers from registering an election fraud (they claim the box was stuffed with pro-Medvedev ballots prior to the poll opening); electoral officials attempting to expel observers with simulated terrorist threat and air-strike sirens.
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