Barium titanate


Barium titanate

Chembox new
Name = Barium titanate
ImageFile =
ImageName = Barium titanate
OtherNames =
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 12047-27-7

Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = BaTiO3
MolarMass = 233.192 g/mol
Appearance = white crystals
Density = 6.02 g/cm3, solid
Solubility = insoluble
MeltingPt = 1625 °C
BoilingPt =

Barium titanate is an oxide of barium and titanium with the chemical formula BaTiO3. It is a ferroelectric ceramic material, with a photorefractive effect and piezoelectric properties. It has five phases as a solid, listing from high temperature to low temperature: hexagonal, cubic, tetragonal, orthorhombic, and rhombohedral crystal structure. All of the structures exhibit the ferroelectric effect except cubic. Barioperovskite is a very rare natural analogue of BaTiO3, found as microinclusions in benitoite.

Appearance

It has the appearance of a white powder or transparent crystals. It is insoluble in water and soluble in concentrated sulfuric acid. Its risk and safety phrases are R20/22, S28A, S37, and S45.

Manufacture

Barium titanate can be manufactured by liquid phase sintering of barium carbonate and titanium dioxide, optionally with other materials for doping.

High purity barium titanate powder is reported to be a key component of new barium titanate capacitor energy storage systems being developed by EEStor for use in electric vehicles. [http://www.zenncars.com/media/press_rel/01_07/ZMC_EEStor_1_Release_01-18.pdf]

Barium titanate is often mixed with strontium titanate.

Uses

Barium titanate is used as a dielectric material for ceramic capacitors, and as a piezoelectric material for microphones and other transducers. As a piezoelectric material, it was largely replaced by lead zirconate titanate, also known as PZT.

Polycrystalline barium titanate displays positive temperature coefficient, making it a useful material for thermistors and self-regulating electric heating systems.

Fully-dense nanocrystalline barium titanate has 40% higher permittivity than the same material prepared in classic ways. [http://research.ucdavis.edu/NCD.cfm?ncdid=658 [http://research.ucdavis.edu/NCD.cfm?ncdid=658] ]

Barium titanate crystals find use in nonlinear optics. The material has high beam-coupling gain, and can be operated at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. It has the highest reflectivity of the materials used for self-pumped phase conjugation (SPPC) applications. It can be used for continuous-wave four-wave mixing with milliwatt-range optical power. For photorefractive applications, barium titanate can be doped by various other elements, e.g. cerium. [http://www.redoptronics.com/Ce:BaTiO3-crystal.html [http://www.redoptronics.com/Ce-BaTiO3-crystal.html Ce:BaTiO3] ]

The addition of inclusions of barium titanate to tin has been shown to create a bulk material with a higher viscoelastic stiffness than that of diamonds. Barium titanate goes through two phase transitions that change the crystal shape and volume. This leads to composites where the barium titanates have a negative bulk modulus (Young's modulus), meaning that when a force acts on the inclusions, there is displacement in the opposite direction, further stiffening the composite. [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/315/5812/620 [http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/315/5812/620] ]

Thin films of barium titanate display electrooptic modulation to frequencies over 40 GHz. [http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5962 [http://www.opticsexpress.org/abstract.cfm?URI=OPEX-12-24-5962] ]

The pyroelectric and ferroelectric properties of barium titanate are used in some types of uncooled sensors for thermal cameras.

ee also

* Strontium titanate
* Lead zirconate titanate

References

External links

* [http://blog.wired.com/gadgets/2007/09/instant-charge-.html EEStor's "instant-charge" capacitor batteries]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • barium titanate — noun : a white crystalline compound BaTiO3 characterized by ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties and used in hearing aids, phonograph pickups, and ceramic transducers * * * Chem. a crystalline compound, BaTiO3, used to make ferroelectric… …   Useful english dictionary

  • barium titanate — bario titanatas statusas T sritis chemija formulė BaTiO₃ atitikmenys: angl. barium titanate rus. бария титанат ryšiai: sinonimas – bario trioksotitanatas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • barium titanate — barium ti·tan·ate tīt ən .āt n a white crystalline compound BaTiO3 used in hearing aids, phonograph pickups, and ceramic transducers …   Medical dictionary

  • barium titanate — Chem. a crystalline compound, BaTiO3, used to make ferroelectric ceramics for capacitors and also used in transducers. * * * …   Universalium

  • Barium — (pronEng|ˈbɛəriəm) is a chemical element. It has the symbol Ba, and atomic number 56. Barium is a soft silvery metallic alkaline earth metal. It is never found in nature in its pure form due to its reactivity with air. Its oxide is historically… …   Wikipedia

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  • titanate — see BARIUM TITANATE …   Medical dictionary

  • titanate — ˈtītənˌāt, ənə̇t noun ( s) Etymology: titan + ate 1. : any of various compounds (as barium titanate) that are multiple oxides or solid solutions of titanium dioxide with other metallic oxides 2. : an ester of the general formula Ti(OR)4… …   Useful english dictionary

  • Titanate — Als Titanate werden die Salze oder Ester der Titansäuren (HxTiyOz, praktisch die verschiedenen Hydrate von Titandioxid) bezeichnet. Hauptsächlich handelt es sich dabei um die Salze der Orthotitansäure H4TiO4), wobei neben diesen Orthotitanaten… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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