- Inferior vena cava
Infobox Vein | Name = PAGENAME
Latin = vena cava inferior
GraySubject = 173
GrayPage = 677
Heart diagram 250px
Caption = Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow.
common iliac vein lumbar veins testicular vein renal vein suprarenal vein hepatic vein
MeshName = Vena+Cava,+Inferior
MeshNumber = A07.231.908.949.648
The inferior vena cava (or IVC) is the large
veinthat carries de-oxygenated bloodfrom the lower half of the body into the heart.
posteriorto the abdominal cavity and runs alongside of the vertebral columnon its right side (i.e. it is a retroperitonealstructure). It enters the right atriumat the lower right, back side of the heart.
The IVC is formed by the joining of the left and right
common iliac veins and brings blood into the right atriumof the heart. It also anastomoses with the azygos veinsystem (which runs on the right side of the vertebral column) and the venous plexuses next to the spinal cord.
caval openingis at T8. The specific levels of the branches are as follows:
Because the IVC is not centrally located, there are some asymmetries in drainage patterns. The
gonadal veins and suprarenal veins drain into the IVC on the right side, but into the renal veinon the left side, which in turn drains into the IVC. By contrast, all the lumbar veinsand hepatic veinsusually drain directly into the IVC.
Note that the vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the upper half of the body is the
superior vena cava.
Pathologies associated with the IVC
Health problems attributed to the IVC are most often associated with it being compressed (ruptures are rare because it has a low intraluminal
pressure). Typical sources of external pressure are an enlarged aorta( abdominal aortic aneurysm), the gravid uterus( aortocaval compression syndrome) and abdominal maligancies, such as colorectal cancer, renal cell carcinomaand ovarian cancer. Since the inferior vena cava is primarily a right-sided structure, unconscious pregnant females should be turned on to their left side (the recovery position), to relieve pressure on it and facilitate venous return. In rare cases, straining associated with defecationcan lead to restricted blood flow through the IVC and result in syncope (fainting). [Brophy CM, Evans L, Sumpio BE. Defecation syncope secondary to functional inferior vena caval obstruction during a Valsalva maneuver. Ann Vasc Surg. 1993 Jul;7(4):374-7. PMID 8268080.]
Occlusion of the IVC is rare, but considered life-threatening and is an emergency. It is associated with
deep vein thrombosis, IVC filters, liver transplantationand instrumentation (e.g. catheterin the femoral vein). [Geehan DM, Inferior Vena Caval Thrombosis, emedicine.com, URL: http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2718.htm, Accessed: August 3, 2005.]
embryo, the IVC and right atrium are separated by the Eustachian valve, also known in Latinas the "valvula venae cavae inferiore" (valve of the inferior vena cava). In the adult, this structure typically has totally regressed or remains as a small endocardial fold. [Yavuz T, Nazli C, Kinay O, Kutsal A. Giant eustachian valve with echocardiographic appearance of divided right atrium. Tex Heart Inst J. 2002;29(4):336-8. PMID 12484622 [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=140300 Full Text] .]
Inferior vena cava filter
Inferior vena cava syndrome
Superior vena cava
* - "Eustachian valve"
* - "Posterior Abdominal Wall: Tributaries to the Inferior Vena Cava"
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Look at other dictionaries:
inferior vena cava — n a vein that is the largest vein in the human body, is formed by the union of the two common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, and returns blood to the right atrium of the heart from bodily parts below the diaphragm … Medical dictionary
inferior vena cava. — See under vena cava. Also called postcava. [1830 40] * * * … Universalium
inferior vena cava — noun receives blood from lower limbs and abdominal organs and empties into the posterior part of the right atrium of the heart; formed from the union of the two iliac veins • Syn: ↑postcava • Hypernyms: ↑vena cava … Useful english dictionary
inferior vena cava. — See under vena cava. Also called postcava. [1830 40] … Useful english dictionary
inferior vena cava — noun The large vein which returns blood from the lower extremities, and the pelvic and abdominal organs, to the right atrium of the heart. Syn: IVC … Wiktionary
inferior vena cava — n. (Medicine) postcava, large vein which carries blood from the lower section of the body (lower limbs, pelvis and abdominal organs) to the right atrium of heart … English contemporary dictionary
inferior vena cava — A large vein that empties into the heart. It carries blood from the legs and feet and from organs in the abdomen and pelvis … English dictionary of cancer terms
Inferior vena cava filter — An inferior vena cava filter, also IVC filter a type of vascular filter, is a medical device that is implanted into the inferior vena cava to prevent pulmonary emboli (PEs). IVC filters are used in case of contraindication to anticoagulation,… … Wikipedia
inferior vena cava filter — a filter used in transvenous vena caval interruption for the prevention of pulmonary embolism; the most common type is the umbrella filter. Called also vena cava or vena caval f. Vena cava filter. Expandable wire mesh basket (arrows) in the… … Medical dictionary
Inferior vena cava syndrome — DiseaseDisorder infobox Name = PAGENAME ICD10 = ICD10|I|87|1|i|80 ICDO = Caption = OMIM = OMIM mult = eMedicineSubj = emerg eMedicineTopic = 2718 Inferior vena cava syndrome (IVCS) is a result of obstruction of the inferior vena cava. It can be… … Wikipedia