Laniatores


Laniatores

Taxobox
name = Laniatores


image_caption = Podoctidae from the Philippines
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Arthropoda
classis = Arachnida
ordo = Opiliones
subordo = Laniatores
subordo_authority = Thorell, 1876
subdivision_ranks = Superfamilies
subdivision =
Travunioidea
Triaenonychoidea
Epedanoidea
Phalangodoidea
Samooidea
Zalmoxoidea
Gonyleptoidea

Laniatores is the largest suborder of the arachnid order Opiliones with over 4,000 described species worldwide. The majority of the species are highly dependent on humid environments and usually correlated with tropical and temperate forest habitats.

Laniatores are typically (relatively) short-legged, hard-plated, spiny Opiliones, common under logs and stones, in leaf litter and in caves. They often have spiny pedipalps and paired or branched claws on the third and fourth pairs of legs [Pinto-da-Rocha "et al." 2007: 17] .The largest family is Gonyleptidae Sundevall, 1833, endemic of the Neotropics, with over 800 valid species and showing many cases of maternal and paternal care.

Diagnosis

Dorsal scutum consisting in a single piece, carapace or peltidium entirely fused with abdominal scutum. Pedipalpus usually robust and armed with strong spines. Ovipositor short, unsegmented (derived character state shared with the Dyspnoi). Penis complex, with many sclerites, some movable, a single penial muscle present, but mostly penis without any muscles, working by hemolymph pressure.

Subtaxa

*Infraorder "Insidiatores" Loman, 1900 (probably diphyletic)
**Superfamily Travunioidea Absolon & Kratochvil, 1932
**Superfamily Triaenonychoidea Sørensen, 1886
*Infraorder Grassatores Kury, 2002
**Superfamily Epedanoidea Sørensen, 1886
**Superfamily Phalangodoidea Simon, 1879
**Superfamily Samooidea Sørensen, 1886
**Superfamily Zalmoxoidea Sørensen, 1886
**Superfamily Gonyleptoidea Sundevall, 1833

Definitions and limits of superfamilies are still in a state of flux. The largest by far is the Gonyleptoidea, with almost 2,500 described species.

Geographic distribution

Distribution of subunits of Laniatores is very interesting from the biogeographic point of view. The Travunioidea are typical of northern temperate regions while the Triaenonychoidea make their counterpart in the southern temperate regions. The other superfamilies are tropical, with many noteworthy endemisms and transcontinental relationships.

Footnotes

References

* (eds.) (2007): Harvestmen - The Biology of Opiliones. "Harvard University Press" ISBN 0-674-02343-9


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