Government in exile


Government in exile

A government in exile is a political group that claims to be a country's legitimate government, but for various reasons is unable to exercise its legal power, and instead resides in a foreign country.[1] Governments in exile usually operate under the assumption that they will one day return to their native country and regain power. They are distinguished from rump states in the sense that a rump state still controls at least part of its previous territory[2] (for example, during the First World War nearly all of Belgium was German-occupied, but Belgium and its allies held on to a small slice in the country's west); a government in exile, conversely, has lost all its territory.

Governments in exile frequently occur during wartime occupation, and sometimes also in the aftermath of a civil war, revolution, military coup, or widespread belief in the illegitimacy of a ruling government. For example, during the German expansion of the Second World War, some European governments sought refuge in the United Kingdom rather than face destruction at the hands of Nazi Germany. The effectiveness of a government in exile depends mainly on the support it can get from foreign governments on the one hand and from the population of its own country on the other. Some governments in exile can develop into a formidable force, posing a serious challenge to the rival in actual possession of the country, while others are mainly maintained as a symbolic gesture with little effect on the actual situation.

The phenomenon of a government in exile long predates the term. In periods of monarchial government, the usual reference was to an exile monarch or dynasty setting up an exile court - such as the House of Stuart when driven from their throne by Cromwell and again at the Glorious Revolution, or the House of Bourbon during the French Revolution and the rule of Napoleon. With the spread of constitutional monarchy, monarchical governments in exile started to include a prime minister.

Contents

Actions of governments in exile

International law recognizes that governments in exile may undertake many types of actions in the conduct of their daily affairs. These actions include:

  • becoming a party to a bilateral or international treaty
  • amending or revising its own constitution
  • maintaining military forces
  • retaining (or "newly obtaining") diplomatic recognition by sovereign states
  • issuing identity cards
  • allowing the formation of new political parties
  • instituting democratic reforms
  • holding elections
  • allowing for direct (or more broadly-based) elections of its government officers, etc.

However, none of these actions can serve to legitimatize a government in exile to become the internationally recognized legal government of its current locality. By definition, a government in exile is spoken of in terms of its native country, hence it must return to its native country and regain power there in order to obtain legitimacy as the legal government of that geographic area.

Still, in cases where the host country holds a large expatriate population from a government-in-exile's home country, or a population ethnically originating from that country, the government-in-exile might come to exercise some governmental functions towards such a population. For example, the WWII Provisional Government of Free India acted in this way towards the ethnically Indian population of British Malaya, with the consent of the then Japanese military authorities.

Current governments in exile

Governments in exile often have little or no recognition from other states. Some governments have partial control over small share of their claimed territories, such as rump states, and such disputed or partially in exile cases are colored accordingly. Governments in exile include:

Deposed governments of current states

The list below includes governments in exile that have been created by deposed governments/rulers who claim to still be the legitimate authority of the state they once controlled (or were elected as the legitimate government of).

Name Exile since State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially) Information References
Belarus Belarusian National Republic 1920  Republic of Belarus Currently led by Ivonka Survilla in Toronto, Canada in a council of 14 called the Rada. See History of Belarus [3]
Burma National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma 1990  Republic of the Union of Myanmar Currently led by Sein Win. It is composed of members of parliament elected in 1990 but not allowed by the military to take office. It is based in Rockville, Maryland, U.S.A.
Naval flag of Iran 1933-1980.svg Monarchy of Iran 1979  Islamic Republic of Iran The Monarchy of Iran, led by Reza Pahlavi and living in Potomac, Maryland, U.S.A.
Laos Monarchy of Laos 1975  Lao People's Democratic Republic The Royal Lao Government in Exile, the former government of the Kingdom of Laos. It is based in Paris, France.
 Republic of China
(Disputed due mainly to the controversial political status of Taiwan [4][5][6])
1949

 Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
 Kingdom of Bhutan
 People's Republic of China
 Republic of China itself
 Republic of India
 Japan
 Mongolia
 Union of Myanmar
 Islamic Republic of Pakistan
 Russian Federation
 Republic of Tajikistan

The Republic of China (ROC) is the state which governs Taiwan and some of its surrounding islands.[7] Whether it is a government in exile or not is disputed.[4][5][6][8][9] Proponents reason that because Taiwan is not a part of the ROC, the ROC is located in foreign territory therefore effectively a government-in-exile. Opponents claim the opposite, arguing that Taiwan is indeed a part of the ROC and the government is still located in its own territory, therefore it is not a government-in-exile but a rump state. For further information, see political status of Taiwan and Legal status of Taiwan.

Exiled governments of non-self-governing or occupied territories

The list below includes governments in exile of non-self-governing or occupied territories that have been created by governments who claim to be the legitimate authority of a territory they once controlled or claim to be the legitimate post-decolonization authority (or were elected as the legitimate government of).

The UN recognizes the right of self-determination for the population of these territories, including the possibility to establish an independent sovereign state.

Name Exile since State controlling its claimed territory (entirely or partially) Information References
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic 1976  Kingdom of Morocco
Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Sahrawi Republic itself
Is headquartered in the Tindouf region in Algeria but controlling what it calls the "Free Zone" in the eastern part of Western Sahara. Claims de jure sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara.
Palestinian territories State of Palestine[10][11] 1988  State of Israel Unilaterally declared in exile in Algiers by the Palestine Liberation Organization that later established the Palestinian National Authority interim territorial administration as result of the Oslo Accords signed by the PLO itself, Israel, United States and Russia. Currently ultimate control[12] over all of the claimed territories is still exercised by Israel,[13][14][15][16][17] but it allows the PNA to execute some functions there, depending on special area classification. The members of the institutions of the State of Palestine meet inside its claimed territory[18][19][20][21] without having control over any part of it.[22][23][24]

Exiled governments with ambiguous claims

The list below consists of governments with some historical tie to the area they claim to represent, but whose claimed status and/or stated aims are sufficiently ambiguous that they could fit into multiple other categories.

Name Exile Current control of claimed territory Information References
by as
Tibet Central Tibetan Administration 1959  People's Republic of China province-level region Prior to 1951, the Tibetan government of the Dalai Lamas considered itself to be an independent state, although this was not formally recognized by any other state. Following a short military confrontation with the recently-founded People's Republic of China, the 14th Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government accepted an agreement which made them a local government subordinate to the PRC. Complex political developments and public reactions during the 1950s culminated in an uprising in the Tibetan capital in 1959. The Dalai Lama fled into exile in India and the PRC declared the Tibetan government abolished. However, the Dalai Lama and a number of supporters announced that it would continue in exile. This organisation, known formally as the Central Tibetan Administration and based in Dharamsala, India, claims to represent the people of Tibet.[25] They have repudiated the 1951 agreement that made them subordinate to China as illegal and invalid, but since at least 1987, they have advocated that Tibet become an autonomous democratic area within the People's Republic of China. The Dalai Lama has also stated that the Central Tibetan Administration will be disbanded prior to elections when a democratic Tibet is achieved, meaning that the CTA no longer has the goal of returning to govern Tibet itself.
Afghanistan Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan 2001 Afghanistan Islamic Republic of Afghanistan As part of the Afghan civil war the Taliban gained control over most of Afghanistan, but in 2001 were expelled from power. [2], [3], [4]

Deposed governments of subnational territories

The list below includes subnational governments in exile (of autonomous territories of a state) that have been created by deposed governments/rulers who claim to still be the legitimate authority of a territory they once controlled (or were elected as the legitimate government of) and do not claim independence as a separate state.

Name Exile Current control of claimed territory Information References
since as by as
Georgia (country) Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia 1993 autonomous republic Abkhazia Republic of Abkhazia independent state A  Georgian provincial government whose territory is under the control of Abkhaz separatists. It is led by Giorgi Baramia.
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani Community of Nagorno-Karabakh[26] 1994 social community NGO Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Nagorno-Karabakh Republic independent state A  Azerbaijani provincial administration whose territory is under the occupation by Armenian separatists. It is led by Bayram Safarov.
South Ossetia Provisional Administration of South Ossetia 2008 provisional administrative entity South Ossetia Republic of South Ossetia independent state A  Georgian provincial administration whose territory is under the control of South Ossetian separatists. It is led by Dmitry Sanakoyev.

Alternative governments of current states

The list below consists of governments that have been created in exile by political organisations and opposition parties that aspire to become the state actual governing authority or claim to be the legal successor to previously deposed government, and have been created as alternatives to the government currently in control of the territory.

Name Claimed exile (deposition) Exile proclamation Government presently controlling claimed territory Note References
Equatorial Guinea Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea 2003  Republic of Equatorial Guinea The Progress Party of Equatorial Guinea proclaimed Severo Moto "President of Equatorial Guinea" in Madrid, Spain. [27]
Ethiopia Crown Council of Ethiopia 1974 1993  Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia The Crown Council of Ethiopia, led by H.I.H Prince Ermias Sahle Selassie and based in the Washington D.C. area, U.S.A., claims that the Emperor is still the legal head of Ethiopia.
Iran National Council of Resistance of Iran 1981  Islamic Republic of Iran Political umbrella coalition of five Iranian opposition political organizations, the largest organization being the People's Mujahedin of Iran led by Maryam and Massoud Rajavi. Based in Paris, France. [28]
South Vietnam Government of Free Vietnam 1975 1995  Socialist Republic of Vietnam Based in Garden Grove, California and Missouri City, Texas, USA. Since 1995, has claimed to be a continuation of the Republic of Vietnam [29]

Alternative separatist governments of current subnational territories

The list below consists of governments that have been created in exile by political organisations, opposition parties and separatist movements that: aspire the territory to achieve independence as a state and that they to become its governing authority; or claim to be the legal successor to previously deposed government of an independent state (subsumed into the current state controlling the territory); and have been created as alternatives to the administrative structures of the state currently in control of the territory.

Name Claimed exile (deposition) Exile proclamation State controlling its claimed territory Information
Flag of South Moluccas.svg Republic of the South Moluccas 1950 1950  Republic of Indonesia The Republic of the South Moluccas, from the South Moluccas, Indonesia, have been exiled in the Netherlands since 1950.
West Papuan government in exile 1963 1969  Republic of Indonesia Based in the Netherlands and campaigns for an independent West Papua.[30][31]
 Biafran Government in Exile 1970 2007  Federal Republic of Nigeria Seeking to reestablish the Republic of Biafra. Declared independence on August 28, 2007. It is based in Washington, DC, United States.[32]
Flag of Cabinda.svg Republic of Cabinda 1975 1975  Republic of Angola Based in Kinshasa, the Cabinda was invaded by Angola in the year 1975. Cabinda had been a Portuguese protectorate, while Angola had been a colony.
 Chechen Republic of Ichkeria 2000 2000  Russian Federation The government is largely based in Western Europe, Arab nations, and the United States. Some members are fighting in the rebel movement against the Russian Army.
There is a contested claim that it has been succeeded by the Caucasus Emirate.[33]
Republic of Serbian Krajina Republic of Serbian Krajina 1996 2005  Republic of Croatia Reconstituted on 26 February 2005 in Belgrade, Serbia by the remains of the Government of the Republic of Serbian Krajina after Croatian forces pushed out the internationally unrecognized entity in 1995 during Operation Storm at the end of the Croatian War of Independence.
Republic of Ambazonia 1999/2004  Republic of Cameroon Former British Mandate territory of Southern Cameroons. Declared independence on December 31, 1999.[34]
Iraqi Kurdistan Western Kurdistan Government in Exile 2004  Syrian Arab Republic Aims to create a Kurdish state in Syria; based in London, UK.[35]
East Turkestan Government in Exile of the East Turkestan Republic 2004  People's Republic of China Seeking independence for Xinjiang, as "East Turkestan" from the People's Republic of China.[36][self-published source?]
Flag of the Shan State.svg Interim Government of Federated Shan States 2005  Union of Myanmar Aims to set up an independent state for the Shan ethnic group in territory controlled by Burma/Myanmar.[37]

Past governments in exile

Name Exiled/
Created(*) since
Defunct/
Reestablished(*)/
Integrated(°) since
State controlling its claimed territory Information References
England Privy Council of England 1649 1660* Flag of The Commonwealth.svg Commonwealth of England (1649—1653)
Flag of the Commonwealth (1658-1660).svg Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653—1659)
Flag of The Commonwealth.svg Commonwealth of England (1659—1660)
Between 1649 and 1660, the Privy Council of England, which was based for most of the Interregnum in the Spanish Netherlands and headed by Charles II, actively supported Charles' claim the thrones of England, Scotland and Ireland. The Privy Council of Scotland and Privy Council of Ireland were not active during this period. In 1660, Charles relocated to the Dutch Republic to issue the Declaration of Breda, as it was not felt fitting that a prospective King of England should address his subjects from enemy territory. Later that same year, Charles was restored as monarch.
 Bangladesh 1971* 1972°  Pakistan The Bangladesh Government in exile was based in Kolkata, India, led by the arrested Sheikh Mujibur Rahman as the President, after Pakistan attacked its eastern wing (then East Pakistan) on March 25, 1971, following a popular uprising. The East reacted by declaring independence and a full-scale war against Pakistan on March 26, 1971, and formed the said government on April 10, 1971. The East subsequently won the war on December 16, 1971, formed a sovereign state of Bangladesh, and the government dissolved on January 12, 1972, following Sheikh Mujibur Rahman's return from Pakistani prison, who then became President of the Government of Bangladesh. [38]
 Belgium 1940 1944* The Government of Belgium in Exile was based in London led by Hubert Pierlot following a serious conflict with the Belgian King Leopold III.
 Dutch Republic 1795 1814°  Batavian Republic The Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile was based in London led by William V, Prince of Orange following a French Invasion. Ultimately they returned to create the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1815.
South Korea Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea 1919* 1948°  Empire of Japan The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing. It was created in 1919 after March 1st Movement. After Japan’s defeat in World War II President Syngman Rhee became the first president of the First Republic of South Korea
Algeria Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic 1958* 1962* France French Algeria (France) The Gouvernement Provisoire de la République Algérienne (GPRA) was the government-in-exile of the Algerian Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) during the latter part of the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). After the war the government in exile clashed with forces loyal to the FLN's Armée de Libération Nationale, which ended in a compromise agreement to dissolve the GPRA but to allow most of its members to enter the post-independence government.
Bandeira da FNLA.svg Revolutionary Government of Angola 1962* 1992° Angola Republic of Angola The Revolutionary Government of Angola in Exile, was founded in 1962 and based in Kinshasa, Congo-Kinshasa. The military branch known as the National Liberation Front of Angola was recognized as a political party in 1992 and holds three seats in Angola’s parliament.
Namibia Namibian Government in Exile 1966* 1989°  South Africa The SWAPO rebellion, was based in exile in Tanzania and then Zambia. It was formed after opposition to the apartheid South African administration over South-West Africa, which had been ruled as illegal by the United Nations in Security Council Resolution 264. In 1990 Namibia achieved independence, with SWAPO having won the pre-independence 1989 election. [39]
Cambodia Coalition Government of Democratic Kampuchea 1982* 1993° Flag Of The State and PR Of Cambodia.svg People's Republic of Kampuchea Established with United Nations recognition in opposition to the Vietnamese-backed government. Elections in 1993 brought the reintegration of the exiled government into the newly reconstituted Kingdom of Cambodia.
Greece Greek government in exile 1941* 1944 Hellenic State Established following the Battle of Greece it was the first established in Crete until the Battle of Crete when it moved to Cairo, Egypt and in opposition to the Hellenic State (1941-1944) which was Nazi puppet regime. Ended with the liberation of Greece in 1944.
Estonia Estonian Government in Exile 1953* 1992° Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic The Estonian Government in Exile was established in Sweden by several members of Otto Tief's government. No state had recognized this government. Also, it was not recognized by Estonian diplomatic legations that were seen by western countries as legal representatives of the annexed state.

Alternative government was created by another group of Estonian exiled politics in the same year in Munich but soon it ceased to exist.

[40]
 Spanish Republic 1939 1977  Spanish State The Spanish Republican government in Exile was created after Francisco Franco's coup d'état. Based in Mexico City from 1939 to 1946 when it was moved to Paris where it lasted until Franco's death.
Flag of Georgia (1918-1921).svg Democratic Republic of Georgia 1921 1954 Flag of Georgian SSR.svg Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic The Government of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in Exile was formed after the Soviet invasion of Georgia of 1921 and based in Leuville-sur-Orge, France.
Flag of Ukrainian People's Republic 1917.svg Ukrainian National Republic 1920 1992 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

Poland Second Polish Republic

Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Republic

 Kingdom of Romania

The Government of the Ukrainian People's Republic in Exile was organized after the Soviet occupation of Ukraine in 1920.
Aceh Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front 1976* 2005 Indonesia Republic of Indonesia The Free Aceh Movement, a government in exile for the Aceh special territory of Indonesia, is headquartered in Sweden, which had surrendered its separatist intentions and dissolved its armed wing following the 2005 peace agreement with the Indonesian Government.
Gabon Bongo Doit Partir 1998 2009  Gabon Translated name: "Bongo must go". Founded by Daniel Mengara, this organization proclaimed itself the legitimate government of Gabon in opposition to president Omar Bongo. After Bongo's death in June 2009, Mengara returned to Gabon in order to participate in the country's elections. [41][42]
Missouri Confederate government of Missouri 1861 1865  United States of America (Union) Missouri had both Union and Confederate Governments, but the Confederate government of Missouri was an exiled government, eventually governing out of Marshall, Texas. [43]
Hawaii Kingdom of Hawaii 1893 1895 Hawaii Republic of Hawaii The queen of Hawaii, Liliuokalani, was overthrown in 1893 by descendents of Christian missionaries who established the Republic of Hawaii after failing to annex Hawaii to the United States. During this time members of the former government reassembled, after a failed insurgency in 1895 and forcing the queen to formally disband the kingdom.

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Order of Malta may be considered a case of a government-in-exile, since it is without territory but recognised as a sovereign government by numerous sovereign countries. However, it does not claim to be a sovereign state, rather a "sovereign subject" of international law. In addition, it no longer claims jurisdiction over Malta, and recognises and maintains diplomatic relations with the Republic of Malta.

World War II

Many countries established a government in exile after loss of sovereignty in connection with World War II:

Other exiled leaders in Britain included King Zog of Albania and Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia.

The Provisional Government of Free India (1943–45) was established by Indian nationalists in exile during the war; unlike most other governments in exile in this war, it was allied to the Axis and claimed power over an Allied (specifically, British) territory.

The Danish exception

The Occupation of Denmark (9 April 1940) was administered mainly by the German Foreign Office, contrary to other occupied lands that were under military or civilian administration. Denmark did not establish a government in exile, although there was an Association of Free Danes established in London. King Christian X and his government remained in Denmark, and functioned comparatively independently for the first three years of German occupation. Meanwhile, Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands were occupied by the Allies, and effectively separated from the Danish crown. (See British occupation of the Faroe Islands, Iceland during World War II, and History of Greenland during World War II)

Mujibnagar Government (Bangladesh)

During the 1971 Bangladesh Liberation War, Bengali nationalists and high ranking defectors from Pakistani armed and civil services formed the Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh. The government in exile operated out of Kolkata, India and coordinated war efforts in East Pakistan. Its components featured a national cabinet of political and military leaders, a secretariat composed of defecting civil servants and diplomats and a group of special envoys that included leading Bengali intellectuals.[44]

The provisional government came to be popularly known as the Mujibnagar Government in reference to Mujibnagar, the northwestern Bangladeshi town in which the government was established.

Persian Gulf War

Following the Iraqi invasion and occupation of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah and senior members of his government fled to Saudi Arabia, where they set up a government-in-exile operating out of a luxury hotel in Dhahran. The Kuwaiti government-in-exile was far more affluent than most other such governments, having full disposal of the very considerable Kuwaiti assets in western banks - of which it made use to conduct a massive propaganda campaign denouncing the Iraqi occupation and mobilising public opinion in the West in favor of war with Iraq. In March 1991, following the American victory in the Persian Gulf War, the Sheikh and his government were able to return to Kuwait.

Lists

See also

References

  1. ^ Princeton University WordNet
  2. ^ Tir, J. , 2005-02-22 "Keeping the Peace After Secessions: Territorial Conflicts Between Rump and Secessionist States" Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Hilton Hawaiian Village, Honolulu, Hawaii Online <.PDF>. 2009-05-25 from allacademic.com
  3. ^ Official website of the Belarusian National Republic
  4. ^ a b "Tsai blasted for R.O.C. legitimacy remark". China Post. 27 May 2010. http://www.chinapost.com.tw/taiwan/national/national-news/2010/05/27/258201/Tsai-blasted.htm. Retrieved 12 June 2010. 
  5. ^ a b "Treaty confirmed sovereignty: Ma". Taipei Times. 29 April 2009. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2009/04/29/2003442293. Retrieved 14 June 2010. 
  6. ^ a b "ROC Government in Exile Is Illogical (English transl.)". (original source: "「流亡政府」邏輯不通" by NOWnews Network). June 1, 2010. http://www.kmt.org.tw/english/page.aspx?type=article&mnum=115&anum=8153. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  7. ^ Henckaerts, Jean-Marie (1996). The international status of Taiwan in the new world order: legal and political considerations. Kluwer Law International. pp. 337. ISBN 90-41-10929-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=_9kuVIayxDoC&pg=PA118&dq=Republic+of+China+sovereign+state&hl=en&ei=qyWuTI7xBoeWswa3t7i5DQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CFAQ6AEwCA#v=onepage&q=Republic%20of%20China%20sovereign%20state&f=false. "p117. "The ROC joined the United Nations in 1945 as a Charter member and was until 1971 one of the five permanent members of the Security Council. The ROC membership in the United Nations continued to exist through 1971 despite the fact that the ROC government lost the Chinese mainland and moved to Taiwan in 1949. The reduction of a huge area under its effective control in 1949 did not eliminate the very existence of the ROC as a sovereign state as defined by international law. In short, the ROC government has continued to exercise its sovereignty over territories under its effective control since 1912. It has never disappeared from the world as a sovereign state."
    p118. "President Harry S. Truman of the United States stated on January 5, 1950 that 'Taiwan was surrendered to ... Chiang Kai-Shek, and for the past four years, the United States and the other Allied Powers have accepted the exercise of the Chinese authority over the island.'"
    p118.-119. "The Republic of China is, by any standard, a political entity, recognized by 29 countries as of today. It has a defined territory, with Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu together with its population of 21 million, under its effective control ever since 1945 or earlier. ...
    The Republic of China indeed is a sovereign state as defined by the Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States of 1933. It also complies with the definition as 'state' defined by current theory of international law, as discussed in the Restatement (Third) of the Foreign Relations Law of the United States of 1987.""
     
  8. ^ TIME magazine, Far Eastern Economic Review, Stanford University, US State Dept., Public Broadcasting Service, BBC, US Congressional Research Service, UK Parliament, UK Foreign Office, Los Angeles Times, New York Times, and numerous law journals have all referred to the Republic of China on Taiwan as a government in exile. However, the ROC is recognised as the legitimate government of China by 23 countries. See Foreign relations of the Republic of China. The PRC claims that the ROC government no longer exists. Republic of China government in exile, http://www.taiwanbasic.com/taiwanus/rocinexile.htm, retrieved 2010-02-27 
  9. ^ Jonathan I. Charney and J. R. V. Prescott (July 2000), Resolving Cross-Strait Relations Between China and Taiwan, American Journal of International Law, archived from the original on 2004-06-22, http://web.archive.org/web/20040622182920/http://www.asil.org/ajil/chinatai.htm, retrieved 2011-02-28 
  10. ^ Application for the admission of Palestine as a Member of State of UNESCO: "A government-in-exile, having no effective control in the territory and not having had previous control, ..."
  11. ^ PLO Executive Committee: "The Executive Committee of the PLO, in practice the "government in exile" of the State of Palestine"
  12. ^ Israel allows the PNA to execute some functions in the Palestinian territories, depending on special area classification with minimal interference (retaining control of borders: air, sea beyond internal waters, land) in the Gaza strip and maximum in "Area C".
  13. ^ Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  14. ^ Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  15. ^ "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  16. ^ Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  17. ^ "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-16. 
  18. ^ PLO picks new leaders at landmark meeting
  19. ^ PLO parliament elects new members.
  20. ^ Palestinian affairs.
  21. ^ Palestinian President Abbas attends a PLO executive committee meeting in Ramallah
  22. ^ Palestinian PM: Declaration of statehood just a formality: "The Palestinians already declared independence unilaterally on Nov. 15, 1988. The declaration was recognized by dozens of countries, but never implemented on the ground."
  23. ^ Top Ten Governments Currently In Exile:"The state of Palestine was proclaimed in 1988, but in exile. A declaration of a "State of Palestine" was approved on November 15, 1988, by the Palestinian National Council, the legislative body of the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO). The declaration was ignored, and eventually rejected, by the State of Israel. Israel controls the territories since 1967 Six-Day War when it captured them from Egypt and Jordan. Currently, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) envision the establishment of a State of Palestine to include all the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem, living in peace with Israel under a democratically elected and transparent government. The PNA, however, does not claim sovereignty over any territory and therefore is not the government of the "State of Palestine" proclaimed in 1988. Enough said."
  24. ^ Palestinians 'may declare state':"Saeb Erekat, disagreed arguing that the Palestine Liberation Organisation had already declared independence in 1988. "Now we need real independence, not a declaration. We need real independence by ending the occupation. We are not Kosovo. We are under Israeli occupation and for independence we need to acquire independence,"
  25. ^ Tibet.net
  26. ^ [1]
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  28. ^ National Council of Resistance of Iran
  29. ^ Website of the Government of Free Vietnam
  30. ^ Saha, Santosh C. (2006). Perspectives on Contemporary Ethnic Conflict. Lexington Books. p. 63. http://books.google.com/books?id=uqYDX_4XQscC&lpg=PA63&ots=l_57GamiTe&dq=Perspectives%20on%20Contemporary%20Ethnic%20Conflict%20Republic%20of%20West%20Papua&pg=PA63#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  31. ^ Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations: S-Z. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 2055. ISBN 9780313323843. http://books.google.com/books?id=Zu5GpDby9H0C&lpg=PA2055&dq=Republic%20of%20West%20Papua&pg=PA2055#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 20 May 2011. 
  32. ^ Biafraland
  33. ^ Huseyn Aliyev (24 February 2011). "Peace-Building From The Bottom: A Case Study Of The North Caucasus". Eurasia Review. http://www.eurasiareview.com/peace-building-from-the-bottom-a-case-study-of-the-north-caucasus-24022011/. Retrieved 10 May 2011. 
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  35. ^ KNC.org.uk
  36. ^ Eastturkistangovernmentinextile.us
  37. ^ Peacehalle.com
  38. ^ Mujibnagar.com
  39. ^ Colin Leys, John S. Saul, and Susan Brown. Namibia's Liberation Struggle: The Two-Edged Sword (London: James Currey, 1995). pp. 20-21, 40.
  40. ^ Talmon, Stefan (1998). Recognition of governments in international law. Oxford University Press. p. 299. ISBN 0198265735. http://books.google.com/books?id=scc8EboiJX8C&pg=PA299&dq=%22Estonian+Government+in+Exile%22&ei=UYMwSuPgOo-aMu6TiJUP. 
  41. ^ Bdpgabon.org
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