- For-profit school
For-profit schools are
educational institutions that are run by private, profit-seeking companiesor organizations, selling education to those who want to buy it. [ [http://www.allonlineschools.com/online-education-resource-center/online-degrees-101-online-school-differences/ For-Profit vs. Nonprofit Online Schools] ]
There are two major types of for-profit
schools. The first type operates as a business, receiving fees from each student it enrolls. The second type is known as an educational management organization, or EMO. EMOs work with school districtsor charter schools, using public funds to finance operations. The majority of for-profit schools in the K-12 sector in America function as EMOs, and have grown in number in recent years.Fact|date=August 2008
EMOs function differently from charter schools created in order to carry out a particular teaching
pedagogy; most charter schools are mission-oriented, while EMOs and other for-profit institutions are market-oriented. While supporters argue that the profit motive encourages efficiency it has also drawn controversy and criticism.Fact|date=August 2008
1990s, the for-profit collegeand universitysector boomed, particularly in the United States.Fact|date=August 2008
Growth of for-profit schools
Although for-profit schools still make up only a small percentage of America's educational institutions, in just a few years their numbers have grown dramatically. In February, 2000, there were hundreds of thousands of students being taught at 200 for-profit facilities, with approximately six percent of students nationally enrolled at a for-profit institution Eduventures, Inc, a Boston research firm, states that nine percent of all U.S. college and graduate students attend for-profit institutions.
Between 1998 and 2000 a
Boston-based company named [http://www.advantage-schools.com Advantage Schools] saw its revenue increase from $4 million to approximately $60 million. [http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_06/b3667001.htm "For Profit Schools, They're Spreading Fast. Can Private Companies do a better job of educating America's Kids?", BusinessWeek Online, February 7, 2000, by William C. Symonds] ] . Between 1995 and 2000 the Edison Schools' yearly revenues grew from $12 million to $217 million. In 2000 Edison Schools projected that by 2006 it would manage about 423 schools with 260,000 students, giving it revenue of $1.8 billion.
Supporters claim that for-profit school operate more efficiently. [http://www.education.com/reference/article/Ref_What_profit_schools/?page=2 Reference Article : For-Profit Schools ] ] [ [http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_06/b3667001.htm For-Profit Schools ] ] These increases in efficiency can lead to lower fees for parents. [ [http://www.strugglingteens.com/archives/1993/8/oe01.html Opinions & Essays, 8/1993 - For Profit vs. Non-Profit Schools and Programs ] ] Moreover, they argue that financial competition encourages the schools to seek out better qualified teachers.Fact|date=January 2008
For-profit schools rely on attracting students rather than compelling attendance and therefore tend to be more responsive to parents' wishes, rather than simply following what the Government wants, and are especially flexible and responsive to the needs of adult learners [http://www.elearners.com/guide-to-online-education/online-education-providers.asp#private_vs_public Types of Online Education Providers - eLearners.com ] ] . If parents do not like the service being offered, they can take their children elsewhere. [ [http://www.privateschoolreview.com/articles/93 For Profit vs Not for Profit Schools - Private School Review ] ] . They also encourage policies that address bottom-line academic performance, as they do not have to listen to Government targets, but can deal instead with what consumers (learners) want. The schools' drive to attract new customers pushes them to innovate and improve at a faster rate than traditional
For profit schools are also more likely to serve "lower-income, minority, and first-generation college students", as the schools are concerned with money, and discriminating against disadvantaged students would mean the school would lose their income.
State power and influence over universities, by regulation or the restriction of funding, can threaten academic freedom, soemthing privately-funded schools are protected from. [ [http://www.cis.org.au/issue_analysis/IA56/IA56.PDF IA56.indd ] ]
Proponents of for-profit schools claim that market operations governing the school promote effective decision- and policy-making. By their example, for-profit schools have the potential to encourage reform in public institutions. Thus, for-profit schools theoretically benefit children, parents,
investors, and those who rely on public education.
One problem with for-profit schools is that, being quite new, there have been few systematic examinations of them. The few existing reports show mixed results. This is not unexpected in an emerging market where competition has not yet determined the most successful system.Fact|date=August 2008
Opponents say that the fundamental purpose of an educational institution should be to educate, not to turn a profit. In 2000, Bob Chase, president of the
National Education Association, stated: "Educating children is very different from producing a product."cite web |url=http://www.businessweek.com/2000/00_06/b3667001.htm |title= For-Profit Schools |accessdate=2008-09-26 |author= William C Symonds |date= 2000-02-07|work=BusinessWeek |publisher=The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.]
Others claim that because for-profit schools have never been a mainstream idea, no complete
blueprintfor running a for-profit institution really exists, which could lead school administration to make costly errors. For example, in order to maximize profit, valuable services and activities are often eliminated. Extracurricular activities such as sports teams or volunteer clubs are left with little or no budgeting in order to keep costs low. This loss of non-academic activities might hurt a child's ability to enroll in some colleges or universities later on. The two largest EMOs in operation today, Edison and Advantage, claimed to have high school juniors completing college-level coursework, but recent studies have shown that many of these students are performing at or below the 11th-grade level.
The same profit motive can also lead to weak admission and academic standards,
misrepresentations made to prospective students to induce them to enroll, and cost savings realized at the expense of education. Several of the largest for-profit education schools have been alleged to have suffered from these situations, including the University of Phoenix[http://www.crowncollegelawsuits.com/2004_%20U.%20of%20Phoenix%20Uses%20Pressure.pdf "U. of Phoenix Uses Pressure in Recruiting, Report Says - Institution disputes charges that it pumps up enrollment through illegal tactics", Chronicle of Higher Education, by Goldie Blumenstyk, October 8, 2004] ] (a division of Apollo) and also ITT Technical Institute.
Transfer-of-credit issues affecting for-profit higher education institutions
Many for-profit institutions of
higher educationhave national accreditationrather than regional accreditation. Regionally accredited schools are predominantly academically oriented, non-profit institutions. Nationally accredited schools are predominantly for-profit and offer vocational, career, or technical programs. Many regionally accredited schools will not accept transfer credits earned at a nationally accredited school.Jaschik, Scott (2005-10-19). "Demanding Credit", Inside Higher Education website, dated October 19 2005. Retrieved from http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2005/10/19/transfer.] [http://insidehighered.com/news/2007/02/26/transfer "Tussling Over Transfer of Credit", Inside Higher Education website, February 26, 2007 by Doug Lederman] ] [http://www.useducation.com.pk/stpages/typesofaccreditation.html "Types of Accreditation", Education USA website] ] [http://help.yahoo.com/l/us/yahoo/education/courses/distancelearn-09.html "What is the Difference Between Regional and National Accreditation", Yahoo! Education website] ]
In the 2005 Congressional discussions concerning reauthorization of the Higher Education Act and in the [http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/index.html Secretary of Education's "Commission on the Future of Higher Education"] , there have been proposals to mandate that regional accrediting agencies bar the schools they accredit from basing decisions on whether or not to accept credits for transfer "solely" on the accreditation of the "sending" school. They could still reject the credits, but they would have to have additional reasons.Fact|date=August 2008
The American Commission Career Schools and Colleges of Technology (ACCSCT) wholly supports the proposed rule. In fact, it and other nationally accrediting institutions and have been lobbying for it for some time. The ACCSCT claims regionally accredited schools will not accept nationally accredited schools credits for purely arbitrary, prejudicial and/or anti-competitive reasons. It further states that, since the Department of Education recognizes both national and regional accreditation, there is no reason for regionals to differentiate between the two and to do so amounts to an unwarranted denial of access. [http://www.accsct.org/Content/StudentCorner/Transfer%20of%20Credit/Transfer%20of%20Credit%20Policy%20Agenda.pdf "Transfer of Credit A Policy Agenda", ACCSCT website] ]
The [http://www.aacrao.org/ American Association of Collegiate Registrars & Admissions Officials (AACRAO)] , which sides with the regional accreditors, claims that national accrediting standards are not as rigorous and, though they might be well-suited for vocational and career education, they are ill-suited for academic institutions. [http://www.aacrao.org/federal_relations/transfer/FEDERALIZING_TRANSFER_OF_ACADEMIC_CREDIT.pdf "Federalized Transfer of Academic Credit, Proposed Mandate Would Hurt Students" AACRAO website] ] AACRAO alleges that this proposed rule is unnecessary and unjustified, could threaten the autonomy and potentially lower the standards of regionally accredited schools, and drive up their costs. Furthermore, it states the proposed rule is an attempt by the for-profits' "well-funded lobbyists" to obscure the difference between for-profits' "lax academic criteria for accreditation" and non-profits' higher standards. AACRAO claims only six percent of American students attend for-profits and only four percent attempt to transfer to non-profits. Eduventures, Inc, a Boston research firm, states that nine percent of all U.S. college and graduate students attend for-profit institutions.
Admission representatives at
Crown College (Tacoma)and Florida Metropolitan Universityallegedly made various misrepresentations concerning the transferability of their credits to entice students to enroll in those schools. [http://www.collegejournal.com/aidadmissions/newstrends/20051003-hechinger.html "A Battle Over Standards At For-Profit Colleges", Wall Street Journal, October 3, 2005 by John Hechinger] ]
Several of the larger for-profit schools have sought and received regional accreditation, including
Capella University, University of Phoenix, DeVry University, Strayer University, Kaplan University, Walden University, and American InterContinental University, among others.
There have been some spectacular failures of for-profit schools, including Business Computer Technology Institute (BCTI) [http://www.thenewstribune.com/news/projects/bcti/ "A Special Report - A Troubled Legacy", Tacoma News Tribune, December 11, 2006, by David Wickert] ] [http://www.komotv.com/news/archive/4146841.html "Hundreds of Students Left in Cold as BCTI Closes Up Shop", Seattle Times, March 14, 2005 by Connie Thompson] ] and Court Reporting Institute (CRI) [http://www.komotv.com/news/archive/4146841.html "Is This School Cheating Students?", Seattle Times, March 29, 2006, by Emily Heffter] ] ] ] [http://www.signonsandiego.com/uniontrib/20060907/news_7m7court.html "Local Court Reporting School Founders", The San Diego Union-Tribune, September 7, 2007, by Helen Gao] ] . These two schools allegedly violated numerous federal statutes, were funded mainly from federal and state loans and grants given to attending students, and then closed, abandoning many of their students.
List of for-profit colleges and universities
* Brown, H.; Henig, J.; Holyoke, T.; Lacireno-Paquet, N. (2004). "Scale of Operations and Locus of Control in Market- Versus Mission-Oriented Charter Schools" "Social Science Quarterly"; 85 (5) Special Issue Dec, 2004. pp.1035-1077
* Levin, H. (2001). "Thoughts on For-Profit Schools" [http://ncspe.org/publications_files/7_OP14.pdf]
* Symonds, W. (2000). "For Profit Schools" "BusinessWeek." February 7, 2000.
Opinions of for-profit schools
* Common Wealth Institute [http://commonwealinstitute.org/reports/ed/introduction.html] -- Notable For-Profit Education Opponent
* Education Next [http://www.educationnext.org/unabridged/2001sp/levin.html] -- Detailed Forum on For-Profit Education
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