- Religious terrorism
Religious terrorism is
terrorismby those whose motivations and aims have a predominant religious character or influence.
Mark Juergensmeyer, religious terrorism consists of acts that terrify, the definition of which is provided by the witnesses - the ones terrified - and not by the party committing the act; accompanied by either a religious motivation, justification, organization, or world view.rp|4-10 Religion is sometimes used in combination with other factors, and sometimes as the primary motivation. Religious terrorism is intimately connected to current forces of geopolitics.
Bruce Hoffman, to be considered religious terrorism the perpetrators must use religious scriptures to justify or explain their violent acts or to gain recruits and there must be some sort of clerical figures involved in some leadership roles. [ [http://www.religioscope.com/info/articles/003_Hoffman_terrorism.htm RELIGION AND TERRORISM Interview with Dr. Bruce Hoffman] Religioscope 22 Feb. 2002] [Hoffman, Bruce: [http://books.google.com/books?id=hrSGOrTlZloC&dq=bruce+hoffman+religious+terrorism+terrorism&psp=1 Inside Terrorism] , p. 90 (1999 Columbia University Press), ISBN 0231114699]
In the modern age, after the decline of ideas such as the
divine right of kingsand with the rise of nationalism, terrorism more often involved anarchism, nihilismand revolutionarypolitics, but since 1980 there has been an increase in activity motivated by religion. [Cromartie, Michael [http://books.google.com/books?id=9Txu6txvkSUC&dq Religion, Culture, And International Conflict: A Conversation] pp. 31-32, Ch. 2 Religion & Terrorism (Bruce Hoffman), 2005 Rowman & Littlefield ISBN 0742544737]
United States Secretary of State Warren Christophersaid that terrorist acts in the name of "religion and ethnic identity" have become "one of the most important security challenges we face in the wake of the Cold War."rp|6 Stephen Weinberghas argued that religion is the most important factor, famously saying "for good people to do evil things, that takes religion". However, Robert Pape, Rogers et al, Nardin, and Juergensmeyer have all argued that religion should be considered only one incidental factor, and that so-called "religious" terrorism is primarily geopolitical.
Criticism of the concept of "religious terrorism"
Robert Pape, political scienceprofessor of the University of Chicago, compiled the first complete database of every documented suicide bombing from 1980-2003. He argues that the news reports about suicide attacks are profoundly misleading - "There is little connection between suicide terrorismand Islamic fundamentalism, or any one of the world's religions". After studying 315 suicide attacks carried out over the last two decades, he concludes that suicide bombers' actions stem from political conflict, not religion. [cite book |last= Pape|first= Robert|authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism |year=2005 |publisher= |location= |isbn=1-4000-6317-5 ] Michael A. Sheehanstated in 2000, "A number of terrorist groups have portrayed their causes in religious and cultural terms. This is often a transparent tactic designed to conceal political goals, generate popular support and silence opposition." [ Falk Auditorium The Brookings Institution 1775 Massachusetts Ave., NWWashington, DC 20036. "A Foreign Policy Event Terrorism: The Current Threat" Thursday, February 10, 2000. http://www.brookings.edu/events/2000/0210terrorism.aspx]
Terry Nardin wrote, "A basic problem is whether religious terrorism really differs, in its character and causes, from
political terrorism... defenders of religious terrorism typically reason by applying commonly acknowledged moral principles... But the use (or misuse) of moral arguments does not in fact distinguish religious from nonreligious terrorists, for the latter also rely upon such arguments to justify their acts... political terrorism can also be symbolic... alienation and dispossession... are important in other kinds of violence as well. In short, one wonders whether the expression 'religious terrorism' is more than a journalistic convenience". [cite journal|title=Review of Terror in the Mind of God|author=Terry Nardin|journal=The Journal of Politics|volume=64|issue=2|month=May|year=2001|publisher=Southern Political Science Association|pages=683–684]
Mark Juergensmeyerwrote, "..religion is not innocent. But it does not ordinarily lead to violence. That happens only with the coalescence of a peculiar set of circumstances - political, social, and ideological - when religion becomes fused with violent expressions of social aspirations, personal pride, and movements for political change."cite book|title=Terror in the Mind of God: The Global Rise of Religious Violence|author= Mark Juergensmeyer|publisher=University of California Press|isbn=0520240111] rp|10 and "Whether or not one uses 'terrorist' to describe violent acts depends on whether one thinks that the acts are warranted. To a large extent the use of the term depends on one's world view: if the world is perceived as peaceful, violent acts appear to be terrorism. If the world is thought to be at war, violent acts may be regarded as legitimate. They may be seen as preemptive strikes, as defensive tactics in an ongoing battles, or as symbols indicating to the world that it is indeed in a state of grave and ultimate conflict".rp|9
Terrorism activities worldwide are supported through not only the organized systems that teach holy war as the highest calling, but also through the legal, illegal, and often indirect methods financing these systems which sometimes utilize organizations as fronts to mobilize or channel sources and funds, including
charities. [FINANCING OF TERRORISM: SOURCES, METHODS, AND CHANNELS; Author: Nimrod Raphaeli; Published in: Terrorism and Political Violence, Volume 15, Issue 4 October 2003 , pages 59 - 82; [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713636902~db=all] ] Charities can involve the provision of aidto those in need and oblations or charitable offerings occur in nearly all religious systems with sacrifice as a furtherance of the custom. [Offering and Sacrifice: Problems of Organization; Raymond Firth; The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 93, No. 1 (Jan. - Jun., 1963), pp. 12-24 [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0307-3114%28196301%2F06%2993%3A1%3C12%3AOASPOO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-K&size=LARGE&origin=JSTOR-enlargePage] ]
Martyrdom and suicide terrorism
Important symbolic acts such as the blood sacrifice link acts of violence to religion and terrorism. [Symbolism and Sacrifice in Terrorism ;Authors: J. Dingley; M. Kirk-Smith; Source: Small Wars & Insurgencies, Volume 13, Number 1, Spring 2002 , pp. 102-128(27); Publisher: Routledge, part of the Taylor & Francis Group [http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/routledg/swi/2002/00000013/00000001/art00006] ] Suicide terrorism,
self-sacrifice, or martyrdomhas throughout history been organized and perpetrated by groups with both political and religious motivations. Suicide terrorism or martyrdom is efficient, inexpensive, easily organized, and extremely difficult to counter, delivering maximum damage for little cost. The shocking nature of a suicide attack also attracts public attention. Glorifying the culture of martyrdom benefits the terrorist organization and inspires more people to join the group. Retaliation against suicide attacks, often in the form of collective punishment, further increases the group's sense of victimization and commitment to adhere to doctrine and policy. This process serves to encourage martyrdom. Suicide terrorism, self-sacrifice, or martyrdom therefore represent "value for money". [cite journal|title=Suicide Terrorism: Rationalizing the Irrational|journal=Strategic Insights|volume=3|issue=8|date=2004-08|author=Julian Madsen|url=http://220.127.116.11/unclesam?q=cache:saOFxHBAWG0J:www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/si/2004/aug/madsenAug04.asp+terrorist+suicide+operations&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=2&gl=us]
List of designated terrorist organizations
* [http://repositories.cdlib.org/gis/20/ From Bhindranwale to Bin Laden: The Rise of Religious Violence, University of California]
* [http://www.hrw.org/campaigns/kashmir/1994/kashmir94-03.htm#TopOfPage Sikh Terrorism in Punjab, Human Rights Watch]
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