- Solid-state laser
A solid-state laser is a
laserthat uses a gain medium that is a solid, rather than a liquidsuch as in dye lasers or a gasas in gas lasers. Semiconductor-based lasers are also in the solid state, but are generally considered as a separate class from solid-state lasers (see Semiconductor laser).
Generally, the active medium of a solid-state laser consists of a
glassor crystalline "host" material to which is added a " dopant" such as neodymium, chromium, erbium, or other ions. Many of the common dopants are rare earth elements, because the excited states of such ions are not strongly coupled with thermal vibrations of the crystalline lattice ( phonons), and the lasing thresholdcan be reached at relatively low brightness of pump.
There are many hundreds of solid-state media in which laser action has been achieved, but relatively few types are in widespread use. Of these, probably the most common type is . Neodymium-doped glass (Nd:glass) and
ytterbium-doped glasses and ceramics are used in solid-state lasers at extremely high power (terawatt scale), high energy ( megajoules) multiple beam systems for inertial confinement fusion. Titanium-doped sapphire is also widely used for its broad tunability.
The first material used for lasing was
ruby. Ruby lasers are still used for some applications, but are not common due to their low efficiency. s lase in the mid-infrared.
Solid state lasing media are typically optically pumped, using either a
flashlampor arc lamp, or by laser diodes. Diode-pumped solid-state lasers tend to be much more efficient, and have become much more common as the cost of high power semiconductor lasers has decreased.
Solid-state lasers are being developed as optional weapons for the
F-35 Lightning II, and are reaching near-operational status. [Fulghum, David A. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040626050316/http://www.aviationnow.com/content/publication/awst/20020708/aw32.htm Lasers being developed for F-35 and AC-130] ." "Aviation Week and Space Technology", ( 8 July 2002). Access date: 8 February 2006.] [Morris, Jefferson. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040604124353/http://www.aviationnow.com/avnow/news/channel_military.jsp?view=story&id=news/masd0926.xml Keeping cool a big challenge for JSF laser, Lockheed Martin says] ." "Aerospace Daily", 26 September 2002. Access date: 3 June 2007.] [Fulghum, David A. " [http://web.archive.org/web/20040613094437/http://www.aviationnow.com/content/publication/awst/20020722/aw173.htm Lasers, HPM weapons near operational status] ." "Aviation Week and Space Technology", 22 July 2002. Access date: 8 February 2006.]
Notes and references
*cite book | author=Koechner, Walter | title=Solid-State Laser Engineering | publisher=Springer | year=1999 | edition=5th ed.| id=ISBN 3-540-65064-4
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
solid-state laser — kietojo kūno lazeris statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. solid laser; solid state laser vok. Vierniveaulaser, m rus. твердотельный лазер, m pranc. laser à l’état solide, m; laser solide, m … Fizikos terminų žodynas
solid-state laser — kietojo kūno lazeris statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Lazeris, kurio aktyvioji terpė – kristalas arba stiklas. atitikmenys: angl. solid laser; solid state laser rus. твердотельный лазер … Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas
solid-state laser — kietojo kūno lazeris statusas T sritis automatika atitikmenys: angl. solid state laser vok. Festkörperlaser, m; Laser mit Festkörpermedium, m rus. твердотельный лазер, m pranc. laser à l état solide, m … Automatikos terminų žodynas
Diode-pumped solid-state laser — A frequency doubled green laser pointer, showing internal construction. Cells and electronics lead to a laser head module (see lower diagram) This contains a powerful 808 nm IR diode laser that pumps a Nd:YVO4 laser crystal, that in turn outputs… … Wikipedia
Solid state — may refer to:In science:*Solid state chemistry *Solid state physics *Solid state laser *Solid matterIn electronics:*Solid state (electronics) are circuits that do not contain relays, vacuum tubes or, more currently, moving parts. *Solid state… … Wikipedia
Laser beam welding — (LBW) is a welding technique used to join multiple pieces of metal through the use of a laser. The beam provides a concentrated heat source, allowing for narrow, deep welds and high welding rates. The process is frequently used in high volume… … Wikipedia
Laser pumping — is the act of energy transfer from an external source into the gain medium of a laser. The energy is absorbed in the medium, producing excited states in its atoms. When the number of particles in one excited state exceeds the number of particles… … Wikipedia
Laser engraving — is the practice of using lasers to engrave or mark an object. The technique can be very technical and complex, and often a computer system is used to drive the movements of the laser head. Despite this complexity, very precise and clean… … Wikipedia
Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy — (LIBS) is a type of atomic emission spectroscopy which utilises a highly energetic laser pulse as the excitation source. LIBS can analyse any matter regardless of its physical state, be it solid, liquid or gas. Even slurries, aerosols, gels, and… … Wikipedia
Laser bonding — is a marking technique that uses lasers and other forms of radiant energy to bond an additive marking substance to a wide range of substrates. Invented in 1997, this patent protected technology delivers permanent marks on metals, glass and… … Wikipedia