- Stanford-Binet IQ test
The development of the Stanford-Binet IQ test initiated the modern field of
intelligence testing. The Stanford-Binet test started with the French psychologist Alfred Binet, whom the French government commissioned with developing a method of identifying intellectually deficient children for their placement in special education programs. As Binet indicated, case studies might be more detailed and helpful, but the time required to test many people would be excessive. Unfortunately, the tests he and assistant Victor Henri(1892-1940) developed in 1896 were disappointing (Fancher, 1985).
Later, Alfred Binet and physician
Theodore Simoncollaborated in studying mental retardationin French school children. Between 1905 and 1908, their research at a boys school, in Grange-aux-Belles, led to their developing the Binet-Simon tests; via increasingly difficult questions, the tests measured attention, memory, and verbal skill. Binet warned that such test scores not be interpreted literally, because intelligence is plastic and the margin of error inherent to the test (Fancher, 1985).
Stanfordpsychologist Lewis Termanreleased the "Stanford Revision of the Binet-Simon Scale", the "Stanford-Binet", in short. Helped by graduate students and validation experiments, he removed some Binet-Simon test items, and added new ones. Soon, the test was so popular that Robert Yerkes, the president of the American Psychological Association, decided to use it in developing the "Army Alpha" and the "Army Beta" tests to classify recruits. Thus, a high-scoring recruit might earn an A-grade (high officer material), whereas a low-scoring recruit with an E-grade would be rejected for military service. (Fancher, 1985).
Since the inception of the Stanford-Binet, it has been revised several times. Currently, the test is in its fifth edition which is called the Stanford-Binet 5. According to the publisher's website, "The SB5 was normed on a stratified random sample of 4,800 individuals that matches the 2000 U.S. Census. Bias reviews were conducted on all items for gender, ethnic, cultural/religious, regional, and socioeconomic status issues. Validity data was obtained using such instruments as the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Fourth Edition, the Stanford-Binet Form L-M, the Woodcock-Johnson III, the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test, the Bender-Gestalt, the
WAIS-III, the WIAT-II, the WISC-III, and the WPPSI-R."Fact|date=September 2008
Low variation on individuals tested multiple times indicates the test has high reliability, although its validity is hotly debated (see below). It features Fluid Reasoning, Knowledge, Quantitative Reasoning, Visual-Spatial Processing, and Working Memory as the five factors tested. Each of these factors is tested in two separate domains, verbal and nonverbal, in order to accurately assess individuals with deafness, limited English, or communication disorders. Examples of test items include verbal analogies to test Verbal Fluid Reasoning and picture absurdities to test Nonverbal Knowledge. In conclusion, the test makers assure people the Stanford-Binet 5 will accurately assess low-end functioning, normal intelligence, and the highest levels of
giftedness (Riverside Publishing, 2004).
Students with exceptional scores on this test may be deemed bright, moderately gifted, highly gifted, extremely gifted, or profoundly gifted (contrast these with obsolete terms for low scores). These terms equate with progressively further standard deviations of IQ scores from the mean (100), bright being 1σ (one
standard deviation), moderately gifted 2σ, etc. Mensa currently requires a score of 132 on the Stanford-Binet. Since the test has a standard deviation of 16, this corresponds to 2σ above the meanin a normalized population.
Despite the recent revision (Stanford-Binet 5), some controversy remains as to the accuracy and bias of this testFact|date=July 2007; however, many psychologists believe the evidence available shows that the Stanford-Binet test is valid, and it remains a popular assessment of intelligence.
As Brown & French point out, "IQ tests serve one function exceptionally well, they predict academic success or failure ... they are composed of items that are representative of the kinds of problems that traditionally dominate school curricula," (1979: 255) and thus only predict that category of school assimilation. Further, "children with the same current status on an IQ test item may vary quite widely in terms of their cognitive potential." ("ibid".: 258)
The validity of standardised tests such as Stanford-Binet for testing general intelligence (and indeed the whole concept of general intelligence) has been disputed by a number of commentators. A notable example, though not an intelligence researcher, is
Stephen Jay Gould, particularly in his book " The Mismeasure of Man". According to Gould, Binet originally devised his test to be carried out one-on-one with an examiner for detecting problem areas, rather than as a means of linearly ranking the general intelligence of students.
*Brown, A. L. and L. A. French (1979). "The zone of potential development: implications for intelligence testing in the year 2000." "Intelligence" 3(3): 255-271.
*Fancher, R. (1985). "The Intelligence Men: Makers of the IQ Controversy". New York:W.W. Norton & Company
*Gould, Stephen Jay. (1981) "The Mismeasure of Man". New York and London: W. W. Norton & Co.
* [http://www.assess.nelson.com/pdf/sb5-asb1.pdf History of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales:Content and Psychometrics Kirk A. Becker]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Test — The most widely used intelligence test for measuring the mental skills of children. Binet was the principal author of the original test, designed to identify those French schoolchildren who were in need of special education, in the early… … Dictionary of sociology
Stanford-Binet — intelligence test, first published 1916 as a revision and extension of the Binet Simon intelligence tests, from Stanford University + Alfred Binet (1857 1911) … Etymology dictionary
test de Stanford-Binet — un test de inteligencia, ampliamente utilizado desde 1910 que mide el cociente intelectual (IQ) [PQ: 94.01] Diccionario ilustrado de Términos Médicos.. Alvaro Galiano. 2010 … Diccionario médico
Stanford-Binet test — ☆ Stanford Binet test [stan′fərd bi nā′ ] n. a revision of the Binet Simon test: developed at Stanford University, it covers a wider range and offers more tests than the original scale: also called Stanford revision … English World dictionary
Binet-Simon-Test — [bi nɛ si mɔ̃ ], von A. Binet und Théodore Simon (* 1873, ✝ 1961) 1908 (ursprüngliche Form 1905) entwickelter Intelligenztest, der für jedes Lebensalter zwischen 3 und 15 Jahren eine Gruppe (Staffel) von altersspezifischen Intelligenzaufgaben… … Universal-Lexikon
Stanford-Binet test — Stan·ford Bi·net test .stan fərd bi nā n an intelligence test prepared at Stanford University as a revision of the Binet Simon scale and commonly employed with children called also Stanford Binet A. Binet see BINET AGE * * * Stan·ford Bi·net test … Medical dictionary
Stanford-Binet test — noun revision of the Binet Simon Scale • Hypernyms: ↑intelligence test, ↑IQ test * * * Stanford Binet test [Stanford Binet test] noun a US test used to measure intelligence, especially in children. It was developed at ↑ … Useful english dictionary
Binet-Simon-Test — Der Binet Simon Test ist der erste gute Intelligenztest, der in der Psychologie eingesetzt wurde. Mit ihm wurde die Psychometrie begründet. Entwickelt wurde der Binet Simon Test 1905 von Alfred Binet und Théodore Simon; Revisionen erschienen 1908 … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stanford-Binet-Test — Der Stanford Binet Test ist ein verbaler Intelligenztest, dessen erste Fassung im Jahr 1937 veröffentlicht wurde. In der revidierten Fassung von 1960 wurden mehrere Aufgaben zusammengefasst. Es gibt altersspezifische Testvarianten bis zum Alter… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Stanford-Binet test — noun Etymology: Stanford University + Alfred Binet died 1911 French psychologist Date: 1918 an intelligence test prepared at Stanford University as a revision of the Binet Simon scale and commonly used with children called also Stanford Binet … New Collegiate Dictionary