Salem, Tamil Nadu


Salem, Tamil Nadu

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name=Salem
type = city | latd = 11.625|longd=78.165
locator_position = right | state_name = Tamil Nadu
district = Salem
leader_title=Mayor
leader_name= J. Rekha Priyadharshini
altitude = 278
population_as_of = 2007
population_total = 7,51,438| population_density = 9060
area_magnitude=
area_total= 102
area_telephone= 91-427
postal_code= 636xxx
vehicle_code_range= TN 27,TN 30 and TN 54
footnotes = |

Salem audio|Salem.ogg|pronunciation (Tamil: சேலம்) is a city and a corporation in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. Located in the north central part of the southernmost state of India, it is the Fifth largest city of Tamil Nadu, after Chennai,Coimbatore,Madurai and Trichy. Almost completely surrounded by hills, it is also a part of the Kongu Nadu (Tirupur and Coimbatore) region.

Salem is at the base of the renowned tourist destination of Yercaud hills, which offers breathtaking views both along the ride up the hill and from the peak. There are also remote sites of beauty such as Kiliyur Falls. [cite web
url=http://www.hindu.com/mp/2006/02/11/stories/2006021102780300.htm
title=Jungle Look
publisher=The Hindu
accessdate=2006-12-09
] Yercaud is at an altitude of 1600 m above mean sea level.

The city is surrounded by a natural amphitheatre of hills formed by the Nagaramalai to the north, the Jeragamalai to the south, the Kanjanamalai to the west, and Godumalai to the east. It is divided by the Thirumanimuthar in the main division. The fort is the oldest building in town.

History

The name "Salem" appears to have been derived from "Sela" or "Shalya" or "Sayilam" which are found in inscriptions referring to the country around the hills. Local folklore believes Salem to be the birthplace of the Tamil poetess AvvaiyarFact|date=July 2007. Inscriptions from the Ganga dynasty have been recovered from parts of the district.

Salem along with Coimbatore remained under the Madurai Nayaks. Later, in the early 18th century, it came under Hyder Ali after a long feud know as the Mysore-Madurai war. Salem was then taken from Hyder Ali by Colonel Wood in the beginning of 1768. It was recaptured by Hyder towards the end of the year 1772. Under Lord Clive in 1799, it was again occupied by a detachment of the regiment stationed at Sankari Durg and remained a military station until 1861 when the troops were altogether withdrawn.

Many great personalities including Salem Ramasamy Mudaliar,C. Vijayaraghavachariar, Pagadala Narasimhalu Naidu, C. Rajagopalachari (Rajaji) and Dr. P. Subbarayan started their political careers in Salem.

Geography

Salem is located at coord|11.669437|N|78.140865|E|. [ [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/IN/25/Salem.html Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Salem] ] It has an average elevation of 278 metres (912 ft).

Demographics

As of 2001 Indian Census [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in Indian Census] ] Salem Urban Agglomeration had a total population of 7,51,438 comprising Salem Municipal Corporation (6,96,760), Kondalampatti (16,808), Kannankurichi (14,994), Neykkarappatti (9,869), Mallamooppampatti (6,783) and Dalavaipatti (6,224). Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Salem has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 72%. In Salem, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age.

Economy

Salem is one of the major producers of traditional silver anklets, which are popular among women. [cite web
url=http://www.salema2z.in/main.htm
title=Salem Silver Works
] It boasts of large textile, automotive, poultry and sago industries. [cite web
url=http://www.salema2z.in/main.htm#sago
title=Sago Point of the World
] Salem also has one of the largest magnesite deposits in India. Companies like Dalmia and TANMAG have mines here. [cite web
url=http://www.tnmine.tn.nic.in/TN-Mining.htm#Magnesite
title=Dept.Geology and mining, TN
] The Leigh Bazaar market is one of the largest regional markets for agro products.Fact|date=July 2007 Salem had an active film production with former Modern Theatres Studios being the hub of Tamil film productionFact|date=January 2008. Now defunct, Modern Theatres produced some of the most successful Tamil films, in which many veteran actors appeared, including former Chief Minister M.G. Ramachandran. However, there are presently no studios in Salem.

Salem was also famous for hosting a huge number of cinema theatres in Tamilnadu. Movie halls like Central, Oriental, Gowri, Sangeeth Complex, A.R.K Theatre, ARRS multiplex, ADLABS and Alankar Theatre are some of the famous movie houses in Salem.

Major industrial units in and around Salem

* Salem Steel Plant(SAIL)
* SISCOL
* MALCO
* Chemplast Sanmar
* Burn Standard & Co
* Tata Refractories
* Dalmia Magnesite
* TANMAG
* SAGOSERVE
* Indian-Oil Bottling Plant
* PowerGrid
* Madras cements, vazhapadi.(under construction from 2007)
* Arun ice cream
* Kaliswari( Gold winner oil)
* Porkulan Technology, India
* Kali Aerated WaterWorks (Manf:Softdrinks-BOVONTO)

Export commodities

* Textiles, yarn, granite, readymade garments, mangoes, coir products and stainless steel

Special Economic Zones (SEZ)

Being one of the fastest growing tier II cities, the Tamil Nadu government and ELCOT are planning an IT park in Salem covering about convert|160|acre|km2. [cite web
url=http://elcot.in/it-parks.php?page=2#4
title=Tamilnadu Elcot Website
publisher=Elcot
accessdate=2008-09-26
] [cite web
url=http://www.hindu.com/2006/09/01/stories/2006090103810500.htm
title=Site for IT Park ideally situated
publisher=The Hindu
accessdate=2006-01-09
] SAIL is planning a Steel SEZ inside the Salem Steel plant covering about convert|250|acre|km2 [cite web
url=http://www.processregister.com/Salem_Steel_S_E_Z/Project/pid20353.htm
title=Site for IT Park ideally situated
accessdate=2008-09-26
] .

There is an exclusive Electrical and Electronics Industrial Estate in the Suramangalam area of Salem city. [cite web
url=http://www.tn.gov.in/policynotes/archives/policy2001-2/pbrsi6-e-2001-2.htm
title=Electrical and electronics industries
publisher=Government of Tamil Nadu
]

Religious sites

There are several Mariamman temples in Salem. Mariamman is a Hindu goddess, an incarnation of Shakti. Every year around July the city celebrates Mariamman festival for a fortnight. During this festival, Goddess Mariamman is decorated with jewellery and flower chariots and taken around the city at midnight. On the first important day of the festival, people walk on fire (note: devotees call fire as flower) with their prayers. The second day is colourful with parades of fancy dress. This is one of the best times to visit Salem. This festival is celebrated at temples at Fort, Shevapet, Ammapet, Gugai, Andheripati etc. Shevapet Mariamman temple car is the biggest one among the cars of Amman temples across the state. This festival is celebrated for a week. The Kottai Marriamman temple is very famous not only in Salem but throughout Tamil Nadu.

There is an Alagirnathar Thirukoil popularly known as "Kottai Perumal Koil", located at the heart of the city. The temple has been built centuries ago and has some beautiful sculptures. "Vaikunta Ekadasi" is the most famous festival in the temple, and on that day, lakhs of devotees visit the temple.In this temple, other festivals such as Brahmotsavam, Pavithrotsavam, Navarathri, and Puratasi are celebrated at good spirit. Thousands of devotees throng the temple during these days. "Aandaal Thirukalyanam" is a famous utsavam in the temple for which a special garland is brought from Sri Villi Puttur ("Soodi kodutha sudar malai")

The Sugavaneshwarar temple is also a very important shrine of Salem. Mythology records that sage Sugha Brahmarishi worshiped the lord here. Arunagirinadhar has sung a song on Lord Muruga in Sugavaneshwarar temple. Kandashramam is a small hill temple for Lord Muruga. It is situated 10 km from Salem City towards Chennai highway. Kandashramam houses statues of unique and vital gods. It has the statues of Panchamukha Anjaneya, Panchamukha Vinayagar, Swarna Bhairavar, Dhanvanthri, and others. In Salem City, at Seelanaickenpatty there is another hill for Lord Murugan, named Oothumalai.

Kumaragiri is a small temple for Lord Muruga. It is situated 5 km from Salem city.

Two more mountain temples are in Salem for Lord Vishnu.

Salem also has a Heritage Temple called Sitthar Koil, which is located about 10 km from Salem. This is a Shiva temple, which is located in the foothills of Kanja Malai. Some believers say that this temple was built by Sitthar's which is believed that they still survive in the Mount of Kanja Malai. The famous Tamil poetess Avvayar is believed to be living in this hills.

Aragalur is located approximately 21 km from Attur, boasting two old temples and a large Buddha statue. The one day Temple car festival in summer invites many people in the region. The Kailasanatha Temple situated at Tharamangalam is very famous for its architectural beauty. The Tharamangalam temple has many beautiful sculptures. Noteworthy amongst them are the sculptures of Arjuna's penace, Shiva-parvathi & Manmadha, Rama killing Vaali, etc. There are ancient shiva temples at Belur (Thanthondreeshwarar) and Uttamacholapuram (Karaburanathar). Ayothiappattanam, located 7 km away from the city, houses a beautiful Kothandaramar temple.

A Ramakrishna Mission Ashrama is located in Salem. It was started in 1928 and made a branch of the mission in 1941.

Also, Eden Gardens School near Gandhi Road area has an attached prayer hall which functions as LEF.

All parts of Salem are covered by mosques. Jamia masjid in Bazaar St, Meltheru and Keeltheru Mosques in Fort, mosques near railway junction and New integrated bus terminal, mosques in Ammapet, 5 Roads and Gugai are the famous one. Moreover there is a famous Arabic college located near Tamilnadu Magnesite, Salem, offering world-class Arabic studies to the students.

A Angala Paramashwari temple is situvated in near kottagoundapatti near the Sellapilikuttai

A relatively new ISKCON ashram has been started, home to a very enthusiastic group of ISKCON devotees, mostly young brahmacharis, who have recently relocated to a new property, a three-acre plot of land, just a half kilometer from Periyaar University and the Government Engineering college. The new land is located just three kilometers outside Salem, off the main highway to Bangalore, well known as the Bangalore-Madurai highway, which is in the process of being upgraded to a four-lane highway. Gokul Chandra Prabhu, a towering six-foot, five-inch (127 mm) tall Croatian brahmachari, who’s been residing in India for the past thirteen years, is the temple manager. One of the most interesting aspects of this new construction is that Gokul Chandra Prabhu has been inspired to use "traditional" building materials — for the most part, but with a few exceptions — to construct the "ashram" buildings, including a few residential huts, a temporary temple, a library and a kitchen.

In 1930, the city was made the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Salem. The Bishop is Sebastianappan Singaroyan and the cathedral is the Infant of Jesus Cathedral.

Education

Salem, which was once considered the most educationally backward district in Tamil Nadu, now has a few good educational institutions.

Universities

* [http://periyaruniversity.ac.in Periyar University] is located in Karuppur, Salem.
* [http://www.vinayakamission.com Vinayaga Missions Deemed University] , Salem.
*Government Medical College and Government Nursing College, Salem.

Engineering colleges

*Government College of Engineering was started during the Third Five Year plan in 1966 and is located on a beautiful 162-hectare site surrounded by hills. This was at the time the third government engineering institution in Tamil Nadu. The first batch of students was selected for the academic year 1966-67 for courses in Civil, Mechanical, and Electrical Engineering. In the 1973-74 school year, the Metallurgical Engineering branch was started. The Electronics and Communication branch was introduced in 1985-86. The Computer Science engineering course was introduced in 2001.
*Vinayaka Mission's University was established in the year 2001 as a 48th University in India.
*Sona College of Technology, established in the year 1997, situated in the heart of city.
*AVS Engineering college for Women established in 2008.
*Maha College of Engineering, established in the year 2004, situated in Vazhapadi, at a distance of 12 km from the city.
*The Kavery Engineering College, Mecheri, Mettur.
*Greentech college of engineering for women established in 2008, Attur.
*Rabindranath Tagore institute of engineering and technology established in 2008, Attur.
*Bharathiyar Institiute of engineering for women establishen in 2008, Attur.
*Narasu’s Sarathy Institute of Technology established in 2008, Omalur.

Arts and science colleges in Salem District

*Government Arts College
*Salem Sowdeswari College
*Sri Shakthi kailassh college for Women
*Government Arts college for Men
*Government Arts college for Women
*Sarada College (Arts and Science) for Women
*Sarada College of Education
*Vysya College
*Jairam Arts and Science College
*Paavenar college of Arts and Science
*Padmavani college of Arts and Science for Women
*Rabindranath Tagore college of Arts and science
*Sri Balamurugan Arts and Science College
*Sri Ganesh college of Arts and Science
*Vinaka Missions Kirupananda Variyar Arts and Science College, Ariyanur
*A.A Govt Arts college, Attur
*Bharathiyar Arts and science college for women, Attur
*AVS college of arts and Science, Vazhapadi

Schools in Salem

Government-aided schools (state board syllabus)

*Bharathi Vidyalaya Hr. Sec. School, Salem 7
*The Gugai Higher Secondary School, Gugai, Salem-636 006.
* [http://www.lfhss-salem.org Little Flower Higher Secondary School] , Four Roads, Peramanoor post, Salem
*Sri Ramakrishna Saradha Higher Secondary School, Subramania Nagar,Salem
*Bharathi Vidyalaya Higher Secondary School, Maraveneri, Salem
*St. Marys Girls Higher Secondary School, Arisipalayam, Salem-9
*Sri Sarada Vidyalaya Girls Higher Secondary School, Fairlands, Salem
*St. Pauls Higher Secondary School
*CSI Higher Secondary School
*Neelambal Subramanium Higher Secontary School,Salem,OldSuramangalem
*Gokulanatha Hindu Mahajana Higher Secondary School, Salem

Private schools (Matriculation)

* Christopher Matriculation Higher Secondary School,'Bethlehem',Panamrathupatti,Salem 636 204www.christopherschools.org email:cmhssadmin@gmail.com
* Cluny Matriculation Higer Secondary School, Peramanoor, Salem 636007
* Sugam Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Dasanaicken Patty, Salem 636201.
* [http://www.salemstjohns.com St.John's Matriculation Higher Secondary School] , Fairlands, Salem-636016. Ph:(0091) 0427- 2447767
*Holy Angels Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Fairlands, Salem-636016. Ph:(0091) 0427- 2446969
*Sri Vidya Mandir Higher Secondary School,(Ammapet,Shevapet,Kondalampatti,Anandashram,Ayodhiyapattinam)
*AGN Matric Higher Secondary School, Konganapuram, Salem
*AndersonMatric Higher Secondary School, Yercaud road, Salem- 636 007
*Bala Bharathi Matric Higher Secondary School, Salem
*St.Joseph's Higher Secondary School, Salem -636006
*Glazebrook Matric Higher Secondary School, Salem- 636 004
*Golden Gate Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Yercaud Foothills, Salem-ph- 2412848
*Golden Spark Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Bangalore Main Road, Salem-636 012. ph- 2345112
*Chinmaya Vidyalaya Matric School, Chinmaya Nagar, Sollampalllam, Steel Plant Road, Salem- 636 005
*C.S.I Good Shepherd Matric Higher Secondary School, Fort, Salem-2211944
*Holy Angels Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Alagapuram pudur post, Salem-ph-2446969
*Holy Flower Matriculation Higher Secondary School, ph2448426
* [http://www.salemholycross.org Holy Cross Matriculation Higher Secondary School] , K.N Colony,Ammapet, Salem- 636014,ph-2240888, 2242526, Fax, 2240567, Primary School: 2240179
*Hindu Don Bosco Matric Higher Secondary School, Karungalpalayam, Salem -636006
*Jayarani Matric Higher Secondary School, Nethimedu, Salem- 636 002
*Jothi Matric Higher Secondary School, Ammapet, Salem
*Malco Vidyalayam Matric Higher Secondary School, Mettur dam, Salem-
*PSG Matric Higher Secondary School, Sankagiri, Salem
*Sri Jothi Vidyalaya Matric Higher Secondary School, Kandampatty, Salem- 636005
*Sri Sarada BalaMandhir Boys Matriculation Higher Secondary School, 19, Rajaji Road, Salem-7,Ph 2412160
*Sri Sarada Matric Higher Secondary School for Girls, Fairlands, Salem- 636016
*St. Josephs Matric Higher Secondary School, Pension Line, Salem -636 006
*Sri Vasavi Matric Higher Secondary School, Shevapet, Salem
*Sri Vidya Mandhir Matric Higher Secondary School, Salem Steel plant, Mohan Nagar, Salem- 636 030
*Tagore Matric Higher Secondary School
*Vidhya Peetham Matriculation School, Mannar palayam, Salem.

Private schools (CBSE)

* [http://www.ndhcs.org Notre Dame of Holy Cross School ( CBSE )] , Gundukallur, Udayapatti Area, Salem. Phone - 2240844
*Sri Vidya Mandir Secondary School, Shivaji Nagar, Salem, 636003, Phone - 263617, 261949
*Sri Vidya Mandir Secondary School, Annadasramam, Meyanur Road, Salem - 636004, Phone - 448105, 277105
*Sri Vidya Mandir Secondary School and Junior College, Salem- 636002, Phone - 212125, 212135
*Sri Vidya Mandir Secondary School, Attur Main Road, Ayodhiya Pattanam, Salem - 636103, Phone - 812333, 240288
*Sri Vidya Mandir Secondary School, Kondalampatty, Salem - 636010, Phone - 270637

Residential Schools

* [http://www.montfortyercaud.com Montfort School, Yercaud]
*Sacred Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Yercaud
*Bright Sun Matriculation school, YercaudThese schools have produced celebrities like cricketer Roger Binny, actor Vikram_(actor), Hindi legend actress Rekha, Union Cabinet minister Dr.Anbumani Ramadoss and many IITans, etc.

Alumni associations

* [http://gcesalem.blogspot.com Government College of Engineering, Salem]
*Thiagarajar Polytechnic College, Salem - 5.

Transport and traffic

Salem is a transit point for travel between Chennai, Bangalore, Thiruvananthapuram, Coimbatore, Madurai, Ernakulam/Cochin, Pondicherry, Trichy, Kanniyakumari and other places.

Road

Three important National Highways NH7(North-South), NH47(Leading to West) and NH68(Leading to East) intersect at Salem.

Rail

Salem is an important rail junction in South India, because of its strategic location. Trains from Chennai to Coimbatore/Kerala (East-West] and trains from Bangalore to Southern districts [North-South] pass through the city, making it an important transit hub. In 2007, Salem became a rail-division [ [http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/27/stories/2007082752840300.htm Murthi, P.V.V. (27 August 2007) "No need for agitation over Salem rail division" "The Hindu"] ] (including the high revenue-yielding Coimbatore District and Erode District). This was formally inaugurated on 1 November 2007 by the Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi and Indian Railway Minister Lalu Prasad Yadav. [ [http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/12/stories/2007101261321200.htm Special Correspondent (12 October 2007) "Salem railway division to be fully operational from November 1" "The Hindu"] ] The Salem rail-division was carved out of the Palakkad rail-division in Kerala, which had created dissension between the two states. [ [http://www.hindu.com/2007/10/14/stories/2007101454340400.htm Staff (14 October 2007) "Salem railway division formed" "The Hindu"] ]

Salem enjoys good rail connectivity throughout the day to the state capital Chennai. Initiatives have been taken for a faster train from Chennai to Coimbatore via Salem. New railway track is under construction between Salem to Karur via Namakkal

Air

Salem has a domestic airport with international standards (code FR3241) at Kamalapuram near Omalur on NH7 towards Dharmapuri, but currently (2008) it is only being used for charter flights. The nearest airports are at Trichy (135km) and Coimbatore (159km).

alem Airport

*No.of Runways : 1
*Runway Direction : 04-22
*Runway length :8000 ft (paved)
*Taxiways : Halfway Backtracking and continue Taxiway A

Politics

Salem consists of two assembly constituencies: 'Salem - I' and 'Salem - II', boht of which are part of Salem (Lok Sabha constituency). [cite web
url = http://archive.eci.gov.in/se2001/background/S22/TN_ACPC.pdf
title = List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies
accessdate = 2008-10-09
work = Tamil Nadu
publisher = Election Commission of India
]

References

External links

*
* [http://www.salemcorporation.com Official Website of Salem City Municipal Corporation]
* [http://www.salem.tn.nic.in/ NIC website for Salem, Tamil Nadu]
* [http://articles.hosuronline.com/applications/?pcid=106 History of Salem, Tamil Nadu]
* [http://www.tn.gov.in/police/PROFILE/SALEM%20DISTRICT.htm Police and prisons]
* [http://www.tnmine.tn.nic.in/TN-Mining.htm Department of Geology & Mining, Govt. of Tamilnadu]
* [http://www.salemjilla.com/ Salemjilla.com Fun based Informative website for Salem, Tamil Nadu]

ee also

* Salem (Lok Sabha constituency)


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