- American Quarter Horse Association
The American Quarter Horse Association (AQHA), based in
Amarillo, Texas, is an international organization dedicated to the preservation, improvement and record-keeping of the American Quarter Horse. The association sanctions many competitive events and maintains the official registry. The organization also houses the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame and Museum and sponsors educational programs. The organization was founded in 1940 in Fort Worth, Texasand now has nearly 350,000 members.
The American Quarter Horse Association was born at a meeting in March in Fort Worth. The original idea had come out of the articles published by Robert M. Denhardt during the 1930s about the history and characteristics of the quarter horse. In an article entitled "The Quarter Horse, Then and Now" in a 1939 "Western Horseman" magazine, Denhardt also suggested that those interested in forming a breed registry meet in Fort Worth to discuss the idea and hopefully act on the idea.Price "The American Quarter Horse" p. 14-16] About seventy-five people met on
March 15, 1940 to talk over the proposals, with the eventual decision being to form a non-profit stock holding association in Texas to be the registry. Thirty-six people bought stock at the initial meeting. A board of directors and officers were selected.Denhardt "Organization of the American Quarter Horse Association" in "Foundation Sires of the American Quarter Horse" p. 5-36]
For the first five years, AQHA was the only registry for American Quarter Horses, however there were controversies over which horses would be registered, as well as how much non-Quarter horse to allow in. Other disputes included the fact that AQHA only allowed stock owners to vote, and some breeders felt that this arrangement kept too much power in too few hands. Another contentious issue was racing, and how the association would support the needs of breeders and owners who raced their Quarter Horses. All three of these issues were woven together, for the racing interests were also desirous of more Thoroughbred blood being added to the Quarter Horse, and some racing breeders felt that the AQHA was too restrictive on what outside blood was allowed in.Goodhue "A History of Early AQHA Registration" in "Legends" p. 4-10]
The racing interests formed the American Quarter Racing Association (AQRA) on
February 1, 1945. This group mainly was concerned with the operation of racetracks and their registration efforts were limited to what was needed for identification for racing purposes. They set the standards for racing, and set up a Register of Merit system to help with handicapping racing. They registered horses that were in AQHA's stud books, as well as Thoroughbreds. Even "Paint" horses, which at this time had no registry and would not for another two decades, were registered. Painted Joe, a foundation stallion with the American Paint Horse Association(APHA), was registered with the AQRA and ran against many of the early Quarter Horse racers.Oelke "The Paint Horse" p. 101] Haynes "The American Paint Horse" p. 175]
Individuals who believed AQHA was too restrictive in its registration and membership policies formed the National Quarter Horse Breeders Association (NQHBA) in December 1945. Registration criteria in the NQHBA were much less stringent than AQHA, but yet were not exclusively focused on racing like AQRA. For example, Thoroughbred crosses were freely registrable in NQHBA, and they even registered Thoroughbreds.
Within AQHA, there was a recognition that three organizations were sapping the strengths of the Quarter Horse breeders and owners, and within all three organizations there were efforts to merge. In July 1949, AQHA offered to merge with both AQRA and NQHBA. The AQRA voted to merge with AQHA in September 1949, and the NQHBA did likewise in November 1949. AQHA absorbed both organizations and moved their records to AQHA's recently established headquarters off
Interstate 40in Amarillo.
The original genealogy bloodline chart of the American Quarter Horse was created by the late Dr. Darrell Sprott of Killeen in Bell County in cetnral Texas and is now etched into the floor of the New American Quarter Horse Museum.
AQHA now registers the offspring of other American Quarter Horses in its numbered stud book. However, AQHA does not maintain a completely
closed stud book; there is also an "Appendix" section. An "Appendix" American Quarter Horse is a first generation cross between a registered Thoroughbred and an American Quarter Horse or a cross between a "numbered" American Quarter Horse and an "appendix" American Quarter Horse. Horses in the "appendix" registry can "earn" their way into the main stud book by completing an extensive set of performance requirements in either racing or some form of show competition and receiving what the Association refers to as a Register of Merit (ROM).
Horses produced by means of
artificial inseminationor embryo transfermay be registered, but cloned horses cannot be registered. Parentage now is verified by means of DNAtesting.
In recent years, registration requirements for AQHA have significantly changed. In the past, horses with too much white or with
cremellotraits were not eligible for registration. One reason was lack of a full understanding of equine coat color genetics(For example, people did not know that Palominois an incomplete form of the cremello dilution gene) and the other was a legitimate a concern about a condition called lethal white syndrome, which was not fully understood at the time. There was also belief that excess white indicated "impure" breeding with non-Quarter Horses.
DNAtesting has now made verification of parentage possible, and also permits the detection of certain genetic diseases such as lethal white syndrome. Thus AQHA now allows registration of "high white" body markings typical of the sabino gene and other pinto spotting patterns. Many horses formerly registrable only as American Paint Horses with APHA are now cross-registered with both registries. Because the genetic mechanism that creates palomino is also understood and has been found to have no connection to lethal white, cremelloand perlinocoat colors are also allowed. [ [http://www.aqha.com/association/registration/042804_whiterulechange.html AQHA White Rule Changes] accessed on July 9, 2007]
Cross-registration of American Quarter Horses with APHA and the
Palomino Horse Breeders of America(PHBA) is often a benefit to horses who have these distinct colors.
Currently, AQHA is in the process of phasing out registration of horses who carry the dominant genetic disease
Hyperkalemic Periodic Paralysis[ [http://www.aqha.com/association/registration/hypp.html AQHA HYPP Information] accessed on July 9, 2007] (HYPP) and sponsored research that, in 2007, developed a genetic test for HERDA. [ [http://www.aqha.com/foundation/equineresearch/byyear.html AQHA Equine Research by Year] ]
Competition and awards
Currently AQHA recognizes achievement by American Quarter Horses and their owners with a number of awards. Some are annual, some are based on lifetime achievement. AQHA awards points to horses competing in
horse show, rodeoand horse racing. AQHA assigns points to animals who win or place in horse shows and on the racetrack. The amount of points given depends in part on placing and on how many other horses were in the class or race. Accumulated points result in annual awards to the top competitors and certain lifetime achievement recognitions for both horse and rider.
Horse shows and rodeos
Today, people show American Quarter Horses in a variety of competitive events, including, but not limited to, halter classes; western style events such as
Western Pleasure, Reining, and cutting; English ridingevents in the hunt seatstyle, such as Hunter Under Saddle, working hunter, and hunter hack. Driving classes are available at some shows, as are some timed games. There are also equitationand halter showmanship classes for non-pro exhibitors.
The annual AQHA World Show, the largest AQHA-sponsored event, is held in November of each year in Oklahoma City.
In the show ring, the AQHA awards a number of year end awards, including Rookie of the Year (awarded at the state, regional, and national level); Year End Top-Ten awards in for the Open Junior Horse, Open Senior Horse, Youth and Amateur divisions; Year End High Point awards in the same divisions; Year End High point all around and reserve all around in the same divisions, and a few miscellaneous awards to novice and limited riders. As lifetime awards, the AQHA awards Register of Merits in Performance and Halter, AQHA Champion, AQHA Performance Champion, AQHA Versatility Champion, Superior Event Horse, Supreme Championships in the three showing divisions (Youth, Open, Amateur), and a Supreme Performance Champion.
AQHA also recognizes horses that compete outside of AQHA sanctioned shows. Some awards go to horses that compete in the
Professional Rodeo Cowboys Association(PRCA) timed rodeoevents, others go to horses competing in the United States Team Penning Association, National Cutting Horse Association, or the National High School Rodeo or National Intercollegiate Rodeo Association. [http://www.aqha.com/association/benefits/awards.html AQHA Awards & Rewards] accessed on July 6, 2007]
On the racetrack, AQHA offers year-end Champion awards in age and sex divisions, plus broodmare, distance horse, Canadian champion, owner, breeder, trainer, and jockey. Thus there is a champion two-year-old colt, filly and gelding plus champion two year old from the preceding. The three year old and aged categories work the same way, with the World Champion being chosen from the winners of the age and sex divisions. [http://racing.aqha.com/racing/champions/index.aspx AQHA Race Awards] accessed on
July 6, 2007] In addition to the year end awards, there are three lifetime awards - Race Register of Merit, Superior Race Horse and Supreme Race Horse. A Register of Merit is awarded when a horse attains a speed index of 80 or above. A Superior Race Horse is achieved when the horse earns 200 racing points. A Supreme Race Horse award requires the horse to satisfy the following three criteria - 1) win over $500,000.00 in earnings, 2) win two Grade 1 stakes races and 3) win a total of ten races.AQHA "Official Handbook of Rules & Regulations" 2007 edition]
In 1993, AQHA launched Quarter Horse
horse racing's first series of races with a championship-ending day, called The Bank of America Racing Challenge. It is a series of 60 races run throughout North and South America with the winners of each race earning a starting berth into a season-ending Championship Day. The Bank of America Racing Challenge currently offers nearly $6 million in purse and bonus awards.
AQHA also offers a Horseback Riding Program, which rewards AQHA members for riding American Quarter Horses. Riders log their hours spent riding, and receive recognition awards and prizes. [http://www.aqha.com/recreation/horseback/index.html AQHA Horseback Riding Program] accessed on
July 6, 2007]
Also for leisure riders, AQHA sanctions a series of some 100 trail rides open to all breeds of horses at locations around the world, in locations on both public lands and on private lands not normally open to the public.
American Quarter Horse
American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame
* [http://www.aqha.com/association/benefits/awards.html AQHA Awards & Rewards] accessed on
July 6, 2007
* [http://www.aqha.com/foundation/equineresearch/byyear.html AQHA Equine Research by Year] accessed on
July 9, 2007
* [http://www.aqha.com/association/registration/hypp.html AQHA HYPP Information] accessed on
July 9, 2007
* [http://www.aqha.com/recreation/horseback/index.html AQHA Horseback Riding Program] accessed on
July 6, 2007
* AQHA "Official Handbook of Rules & Regulations" 2007 edition
* [http://racing.aqha.com/racing/champions/index.aspx AQHA Race Awards] accessed on
July 6, 2007
* [http://www.aqha.com/association/registration/042804_whiterulechange.html AQHA White Rule Changes] accessed on
July 9, 2007
* Denhardt, Robert M. "Organization of the American Quarter Horse Association" in "Foundation Sires of the American Quarter Horse" Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press 1976
* Goodhue, Jim "A History of Early AQHA Registration" in "Legends: Outstanding Quarter Horse Stallions and Mares" by Diane C. Simmons Colorado Springs, Colorado: Western Horseman 1993 ISBN 0-911647-26-0
* Haynes, Glynn W. "The American Paint Horse" Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press 1976 ISBN 0-8061-2144-0
* Oelke, Hardy "The Paint Horse: An American Treasure" Germany 1992 ISBN 3-89118-075-6
* Price, Steven D. "The American Quarter Horse" An Introduction to Selection, Care, and Enjoyment" Lyons Press 1999 ISBN 1-55821-643-X
* [http://www.aqha.com/ AQHA official site]
* [http://www.doubledilute.com/aqha.htm Cremello & Perlino Educational Association: AQHA policies]
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