- Pope Innocent IV
English name=Innocent IV
June 28, 1243
December 7, 1254
Pope Innocent IV, born Sinibaldo Fieschi was
popefrom June 28, 1243to December 7, 1254.
Manarola, he belonged to a feudal family of Liguria, the Fieschi, Counts of Lavagna. He was educated at Parmaand Bologna. He was considered one of the best canonists of his time.
Before his elevation to the papacy he was
Vice-Chancellor of the Holy Roman Church(1227-1228), Cardinal Priestof S. Lorenzo in Lucina ( September 181227) and governor of the March of Ancona(December 1234 until 1240). He was also elected bishop of Albengain 1235, but resigned in 1238 without receiving episcopal consecration.
His immediate predecessor was
Pope Celestine IV, who however, was pope for eighteen days only, and therefore the events of Innocent IV's pontificate practically link themselves onto those of the reign of Pope Gregory IX(1227-41).
Innocent IV was elected unanimously at the conclave in
Anagni( June 25, 1243). Frederick II, who had been excommunicated by Innocent's predecessor, is said to have remarked that he had lost the friendship of a cardinal and gained the enmity of a Pope; the letter which he wrote, however, expressed in respectful terms the hope that an amicable settlement of the differences between the empire and the papacy might be reached. The negotiation which shortly afterwards began with this objective proved abortive, Frederick II being unable to make the absolute submission to the Pope's demands which was required of him. The main point of dispute was the reinstatement of the Papal rights in Lombardy.
Finding his position in Rome insecure, Innocent IV secretly withdrew in the summer of 1244 to
Genoa, and thence to Lyon, where he summoned a general council which met in 1245. The council did not see the presence of delegates from the whole of Europe, the bishops present being mostly Spanish and French. Frederick II's position was defended by Taddeo of Suessa, who was however unable to prevent his deposition on July 17. The agitation caused by this act throughout Europe terminated only with Frederick II's death in December 1250, which permitted the Pope to return, first to Perugia, where he remained in 1251-1253, and afterwards to Rome.
Contacts with the Mongols
Güyükto Pope Innocent IV.] In 1245, Innocent IV issued bulls and sent an envoy in the person of Giovanni da Pian del Carpine(accompanied by Benedict the Pole) to the "Emperor of the Tartars". The message asked the Mongol ruler to become a Christian and stop his aggression against Europe. The Khan Güyükreplied in 1246 a letter written in Persian that still rests in the Vatican Library, demanding the submission of the Pope and the other rulers of Europe. [David Wilkinson, Studying the History of Intercivilizational Dialogues [http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:j2zJq7QI4goJ:www.unu.edu/HQ/japanese/dialogue/wilkinson-presen-s1e.doc] ]
In 1245 Innocent had sent another mission, through another route, led by Ascelin of Lombardia, also bearing letters. The mission met with the Mongol ruler
Baichunear the Caspian Seain 1247. The reply of Baichu was in accordance with that of Güyük, but it was accompanied by two Mongolian envoys to the Papal seat in Lyon, Aïbeg and Serkis. They met with Innocent IV in 1248, who again appealed to the Mongols to stop their killing of Christians. [David Wilkinson, Studying the History of Intercivilizational Dialogues [http://184.108.40.206/search?q=cache:j2zJq7QI4goJ:www.unu.edu/HQ/japanese/dialogue/wilkinson-presen-s1e.doc] ]
Innocent IV would also send other missions to the Mongols in 1245: the mission of
André de Longjumeau, the possibly aborted mission of Laurent de Portugal, and mission of Giovanni da Pian del Carpine, which left on April 16th, 1245 and would reach the Mongol capital Karakorum. [Roux, p.312-313]
The remainder of his life was largely directed to schemes for compassing the overthrow of Manfred, the natural son of Frederick II, whom the towns and the nobility had for the most part received as his father's successor. Innocent aimed to incorporate the whole
Kingdom of Sicilyinto the Papal States, but he lacked the necessary economical and political power. Therefore, after a failed agreement with Charles of Anjou, he invested that kingdom to Edmund, the nine year old son of Henry III of England( May 14, 1254). In the same year he excommunicated Frederick II's other son, Conrad IV, King of Germany, but the latter died a few days after the investiture of Edmund. Innocent therefore moved to Anagnito wait for Manfred's reaction to the event, especially as Conrad's heir, Conradin, had been entrusted to the Papal tutorage by the King's testament. Manfred submitted, although probably only to gain time and counter the menace from Edmund, and received the title of Papal vicar for southern Italy. Innocent could therefore live a period in which he was the effective sovereign of most of the peninsula, and on October 27 1254he celebrated the feat by entering the city of Naples.
However, Manfred had not lost his time and organized a resistance, supported by his faithful Saracen troops, setting riots against the new authority. It was on a sick bed at
Naplesthat Innocent IV heard of Manfred's victory at Foggiaagainst the Papal forces: the tidings are said to have precipitated his death on December 7, 1254, in Naples.
His learning gave to the world an "Apparatus in quinque libros decretalium". But he also issued the
papal bull" Ad exstirpanda" acknowledging the right of the state to punish heretics after they were convicted of heresy.
He was succeeded by
Pope Alexander IV(1254-61). Innocent was also the uncle of Adrian V (1276).
*"Original text from the 9th edition (1880) of an unnamed encyclopedia."
*cite book|last=Rendina|first=Claudio|title=I papi. Storia e segreti|publisher=Newton Compton|location=Rome|year=1983
* Melloni, Alberto, "Innocenzo IV: la concezione e l'esperienza della cristianità come regimen unius personae", Genova : Marietti, 1990.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Pope Innocent I — Pope Innocent I † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent I Date of birth unknown; died 12 March, 417. Before his elevation to the Chair of Peter, very little is known concerning the life of this energetic pope, so zealous for the… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent XI — Pope Innocent XI † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent XI (Benedetto Odescalchi) Born at Como, 16 May, 1611; died at Rome, 11 August, 1689. He was educated by the Jesuits at Como, and studied jurisprudence at Rome and Naples.… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent II — Pope Innocent II † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent II (Gregorio Papereschi) Elected 14 Feb., 1130; died 24 Sept., 1143. He was a native of Rome and belonged to the ancient family of the Guidoni. His father s name is given as … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent IV — Pope Innocent IV † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent IV (Sinibaldo de Fieschi) Count of Lavagna, born at Genoa, date unknown; died at Naples, 7 December, 1254. He was educated at Parma and Bologna. For some time he taught… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent X — Pope Innocent X † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent X (Giambattista Pamfili) Born at Rome, 6 May, 1574; died there, 7 January, 1655. His parents were Camillo Pamfili and Flaminia de Bubalis. The Pamfili resided originally at… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent VI — Pope Innocent VI † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent VI (ETIENNE AUBERT) Born at Mont in the Diocese of Limoges (France); elected at Avignon, 18 December 1352; died there, 12 September, 1362. He began his career as professor… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent V — Pope Bl. Innocent V † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Bl. Innocent V (PETRUS A TARENTASIA) Born in Tarentaise, towards 1225; elected at Arezzo, 21 January, 1276; died at Rome, 22 June, 1276. Tarentaise on the upper Isère in south… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent IX — Pope Innocent IX † Catholic Encyclopedia ► Pope Innocent IX (Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti) Born at Bologna, 22 July, 1519; elected, 29 October, 1591; died at Rome, 30 December, 1591. After successful studies in jurisprudence in… … Catholic encyclopedia
Pope Innocent XI — Infobox pope|English name=Innocent XI Latin name=Innocens PP. XI birth name=Benedetto Odescalchi term start=September 21 1676 term end=August 12 1689 predecessor=Clement X successor=Alexander VIII birth date=birth date|1611|5|16|mf=y… … Wikipedia
Pope Innocent X — Infobox pope|English name=Innocent X Latin name=Innocens PP. X birth name=Giovanni Battista Pamphilj or Pamphili term start=September 15, 1644 term end=January 7, 1655 predecessor=Urban VIII successor=Alexander VII birth date=birth… … Wikipedia
Pope Innocent II — Infobox Pope English name=Innocent II birth name=Gregorio Papareschi term start=February 14, 1130 term end=September 24, 1143 predecessor=Honorius II successor=Celestine II birth date=??? birthplace= Rome, Italy dead=dead|death date=death… … Wikipedia