- Alexander Bickel
box_width = 250px
name = Alexander Bickel
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birth_date = birth date|1924|12|17
death_date = death date and age|1974|11|8|1924|12|17
nationality = flag|United States
Yale Law School
Harvard Law School
Alexander Mordecai Bickel (
December 17 1924– November 8 1974) was a law professor and expert on the United States Constitution. One of the most influential constitutional commentators of the twentieth century, his writings emphasize judicial restraint.
Born as Transylvanian Saxon in
Romania, Bickel graduated Harvard Law School" summa cum laude". He served as a law clerkto Justice Felix Frankfurterof the Supreme Court of the United Statesin the 1952 term, preparing an historical memorandum urging that " Brown v. Board of Education" be reargued. Starting in 1956, he taught at Yale Law Schooluntil his death. With Charles Black, he forged what has become one of the world's great centers for the study of constitutional law.
A frequent contributor to "Commentary", "New Republic" and the "
New York Times", Bickel represented the latter in the Pentagon Paperscase (1971). He also defended President Richard Nixon’s order to dismiss special Watergate prosecutor Archibald Cox.
Bickel's most distinctive contribution to constitutional law was to stress what he called "the passive virtues" of judicial decision-making – the refusal to decide cases on substantive grounds if narrower grounds exist to decide the case. Bickel viewed "private ordering" and the voluntary working-out of problems as generally preferable to legalistic solutions.
In his books "The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress" and "The Morality of Consent", Bickel attacked the Warren Court for what he saw as its misuse of history, shoddy reasoning, and sometimes arbitrary results. Bickel thought that the Warren Court's two most important lines of decision, "
Brown v. Board of Education" and " Baker v. Carr", did not produce the results the Court had intended. In his book "The Least Dangerous Branch", Bickel coined the term " countermajoritarian difficulty" to describe his view that judicial review stands in tension with democratic theory.
Bickel envisioned the Supreme Court as playing a statesman-like role in national controversies, engaging in dialogue with the other branches of government. Thus he did not see the Court as a purely passive body, but as one which should lead public opinion, albeit carefully.
Bickel's writings addressed such varied topics as
constitutionalismand Burkean thought, citizenship, civil disobedience, freedom of speech, moral authorityand intellectual thought. Bickel has been cited by Chief Justice John Roberts[http://www.c-span.org/special/roberts.asp] and by Justice Samuel Alitoas a major influence and is widely considered one of the most influential constitutional conservatives of the 20th century.
Bickel was a gifted and easily accessible instructor. He inaugurated the DeVane Lecture series at Yale in 1972 where he taught a large class mostly of Yale undergraduates.
Quotes by Bickel
"News reporting in the United States would be devastatingly impoverished if the countless off-the-record and background contacts maintained by reporters with news were cut off." [
Floyd Abrams, "Speaking Freely", published by Viking Press(2005), Page 5.]
*"The Least Dangerous Branch" (Bobbs-Merrill, 1962)
*"Politics and the Warren Court" (Harper & Row, 1965)
*"The Supreme Court and the Idea of Progress" (Harper & Row, 1970)
*"The Morality of Consent" (Yale University Press, 1975)
*"History of the Supreme Court of the United States: The Judiciary and Responsible Government: 1910-1921" (vol. IX, Macmillan, 1984).
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