- Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome
Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome Metrodome, Mall of America Field, The Homerdome, The Dome, The Thunderdome, The Sweatrodome
Location 900 South 5th Street
Minneapolis, Minnesota 55415
Coordinates Coordinates: Broke ground December 20, 1979 Opened April 3, 1982 Owner Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission Surface UBU-Intensity Series-S5-M Synthetic Turf (2011-present)
Sportexe Momentum Turf (2010)
Construction cost $68 million
($155 million in 2011 dollars)
Architect Skidmore, Owings & Merrill Structural engineer Geiger Berger Associates General Contractor Barton-Malow Capacity American football: 64,111
Baseball: 46,564 (expandable to 55,883)
Field dimensions Left Field: - 343 ft (105 m)
Left-Center: - 385 ft (117 m)(unmarked)
Center Field: - 408 ft (124 m)
Right-Center: - 367 ft (112 m)(unmarked)
Right Field: - 327 ft (100 m)
Backstop: - 60 ft (18 m)
Dome Apex: - 186 ft (57 m)
Wall: - 7 feet (left and center field)
Wall: - 23 feet (right field)
Tenants Minnesota Vikings (NFL) (1982–present)
Minnesota Golden Gophers (NCAA baseball)
Minnesota Twins (MLB) (1982–2009)
Minnesota Golden Gophers (NCAA football) (1982–2008)
Minnesota Strikers (NASL) (1984)
Minnesota Timberwolves (NBA) (1989–1990)
The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome, commonly called the Metrodome, is a domed sports stadium in downtown Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. The football playing field has been known as Mall of America Field at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome since October 2009. Opened in 1982, it replaced Metropolitan Stadium, which was on the current site of the Mall of America in Bloomington and Memorial Stadium on the University of Minnesota campus. The Metrodome is home to the National Football League's Minnesota Vikings, and the Big Ten's University of Minnesota Golden Gophers baseball team. The stadium was also the home of the Minnesota Twins from 1982 to 2009 and the Golden Gophers football team from 1982 to 2008.
The stadium is the ninth oldest stadium in the National Football League. Locally, it has several nicknames such as: "The Dome"., "the Thunderdome", and "The Homer Dome"
The stadium has a fiberglass fabric roof that is self-supported by air pressure, and is the second major sports facility to have this feature (the first being the Pontiac Silverdome). The Metrodome is similar in design to BC Place before that stadium was reconfigured with a retractable roof and the former RCA Dome. It was reputedly the inspiration for the Tokyo Dome.
- 1 History
- 2 Seating Capacity
- 3 Features
- 4 Stadium usage
- 5 Oddities
- 6 Replacement facilities
- 7 Accessibility and transportation
- 8 Appearances in popular culture
- 9 References
- 10 External links
By the early 1970s, the Minnesota Vikings were unhappy with Metropolitan Stadium's relatively small capacity for football (just under 48,500). Before the AFL-NFL merger, the NFL had declared that stadiums smaller than 50,000 capacity were not adequate for their needs. The biggest stadium in the area was the University of Minnesota's Memorial Stadium, but the Vikings were not willing to be tenants in a college football stadium and demanded a new venue. Supporters of a dome also believed that the Minnesota Twins would benefit from a climate-controlled stadium to insulate the team from harsh Minnesota weather later in the season. The Met would have likely needed replacing in any event, as it was not well maintained. Broken railings and seats could be spotted in the third deck by the early 1970s.
Construction success of other domed stadiums, particularly the Pontiac Silverdome near Detroit, paved the way for voters to approve funding for a new stadium. Downtown Minneapolis was beginning a revitalization program, and the return of professional sports from suburban Bloomington was seen as a major success story. A professional team hadn't been based in downtown Minneapolis since the Minneapolis Lakers left for Los Angeles in 1960.
Construction on the Metrodome began on December 20, 1979 and was funded by a limited hotel-motel and liquor tax, local business donations, and payments established within a special tax district near the stadium site. Uncovering the Dome by Amy Klobuchar (now a U.S. Senator) describes the ten-year effort to build the venue. The stadium was named in memory of former mayor of Minneapolis, U.S. Senator and U.S. Vice President, Hubert Humphrey, who had died in 1978.
The Metrodome cost $68 million to build—roughly $2 million under budget, a rarity for modern stadiums. It is a somewhat utilitarian facility, though not quite as spartan as Metropolitan Stadium. One stadium official once said that all the Metrodome was designed to do was "get fans in, let 'em see a game, and let 'em go home."
The NCAA Final Four was held at the Metrodome in 1992 and 2001. Duke University was the winner on both occasions. The Metrodome has also served as one of the four regional venues for the NCAA Division I Basketball Championship in 1986, 1989, 1996, 2000, 2003, 2006 and most recently, 2009 . The dome has also held first and second round games in the NCAA Basketball Tournament in addition to regionals and the Final Four, most recently in 2009.
The Metrodome is the only venue to host a MLB All-Star Game (1985), a Super Bowl (1992), an NCAA Final Four (1992 & 2001), and a World Series (1987 & 1991). It has been recognized as one of the loudest domed venues in which to view a game, due in part to the fact that sound is recycled throughout the stadium because of the domed roof. Stadium loudness is a hot sports marketing issue, as the noise lends the home team a home advantage against the visiting team. The Metrodome is the loudest domed NFL stadium. During the 1987 World Series and 1991 World Series, peak decibel levels were measured at 125 and 118 respectively comparable to a jet airliner—both close to the threshold of pain.
- 62,220 (1982-1983)
- 62,345 (1984-1987)
- 63,669 (1988-1994)
- 64,035 (1995-1996)
- 64,152 (1997-1999)
- 64,121 (2000-present)
- The Metrodome was the scene of several players joining the 3000 hit club, including Eddie Murray, Dave Winfield, and Cal Ripken, Jr.
- The Metrodome was the site of Dallas Cowboys running back Tony Dorsett's 99 yard run, on January 3, 1983 the longest run from scrimmage in NFL history, in a Monday night game that was won by the Minnesota Vikings.
- Dwyane Wade recorded just the forth triple double in NCAA Men's Basketball Tournament history on March 29, 2003.
- On June 28, 2007, in the top of the first inning, Frank Thomas hit a three-run home run to left-center against Carlos Silva for his 500th career home run. He was later ejected for arguing balls and strikes.
- On September 30, 2007, Brett Favre of the Green Bay Packers threw his record-breaking 421st career touchdown pass to Greg Jennings while playing the Vikings at the Metrodome.
- On November 4, 2007, Antonio Cromartie of the San Diego Chargers returned a 57-yard field goal attempt, which was short, 109 yards for a touchdown, which became the longest play in NFL history. In the same game, Adrian Peterson, running back for the Minnesota Vikings, had 30 carries for an NFL single-game record 296 rushing yards, along with three touchdowns.
- On November 30, 2008, against the Chicago Bears, Vikings quarterback Gus Frerotte threw a 99-yard touchdown pass to Bernard Berrian, tying an NFL record for longest pass.
- On July 28, 2009, White Sox pitcher Mark Buehrle broke the MLB record for consecutive batters retired. The record was 41; Buehrle retired 45 in a row. His record includes his perfect game tossed on July 23, 2009.
- On October 5, 2009, with a 30-23 victory over the Green Bay Packers, his former team, Brett Favre of the Vikings became the first quarterback in NFL history to defeat each of the league's 32 franchises.
Since the stadium was built, the economics of sports marketing have changed. Teams are charging higher prices for tickets, and are demanding more amenities, such as bigger clubhouses and locker rooms, more luxury suites, and more concession revenue. To that end, pressure has been applied by team owners, media, and fans to have the State of Minnesota provide newer, better facilities to host the teams. The Metrodome has served its primary purpose, to provide a climate-controlled facility in which to host the three sports tenants in Minnesota with the largest attendance. The indoor venue is particularly welcome in the highly variable climate of Minnesota.
The Metrodome was widely thought of as a hitter's park, with a low (7 ft) left-field fence (343 ft) that favored right-handed power hitters, and the higher (23 ft) but closer (327 ft) right-field Baggie that favored left-handed power hitters. Because the roof is very nearly the same color as a baseball, and transmits light, the Metrodome had a far higher error incidence than a normal stadium during day games, so instead of losing a fly ball in the sun, as is common for non-roofed stadiums, fly balls could easily get lost in the ceiling. Unlike most parks built during this time, Metrodome's baseball configuration had asymmetrical outfield dimensions.
It gave up even more home runs before air conditioning was installed in 1983. Before 1983, the Dome had been nicknamed "the Sweat Box." The Metrodome is climate controlled, and has protected the baseball schedule during the entire time it was the venue for the Minnesota Twins. Major League Baseball schedulers had the luxury of being able to count on dates played at Metrodome. Doubleheader games only occurred when purposely scheduled. The last time that happened was when the Twins scheduled a day-night doubleheader against the Kansas City Royals on August 31, 2007. The doubleheader was necessitated after an August 2 game vs. Kansas City was postponed one day after the I-35W Bridge collapse in downtown Minneapolis.
The Metrodome's air-supported roof was designed by the inventor of air-supported structures, David H. Geiger, through his New York-based Geiger Berger Associates, and manufactured and installed by Birdair Structures. An air-supported structure supported by positive air pressure, it requires 250,000 ft³/min (120 m³/s) of air to keep it inflated. The air pressure is supplied by twenty 90-horsepower fans. The roof is made of two layers: the outer layers are Teflon coated fiberglass and the inner is a proprietary acoustical fabric. By design, the dead air space between the layers insulates the roof; in winter, warm air is blown into the space between layers to help melt snow that has accumulated on top. At the time it was built, the 10 acres (4.0 ha) of fabric made the roof the largest expanse ever done in that manner. The outside Teflon membrane is 1/32 of an inch thick and the inner liner of woven fiberglass is 1/64th of an inch thick. The entire roof weighs roughly 580,000 pounds. It reaches 195 feet (59 m), or about 16 stories, at its highest point.
To prevent roof tears like those that occurred in its first years of service, the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission adopted a twofold strategy: When snow accumulation was expected, hot air was pumped into the space between the roof's two layers. Workers also climbed on the roof and used steam and high-powered hot-water hoses to melt snow. In addition, before the storm that caused the December 2010 collapse, the inside of the stadium was heated to nearly 80 °F (26.7 °C).
To maintain the differential air pressure, spectators usually enter and leave the seating and concourse areas through revolving doors, since the use of regular doors without an airlock would cause significant loss of air pressure. The double-walled construction allows warmed air to circulate beneath the top of the dome, melting accumulated snow. A sophisticated environmental control center in the lower part of the stadium is manned to monitor weather and make adjustments in air distribution to maintain the roof.
Because it is unusually low to the playing field, the air-inflated dome occasionally figured into game action. Major League Baseball had specific ground rules for the Metrodome. Any ball which struck the Dome roof, or objects hanging from it, remained in play; if it landed in foul territory it became a foul ball, if it landed in fair territory it became a fair ball. Any ball which became caught in the roof over fair ground was a ground rule double. That has only happened three times in its history - Dave Kingman for the Oakland Athletics on May 4, 1984, University of Minnesota Gophers player George Behr and Corey Koskie in 2004. The speakers, being closer to the playing surface, were hit more frequently, especially the speakers in foul ground near the infield, which were typically hit several times a season, which posed an extra challenge to infielders trying to catch them. However, beginning with the 2005 season, the ground rules for Twins games were changed such that any batted ball that struck a speaker in foul territory would automatically be called a foul ball, regardless of whether or not it was caught. The roof is high enough that it has never been a concern for events other than baseball.
Early roof incidents
Five times in the stadium's history, heavy snows or other weather conditions have significantly damaged the roof and in four instances caused it to deflate. Four of the five incidents had occurred within the stadium's first five years of operation:
On November 19, 1981, a rapid accumulation of over a foot of snow caused the roof to collapse, requiring it to be re-inflated. It deflated the following winter on December 30, 1982, again because of a tear caused by heavy snow. This was four days before the Vikings played the Dallas Cowboys in the last regular season game of the 1982 NFL season. In the spring following that same winter, on April 14, 1983, the Metrodome roof deflated because of a tear caused by a late-season heavy snow, and the scheduled Twins' game with the California Angels was postponed. On April 26, 1986, the Metrodome roof suffered a slight tear because of high winds, causing a nine-minute delay in the bottom of the seventh inning versus the Angels; however the roof did not deflate.
Birdair had conducted a regular inspection of the Metrodome roof in April 2010. Its report to the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission stated that "the outer membrane is in good condition and still holding up well," and rated the inner liner's condition as "fair to poor". The inspectors also noted that the inner liner of the roof was dirty (mostly due to emissions from automotive events) and had some holes in it, advising that the holes be monitored to avoid large tears from enlarging. In addition, Birdair noted some minor areas on the outer membrane that needed repairing, which were done by the time of the Commission's July regular meeting. Overall, Birdair noted the membrane was weathering as anticipated and had exceeded its service life of 20 years; it recommended planning for replacement of the roof fabric, and noted that planning and implementation would take an additional five years and cost $12–$15 million. In forming their own conclusion, the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission staff decided that the outer membrane was in very good shape, that the roof continued to have serviceable life, and planned to schedule another testing in four years; the Commission made no recommendations.
2010 roof incident
A severe winter storm arrived on December 10–11, 2010 with high snow accumulation (more than seventeen inches) and strong winds; those winds made the roof unsafe for the snow removal crew. As the workers were pulled back, the roof was already sagging in the center. On December 12 at about 5:00 a.m., the roof had a catastrophic collapse as three panels tore open. The night before, a Fox Sports crew setting up for an upcoming Vikings game noticed water leaking from the roof and kept their cameras on all night; those cameras captured the roof tearing and ice and snow falling into the stadium. No one was injured. Most of the roof sagged and came to rest on cable stays. The collapse caused no damage inside the arena aside from a light fixture and some seats. The turf was not damaged; a drainage system designed for cleaning purposes allowed the field to dry out. On December 15, 2010 a fourth panel ripped open, sending more snow and ice into the dome.
The Vikings and the New York Giants had been scheduled to play a football game on the afternoon of the 12th. The game had already been postponed to Monday night, the 13th, due to concerns of stadium officials. Because of the tears in the roof, the NFL relocated the game to Ford Field in Detroit. The league considered moving that game to the University of Minnesota's nearby TCF Bank Stadium, but it had been shut down and winterized for the season and would have needed several days to prepare for a football game. Due to roof repair time estimates, the Vikings December 20 game against the Chicago Bears was moved to TCF Bank Stadium. The final two games for the 2010 Minnesota Vikings season already were scheduled as road games, and the team had already been eliminated from the playoffs.
The Gophers' first baseball game of their 2011 season at the Dome was scheduled for February 5. However, on December 29, it was announced that the roof would not be repaired until the spring of 2011. As a result, the Gophers were forced to cancel scheduled home games in March against Washington State, Hamline, North Dakota State, and Cal State Bakersfield as well as the annual Metrodome Tournament. A second tournament, the Dairy Queen Classic, was moved to Tucson, and a scheduled home series against Cal Poly was moved to Cal Poly.
On February 10, 2011 it was announced that the entire Metrodome roof needed to be replaced at an estimated cost of $18 million. In November of 2010, the University of Minnesota men's baseball team had announced plans to play all of their 2011 games at the Metrodome; however, the roof collapse caused these plans to be abandoned. On February 18, 2011, the Gophers announced that all 12 scheduled Big Ten home games in April and May would be played at Target Field, with three non-conference games moved to on-campus Siebert Field.
On July 13, 2011, it was announced that the roof was repaired and had been inflated that morning. However other construction and repairs were still in progress. The remaining construction and repairs were done by August 1, 2011.
During its early years of operation, the field at the Metrodome was surfaced with SuperTurf. The surface, also known as SporTurf, was very bouncy—so bouncy, in fact, that Billy Martin once protested a game after seeing a base hit that would normally be a pop single turn into a ground rule double. Baseball and football players alike complained that it was too hard.
This surface was upgraded to Astroturf in 1987, and in 2004, the sports commission had a newer artificial surface, called FieldTurf, installed. FieldTurf is thought to be a closer approximation to natural grass than Astroturf in its softness, appearance, and feel. A new Sportexe Momentum Turf surface was installed during the summer of 2010. The sliding pits and pitcher's mound used by the Twins and Gophers has been removed. Any future baseball games will see baserunners slide on "grass." The homeplate area is being kept as it is not "in-play" for football configuration. The original homeplate installed at the dome was memorably dug up after the Twins' final game and has been installed at Target Field. A new field was installed in summer of 2011 due to the damage from the December 2010 roof collapse.
From 1985 to 1994, the left-field wall included a six-foot clear Plexiglas screen for a total height of 13 feet (4.0 m). It was off this Plexiglas wall that Twins player Kirby Puckett jumped to rob Ron Gant of the Atlanta Braves of an extra-base hit during Game 6 of the 1991 World Series (a game that Puckett would win with an 11th-inning walkoff homer) - in later years, with the Plexiglas removed, it would have been a potential home run ball.
The Metrodome's right-field wall was composed of the seven-foot-high (2.1 m) fence around the whole outfield and a 16-foot (4.9 m)-high plastic wall extension in right field, known as the "Baggie", or the "Hefty Bag." The seats above and behind the Baggie were home run territory; the Baggie itself was part of the outfield wall. Fenway Park's "Green Monster", a comparable but taller feature, is 17 feet (5.2 m) closer to home plate than the Baggie was, so batters who hit short, high fly balls were not typically helped by it. However, it was an attractive target for left-handed power hitters, and it was not uncommon for upper-deck home runs to be hit to right field. When in a rectangular configuration for football and other small-field events, the Baggie was taken down and the seats behind it extended to form complete lower-deck seating.
Minnesota Vikings football
As the stadium was designed first and foremost for the Minnesota Vikings, they have the fewest problems. As a location and playing field with new turf, it is still a suitable venue for football. The Vikings owners want more luxury suites and better concessions. They have twice rejected a renovation, with the 2001 price tag at $269 million. Early fall weather has led to calls for a retractable roof, but climate control is still deemed a necessity for a season that runs through December.
The Vikings played their first game at the Metrodome in a preseason matchup against the Seattle Seahawks on August 21, 1982. Minnesota won 7-3. The first touchdown in the dome was scored by Joe Senser on an 11-yard pass from Tommy Kramer. The first regular-season game at the Metrodome was the 1982 opener on September 12, when the Vikings defeated Tampa Bay Buccaneers, 17-10. Rickey Young scored the first regular-season touchdown in the dome on a 3-yard run in the 2nd quarter. On January 9, 1983, the Vikings defeated the Atlanta Falcons, 30-24, in a 1st-round game that was the first playoff game at the Metrodome.
Super Bowl XXVI
NFL owners voted to award Super Bowl XXVI to Minneapolis during their May 24, 1989 meeting. The game on January 26, 1992 was the second Super Bowl to be played in a cold, winter climate city. The first one was Super Bowl XVI on January 24, 1982 in Pontiac, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. Indianapolis, Indiana lost in its bid to host the game at the Hoosier Dome, as did Detroit and Seattle, who had also applied.
Minnesota Twins baseball
When opened in 1982, the Metrodome was appreciated for the protection it gave from mosquitoes, and later the weather. Over the years there had been a love-hate relationship with the fans, sportswriters, and stadium. The Minnesota Twins won two World Series championships at the Metrodome. The Twins won the 1987 World Series and 1991 World Series by winning all four games held at the Dome in both seasons. The loud noise, white roof, quick turf, and the right-field wall (or "Baggie") provided a substantial home-field advantage for the Twins. By 2001, several newer purpose-built Major League Baseball stadiums had been constructed, and the Metrodome was considered to be among the worst venues in Major League Baseball.
Only two Twins games at Metrodome were ever postponed. The first was on April 14, 1983, when a massive snowstorm prevented the California Angels from getting to Minneapolis. The game would have likely been postponed in any case, however; that night heavy snow caused part of the roof to collapse. The second was on August 2, 2007, the day after the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge had collapsed a few blocks away from Metrodome. The game scheduled for August 1 was played as scheduled (about one hour after the bridge had collapsed) because the team and police officials were concerned about too many fans departing Metrodome at one time, potentially causing conflict with rescue workers. The August 2 ceremonial groundbreaking at the eventual Target Field was also postponed, for the same reason.
The Twins played their final scheduled regular season game at Metrodome on October 4, 2009, beating the Kansas City Royals, 13-4. After the game, they held their scheduled farewell celebration. Because they ended the day tied with the Detroit Tigers for first place in the American League Central, a one-game playoff between the teams was played there on October 6, 2009, with the Twins beating the Tigers 6-5 in 12 innings. The division clincher would be the Twins' last win at Metrodome. The announced crowd was 54,088, setting the regular-season attendance record.
The final Twins game at Metrodome was on October 11, 2009, when they lost to the New York Yankees 4-1, resulting in three-game sweep in the 2009 American League Division Series. The Twins' appearance in this series gave Metrodome the distinction of being the first American League stadium to end its Major League Baseball history with post-season play. The only other stadiums whose final games came in the post-season are Atlanta Fulton County Stadium (1996), the Houston Astrodome (1999) and St. Louis's Busch Memorial Stadium (2005), all of which were home venues for National League teams.
When configured as a basketball arena, the fans in the nearby bleachers get a suitable view of the court, but the action is difficult to see in the upper decks and is very far away. Concessions are very far away from the temporary infrastructure. Most NBA and major college basketball arenas run to a maximum of 20,000 seats. However, the NCAA tournament makes a significant amount of money selling seats for regional and championship games for the Men's basketball tournament.
Several NCAA tournaments have taken place at the stadium:
- 1986 1st and 2nd Round
- 1989 Midwest Regional
- 1991 1st and 2nd Round
- 1992 Final Four
- 1996 Midwest Regional
- 2000 1st and 2nd Round
- 2001 Final Four
- 2003 Midwest Regional
- 2006 Minneapolis Regional
- 2009 1st and 2nd Round
The Timberwolves used the stadium for its home basketball games during its inaugural season (1989–90) in the NBA, while the team waited for construction of the Target Center to be completed. The team set NBA records for the highest single-season attendance ever: 1,072,572 fans in 41 home games. The largest crowd for a single game occurred on April 17, 1990: 49,551 fans watched the T-Wolves lose to the Denver Nuggets in the last game of the season.
Beginning in the 1982 college football season, the University of Minnesota Golden Gophers began playing their home football games at Metrodome. The first game was a 57-3 victory over the Ohio Bobcats on September 11, 1982.
With their move to TCF Bank Stadium, only three NCAA Division I FBS football programs now play indoors (Idaho, Syracuse and Tulane; the former two play at on-campus domed stadiums while the third shares the Mercedes-Benz Superdome with the New Orleans Saints). When the Gophers first moved to the Metrodome, the NFL-class facilities were seen as an improvement over the aging Memorial Stadium. Initially, attendance increased. However, fans waxed nostalgic over fall days playing outdoors on campus. TCF Bank Stadium provides an outdoor, on-campus venue.
Starting in the 2010 season, the University of Minnesota Golden Gopher Baseball team are playing all of their home games at Metrodome (with the exception of a game at the new Target Field on March 27, 2010). The University of Minnesota Golden Gophers baseball has played games since 1985 during February and March because of weather. Later games were played at Siebert Field, except for 2006 when all but two home games were played at Metrodome . The team often played major tournaments at the Dome, which includes the Dairy Queen Classic, where three other major Division I baseball teams play in an invitational. Prior to the NCAA's 2008 rule in Division I regarding the start of the college baseball season, the Golden Gophers would often play home games at Metrodome earlier than other teams in the area to neutralize the advantage of warmer-weather schools starting their seasons earlier in the year. Some early Big Ten conference games are played at Metrodome, and the Golden Gophers take advantage of the home field advantage during the early part of the season before the weather warms, and the Gophers can play games on-campus. Other small colleges also play games in the stadium during the weeks before Metrodome is open for Division I play. In 2010, 420 amateur baseball and softball games—including the majority of the Golden Gophers' home schedule—were played at Metrodome.
The size of Siebert Field also affects the Golden Gophers starting in 2010. The Golden Gophers last hosted an NCAA baseball tournament regional in 2000, with temporary seating added. With Metrodome being available for the tournament starting in 2010, the team could easily place a bid, and have a better possibility of hosting, an NCAA baseball regional or super regional.
Other cold-weather teams have played at Metrodome. Big 12 Conference member Kansas has played two series (2007 and 2010) at Metrodome because of inclement weather against South Dakota State and Eastern Michigan, respectively.
- Minnesota Strikers 1984 NASL season.
- 2002 and 2008 Victory Bowls, the NCCAA National Football Championships.
- Prep Bowl (Minnesota State High School League; state high school football championships).
- MSHSL state soccer championships.
- High school and small college baseball games through the spring .
- Small college football games in November hosted by Augsburg College. Also other small college football events including the Northern Sun Intercollegiate Conference and the Upper Midwest Athletic Conference.
- motocross, and other motorsport events.
- Large concerts.
- Large religious services and gatherings.
- The American Wrestling Association, promoted WrestleRock 86 on April 20, 1986, drawing 23,000. This was one of the AWA's last major shows before they went out of business several years later.
- Rollerdome inline skating around the stadium's concourses and Minnesota Distance Running Association running (exercise programs in the concourses).
- Conventions, such as Twins Fest, golf shows, home and garden expos, and car shows.
- Cultural celebrations, such as Hmong New Year gatherings and the Oromo Jilboo American Games.
- Minnesota Youth in Music Marching Band Competition.
- The Promise Keepers, an all-men's evangelical Christian service.
- The annual Hmong American New Year celebration is held in December over the course of two days.
- Metallica and Guns N' Roses brought the Guns N' Roses/Metallica Stadium Tour to the dome on September 15, 1992, with Faith No More as their opening act.
- Youth In Music- Midwest Marching Band Championship.
- Monster Jam.
Development in the Downtown East neighborhood around Metrodome took many years to materialize. For many years there were few bars or restaurants nearby for fans to gather at; tailgating was expressly forbidden in most parking areas. The City of Minneapolis was directing the development of the entertainment districts along Seven corners in Cedar-Riverside, Hennepin Avenue, and the Warehouse district. Metrodome existed among a number of parking areas built upon old rail yards, along with run-down factories and warehouses. Metrodome is not connected to the Minneapolis Skyway System, although that was planned in 1989 to be completed in time to host Super Bowl XXVI. Only in recent years has redevelopment begun moving Southeast to reach Metrodome. More restaurants, hotels, and condominiums have been built nearby. The Hiawatha light rail line has connected the Minneapolis entertainment district with Metrodome.
Metrodome is not a true multipurpose stadium. Rather, it was built as a football stadium that can convert into a baseball stadium. The seating configuration is almost rectangular in shape—something that suits football very well. The seats along the four straight sides directly face their corresponding seats on the opposite side, while the seats in the corners are four quarter-circles.
However, in most cases, this resulted in poor sight lines for baseball. For instance, the seats directly along the left field line faced the center field and right field fences. Unlike other major league parks, there were no seats down to field level. Even the closest front-row seats were at least 5 or 6 feet (1.8 m) above the field.
The way that many seats were situated forced some fans to crane their necks to see the area between the pitcher's mound and home plate. Some fans near the foul poles had to turn more than 80 degrees, compared to less than 70 with the previous Yankee Stadium or 75 degrees at Camden Yards. For that reason, the seats down the left field line were typically among the last ones sold; the (less expensive) outfield lower deck seating tended to fill up sooner. Nearly 1,400 seats had obscured or partial visibility to the playing field – some of them due to the right field upper deck being directly above (and somewhat overhanging) the folded-up football seats behind right field; and some of them due to steel beams in the back rows of the upper deck which are part of the dome's support system.
On the plus side, there was relatively little foul territory, which is not typical of most domed stadiums. Also, with the infield placed near one corner, the seats near home plate and the dugouts, where most game action occurs, had some of the closest views in Major League Baseball. Seats in these areas were popularly known as "the baseball section". In 2007, some extra rows (normally used only for football) were retained for baseball, in the area behind home plate. The sight lines were also very good in the right field corner area, which faced the infield and was closer to the action than the left field corner.
The Twins stopped selling most of the seats in sections 203—212 of the upper level in 1996. This area was curtained off except during the postseason or on occasions when a sellout was anticipated.
As part of the deal with Metrodome, the Minnesota Twins had post-season priority over the Gophers in scheduling. If the Twins were in the playoffs with a home series, the baseball game took priority and the Gopher football game had to be moved to a time suitable to allow the grounds crew to convert the playing field and the stands to the football configuration.
The last month of Major League Baseball's regular season often included one or two Saturdays in which the Twins and Gophers used Metrodome on the same day. On those occasions, the Twins game would start at about 11 AM local time (TV announcer Dick Bremer sometimes joked that the broadcast was competing with SpongeBob SquarePants). Afterward, the conversion took place and the Gophers football game started at about 6 PM. The University of Minnesota was the only school in the Big Ten that shared a football facility with professional sports teams for an extended period of years.
In 2007, there were two such schedule conflicts, on September 1 and 22. In 2008, there were no conflicts on the regular-season schedule.
Due to the minimum time needed to convert the field, a baseball game that ran long in clock time had to be suspended, and concluded the next day. The only time this happened was on October 2, 2004, when a game between the Twins and Indians reached the end of the 11th inning after 2:30 p.m. in a tie and resumed the next day.
The Vikings had rights to the Dome over the Twins except for World Series games. In 1987, the Vikings' home date with the Tampa Bay Buccaneers scheduled for the same day as Game 2 of the World Series was moved to Tampa, and the Vikings' game with the Denver Broncos scheduled for the same day as Game 7 was pushed back to the following Monday night.
The Twins' 2009 AL Central division tiebreaker with the Detroit Tigers was played on Tuesday, October 6, 2009. One-game playoffs are normally held the day after the regular season ends (in this case, the season ended on Sunday, October 4), but the Vikings were using Metrodome for Monday Night Football on October 5. The Twins were awarded the right to host the tiebreaker because they won the season series against Detroit.
In 2009, Mall of America purchased naming rights for the field at Metrodome, resulting in the field being called "Mall of America Field at Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome". The contract expires after the end of the 2011 Vikings season.
The Vikings have operated a team apparel and memorabilia store at the Mall for several years.
Despite possible inference from the signage, the MoA name applies only to the field, not the stadium as a whole. The building remains Hubert Horatio Humphrey Metrodome.
With the passage of time, Metrodome has been thought to be an increasingly poor fit for all three of its major tenants (the Twins, the Vikings and the University of Minnesota Golden Gophers football team). These tenants have all said that the Dome is nearing the end of its useful lifespan. Two of the tenants, the Gophers (football) and Twins, have moved out, while the Vikings are also seeking a new stadium.
The Twins, the Vikings, and the Gophers all proposed replacements for Metrodome, and two of the proposals have materialized. The first of the three major tenants to move was the Gophers, who opened their new TCF Bank Stadium in September 2009. The next to depart were the Twins, whose new Target Field was completed in time for Opening Day 2010. The most recent Vikings stadium proposal was dealt a setback on May 5, 2010, when a Minnesota State House panel defeated the proposal by a 10-9 vote.
The Twins moved to their new ballpark, Target Field, in 2010, after attaining their new stadium with an effort that began in the mid 1990s. Although indoor baseball had critics when Metrodome opened, it was positively regarded by players and fans. By 2001, with Metrodome's peculiarities revealed, and several newer purpose-built Major League Baseball stadiums constructed, an ESPN Page 2 reader poll ranked it as one of the worst Major League Baseball stadiums. Twins management claimed Metrodome generated too little revenue for the Twins to be competitive; specifically, they received no revenue from luxury suite leasing (as those are owned by the Vikings) and only a small percentage of concessions sales. Also, the percentage of season-ticket-quality seats was said to be very low compared to other stadiums. From 2003 through 2009, the Twins had year-to-year leases, and could have moved to another city at any time. However, with no large American markets or new major-league-quality stadiums existing without a current team, it was accepted that the Twins could not profit from a move. The Twins sought a taxpayer subsidy of more than $200 million to assist in construction of the stadium. On January 9, 2005, the Twins went to court to argue that their Metrodome lease should be considered "dead" after the 2005 season. In February, the district court ruled that the Twins' lease was year to year and the team could vacate Metrodome at the end of the 2005 season.
In late April 2007, Hennepin County officially took over the future ballpark site (through a form of Eminent domain called "Quick-Take") which had been an on-going struggle between the county and the land owners. The "official" ground-breaking for the new ballpark was postponed on August 2 due to the collapse of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge. On October 15, 2007, the two sides reached a negotiated settlement of just under $29 million, ending the dispute. As a result, the county noted it would have to cut back on some improvements to the surrounding streetscapes, though it also revealed that the Pohlad family had committed another $15 million for infrastructure.
University of Minnesota Gopher football
The Minnesota Golden Gophers football program began playing in Metrodome for the 1982 season. Attendance was expected to increase over the old Memorial Stadium attendance, especially for late fall games, due to the climate controlled comfort. Initially, average attendance had increased over previous seasons at Memorial Stadium. But, the venue was removed from the traditional on-campus football atmosphere if fans wanted to attend a Gophers football game. Students had to take a bus from the campus to the stadium. The distance from the main campus, along with poor performance by the Gopher football team, caused interest to wane.
U of M officially moved back onto campus, to TCF Bank Stadium, for the 2009 football season. The University believed an on-campus stadium would motivate its student base for increased ticket sales, and also would benefit from athletic revenues, not only for the football program, but the non-revenue sports as well. The new stadium reportedly cost less than half of a current-era NFL-style football stadium, and was built on what were former surface parking lots just a few blocks east of the former Memorial Stadium, with the naming rights purchased by TCF Bank. The University of Minnesota expected to raise more than half the cost of the stadium via private donations. The Gopher Stadium bill was passed by both houses on May 20, 2006, the day before the Twins Stadium bill passed. On May 24, 2006, Governor Pawlenty signed the Gopher bill on the University campus.
The Vikings are thought to be the least hampered by their current situation in the Metrodome, but could move after their current lease expires, in 2011. An enormous market without a team exists for the NFL in Los Angeles. San Antonio has also been discussed as a possible site, during the years that San Antonio native Red McCombs owned the team, though the NFL Committee has never approved of these possible moves. A Los Angeles team would either require a new stadium, or major renovations to the Rose Bowl Stadium or Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The Alamodome also is outmoded by current NFL standards, and would require major renovations.
The NFL and fans have pressured Minnesota governments to finance a new, revenue-generating stadium. Downtown Minneapolis as well as the suburb of Blaine have been explored as potential stadium sites. The Vikings are seeking taxpayer subsidy of more than $300 million to assist in construction of the stadium, which may also be used for the many other events currently taking place at the Metrodome.
On September 20, 2005 the Vikings and Anoka County reached an agreement to build a 68,000 seat retractable-roof stadium in Blaine, where the Vikings and the county would each pay $280 million and the state $115 million. It would have opened in 2009 or 2010 if approved by the legislature. After the approval of the stadium plan, team owner Zygmunt Wilf dropped plans to include a roof of any kind, which would have severely limited the site's utility for year-round events in Anoka County. In November 2006 Anoka County officials pulled out of the partnership. In addition to unapproved site design changes, the Vikings had started to work behind the scenes with officials from Minneapolis, the site of the current Metrodome. Anoka County believed it had an agreement to be an exclusive partner, and since County officials did not want to get into a bidding war with Minneapolis, they withdrew from the project.
The Vikings and Minneapolis at one point conducted studies about redeveloping land around the Metrodome and building a new stadium, tentatively named the Vikings Stadium, on the same land as the Metrodome. If it were to happen, the Vikings would likely play at the new TCF Bank Stadium at the University of Minnesota while a new stadium is constructed on the current site of Metrodome.
Unlike previous owner Red McCombs, the present Vikings ownership has publicly disavowed any plans to remove the team from Minnesota. On May 17, 2006, the State Senate announced that any further work on the Vikings stadium bill would cease until the 2007 legislative session. The bill which authorized financing for the Twins Ballpark included provisions to prepare the field for a Vikings stadium deal in 2007, this was before Anoka County pulled out of the project. Wilf has more recently expressed interest in redeveloping the land on which the Metrodome currently sits. Local politicians are pushing the Vikings ownership to possibly renovate Metrodome because of its location and existing infrastructure.
On February 12, 2009, Lester Bagley, the team's Vice President of Public Affairs and Stadium Development went on the record to the Minneapolis StarTribune stating that Governor Tim Pawlenty had done too little to advance the cause of a new Vikings Stadium. "With all due respect, he's been governor for six years, and he hasn't done anything," Bagley said of Pawlenty. "He hasn't lifted a finger to engage in a problem-solving discussion to help us on our issue. And that's the frustration that the NFL feels, that our ownership feels and a lot of our allies [feel], whether they be elected officials or not. There's a lot of frustration, and there's been no meaningful engagement by the executive branch." This comment angered many fans given the economic recession at the time, and the repercussions of this act have yet to be measured.
On October 1, 2009, The Minnesota Vikings announced a partnership with Mall of America. The agreement named the field the Mall of America Field at the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. The naming rights agreement will last for a three year period and will end on February 28, 2012. As part of the agreement, the interior and exterior will have new signs posted as well as other material. The change took place on October 5, 2009; the day the Minnesota Vikings played against the Green Bay Packers winning (30-23).
On May 5, 2010, a Minnesota State House panel shelved a new Vikings stadium proposal by a 10-9 vote.
The December 12, 2010 roof deflation led to more calls for a new Vikings Stadium from various sources in the local and national media. Minnesota Governor-elect Mark Dayton plans to discuss the matter with NFL commissioner Roger Goodell, but says "any new stadium must first benefit the people of Minnesota".
Accessibility and transportation
Metrodome is located near the junction of Interstate 94 and Interstate 35W, and many fans come by car. There is limited parking in surface lots throughout eastern downtown, and can get as pricey as $50 for a close stall at a Vikings game. On-street meters provide the lowest parking rate, especially the "free evenings" meters near the heart of downtown six blocks from Metrodome. A new option as of 2004 is the Downtown East/Metrodome station on the light rail Blue Line. Many people also come by bus, whether on a charter or on the regular regional bus system.
Tailgating has often been a popular pre-game activity for football fans, and many nearby parking lots have been available in the past for people who want to start early. However, in recent years, new development in the downtown region of Minneapolis has meant that these parking lots have begun to disappear. In 2004, the Vikings offered fans a tailgating area in the huge parking lot known as Rapid Park. The lot however was on the opposite side of downtown Minneapolis from Metrodome itself, next to the Target Center, (although shuttle buses did go back and forth) and is the site of Target Field which the Twins broke ground for in late August 2007 and opened in 2010.
Appearances in popular culture
- In 1997's The Postman, Kevin Costner's character states that in post-apocalyptic American President Richard Starkey governs "From the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome in Minneapolis. You know? Where the Vikings used to play!"
- The first game between the Buzz and the Twins in Major League: Back to the Minors is played at the Metrodome.
- The Metrodome is one of the main settings of the 1994 film Little Big League, which is centered around the Twins.
- On a Saturday Night Live skit, the Metrodome was mentioned as the location of an underground rock festival soon after the 2010 roof collapse.
- Another SNL skit featured the Metrodome as the site of a Monday Night Football game between the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and Vikings though the focus was on the game's announcers, including Dennis Miller, who were parodied.
- ^ Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2008. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved December 7, 2010.
- ^ http://www.ballparks.com/baseball/american/metrod.htm
- ^ a b c Lowry, Phillip (2005). Green Cathedrals. New York City: Walker & Company. ISBN 0802715621.
- ^ "About Metrodome". Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. http://www.msfc.com/about.cfm. Retrieved 2006-11-04.
- ^ "Vikings reach deal to play on 'Mall of America Field'". KARE. 2009-10-01. http://www.kare11.com/sports/sports_article.aspx?storyid=825713. Retrieved 2009-10-01.
- ^ ESPN.com MLB Park Factor
- ^ Metrodome Memories: The last hurrah..., KARE 11 News, October 5, 2009, Accessed January 18, 2011.
- ^ Teddy Greenstein, Tokyo Dome Has Touch Of Home For Macphail, Chicago Tribune, March 27, 2000, Accessed January 18, 2011.
- ^ Cooloftheevening.com
- ^ Klobuchar, Amy (April 1986). Uncovering the Dome (reprint ed.). Waveland Press. ISBN 0-8813321-86.
- ^ Minnesota Sports Facilities Commission - History
- ^ a b c Smith, Curt (2001). Storied Stadiums. New York City: Carroll & Company. ISBN 0786711876.
- ^ CenturyLink Field, home of the Seattle Seahawks, is the loudest roofed stadium. Arrowhead Stadium, home of the Kansas City Chiefs, is the loudest outdoors stadium.
- ^ "Twins pack punch in Game 1 Homers by Gagne and Hrbek spark win over Braves", Associated Press, October 20, 1991
- ^ Playoff Site at Site Wilmington Morning Star January 4, 1983
- ^ Ranking NFL Stadiums The Miami News August 12, 1987
- ^ Bevell's sore, but will play ''Milwaukee Journal October 19, 1983
- ^ National Football Conference Orlando Sentinel August 30, 1996
- ^ Vikings' hopes dim for sellout Minneapolis Star Tribune September 10, 1997
- ^ VIKINGS NOTES Minneapolis Star Tribune October 24, 2000
- ^ ESPN.go.com
- ^ Major League Baseball ground rules
- ^ Blair Kamin, Chicago architects designed Metrodome; New York firm responsible for fabric roof, Chicago Tribune, December 12, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ Dave Campbell, Dome disaster: Snow wrecks Vikings' home, The Associated Press, December 13, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ Fabric arena shaped by past domes, Engineering News Record, October 1, 1981, Accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ a b c d Kevin Duchschere, Paul McEnroe and Kurt Brown, Can splices fix Dome's slices for Bears game?, Star Tribune, December 14, 2010, accessed December 14, 2010.
- ^ Pat Borzi and Julie Battista, Roof Falls In, Sending the Giants’ Game to Detroit, The New York Times, December 12, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ a b Pat Borzi, With Their Dome Deflated, the Vikings Still Need a Home, The New York Times, December 14, 2010, Accessed December 14, 2010.
- ^ Green Cathedrals,1992 edition,p.57
- ^ Dee DePass, Judd Zulgad and Dennis J. McGrath, Metrodome roof rips, collapses, Star Tribune, December 13, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ a b c Regular Meeting, Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission, July 15, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ "Video of December 12th's roof collapse". Fox News. December 12, 2010. http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=bf0_1292178398.
- ^ a b Kevin Duchschere, Crew coming to inspect fallen Dome roof, Star Tribune, December 13, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ Fourth Metrodome roof panel fails, nobody hurt, Kare 11, December 15, 2010, accessed December 16, 2010.
- ^ "Snow forces Giants-Vikings reschedule". The Boston Globe. December 12, 2010. http://www.boston.com/sports/football/articles/2010/12/12/snow_forces_giants_vikings_reschedule/.
- ^ Giants-Vikings moved to Ford Field, ESPN.com, December 12, 2010, accessed December 12, 2010.
- ^ Monday's Vikings-Bears game will be played at U's stadium; Dome won't be ready, Star Tribune, December 14, 2010, Accessed December 14, 2010.
- ^ 2011 Minnesota Golden Gophers Baseball Schedule
- ^ Duchshere, Kevin and Phil Miller - Dome can't be fixed until spring, Festivals and teams are scrambling as officials said the roof won't be ready for months. Star Tribune, December 29, 2010. Bill Lester, executive director of the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission, said on Wednesday that it's not yet clear when the Dome's ripped roof can be fixed but that it won't happen before spring.
- ^ a b "Gophers revise baseball schedule: Big Ten home games at Target Field". Star Tribune. February 19, 2011. http://www.startribune.com/sports/gophers/116482848.html. Retrieved February 20, 2011.
- ^ Zennie Abraham, Metrodome Roof Collapse: Roof Maker Recommended Replacing It, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, December 12, 2010, accessed December 13, 2010.
- ^ Metrodome roof repair could disrupt preseason schedule NFL.com February 10, 2011
- ^ http://sports.yahoo.com/nfl/news;_ylt=Alz56RinC53qut40UYpsvaBDubYF?slug=ap-metrodomeroof Metrodome roof up again, nearly ready for Vikings] Yahoo! Sports July 13, 2011
- ^ "HHH Metrodome Information". TicketSolutions.com. 2007. http://www.tickets4u.com/info-metrodome.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-07.
- ^ Startribune.com
- ^ Court settles Metrodome turf war | vikings.football-news-update.com
- ^ Taking a last look at fixing the Dome for the Vikings. Star Tribune. Paul Levy. July 19, 2007 - "A Metrodome renovation is being studied, although Vikings officials say the site really isn't big enough by today's NFL standards."
- ^ What makes a city Super to NFL?
- ^ a b c Miller, Scott - Metrodome --baseball's historic abomination ... to many CBSsports.com, September 2, 2009
- ^ Miller, Scott - Love Letters: Metrodome will be missed CBS Sports, Sept 2009
- ^ Brackin, Dennis - Farewell to Metrodome: Sweet and Sour Sorrow Star Tribune, October 5, 2009
- ^ a b ESPN Page 2 List of Worst Ballparks reader response ESPN.go.com, May 3, 2001. 2. Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome (263 letters, behind number 1, Veteran's Stadium in Philadelphia)
- ^ Neel, Eric - Nothing like a walk in the ballpark ESPN Page 2, September 10, 2003. 24th out of 30
- ^ O'Malley Greenberg, Zack - America's Best Baseball Stadiums Forbes, April 14, 2009. 27th out of 30
- ^ Minnesota Gopher Football Media Guide 2009, University of Minnesota Intercollegiate Athletics. 2009
- ^ a b University of Minnesota Football media guide p. 160 (PDF)
- ^ Wood, Bob (Robert) (1989). Big Ten country: a journey through one football season. Morrow. ISBN 0-688-08922-4.
- ^ Baseball - 2010 Schedule at gophersports.com, URL accessed December 29, 2009. Archived 12/29/09
- ^ Winter Ball Never Sleeps or Shivers at Metrodome, New York Times, 17 March 2010.
- ^ Kansan.com
- ^ "AWA WrestleRock '86 at Metrodome wrestling results". Internet Wrestling Database. 2008. http://www.profightdb.com/cards/awa/wrestlerock-3986-3497.html. Retrieved December 12, 2010.
- ^ "RollerDome Homepage". http://www.roller-dome.com/. Retrieved 2007-12-27.
- ^ "Twins-Indians Suspended; Yankees Still Waiting for Playoff Opponent". The New York Times. October 2, 2004. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/10/02/sports/baseball/03TWINS-WIRE.html. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ Baseball-reference.com
- ^ Baseball-reference.com
- ^ Borzi, Pat (October 6, 2009). "Making Metrodome a Two-Sport Star, Fast". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/06/sports/baseball/06twins.html?_r=1&hp. Retrieved April 2, 2010.
- ^ Niemela, Jennifer; Kaplan, Daniel (October 1, 2009). "Vikings: MOA buys naming rights to Metrodome field". http://twincities.bizjournals.com/twincities/stories/2009/09/28/daily47.html.
- ^ a b Startribune.com
- ^ Thesier, Kelly - Moving day an exciting time for Twins - Club employees settling in at new home within Target Field Major League Baseball (MLB.com), December 28, 2009
- ^ Brackin, Dennis - Metrodome? It was when it opened Star Tribune, April 2, 2010 The initial reaction to Metrodome was an overwhelmingly positive one, perhaps in part because the Twins played there for the first time just as a blizzard hit the Twin Cities.
- ^ Rochelle Olson, Stadium land feud ends with cost stretching to $29 million, Star Tribune, October 15, 2007.
- ^ Brackin, Dennis - For Gophers, Metrodome went from blessing to curse Star Tribune, December 31, 2008
- ^ Rejournals.com
- ^ Startribune.com
- ^ Chris Erskine, Metrodome roof collapse had to be a sign from above, Los Angeles Times, December 13, 2010, Accessed December 14, 2010.
- ^ Mike Kaszuba, Dayton meeting with NFL commissioner, Star-Tribune, December 17, 2010, Accessed December 17, 2010.
- MSFC official site
- Minnesota Vikings Web Site
- University of Minnesota sports Web Site
- Ballpark Digest review of Metrodome
- Metrodome: a baseball disaster
- Blog with pictures of 2011 roof
- Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome at Structurae
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