- Sack of Rome (410)
The Sack of
Romeoccurred on August 24, 410. The city was attacked by the Visigoths, led by Alaric I. The Roman capital had been moved to the Italian city of Ravenna by the young emperor Honorius, after the Visigothsentered Italy.
This was the first time in almost 800 years that
Romehad fallen to an enemy. The previous sack of Rome was by Gauls under their leader Brennus in 387 BC. Some historians see this as a major landmark in the decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire.
Troubles in the East
Barbarian tribes had been growing stronger for a long time, uniting in fear of the Roman juggernaut. However, in the late 4th century, the
Hunsbegan to overrun barbarian territories. In 376, they forced many Thervings, led by Fritigernto seek exile into the Eastern Roman Empire. Soon, however, high taxes, Roman prejudice, and government corruption turned them against the Empire. The Visigoths began looting and pillaging throughout the Eastern Balkans. In the Second Battle of Adrianoplein 378, Fritigerndecisively defeated the Eastern Emperor Valence, who died during or soon after the battle.
A peace was forged in 382, in which the new Eastern Emperor,
Theodosius I, signed a treaty with these Goths (later known as the Visigoths) that recognized their claim to the province of Thrace.Fact|date=February 2007
Alaricthe Visigothwas rising through the Visigothic ranks. He accompanied Theodosius' army invading the West in 394, where, at the Battle of the Frigidus, around half the Visigothspresent died fighting the Western Roman army under Eugeniusand his general Arbogast. Theodosius had explicitly ordered the Goths to charge the usurpers army before he engaged his Roman soldiers, with the intent of weaken both the Visigoths and the Western Romans. Theodosius won the battle, but Alaric was likely convinced by this point that the Romans sought to weaken the Goths by making them bear the brunt of warfare, in anticipation of a day when the Goths were weak enough to be completely subjugated. Alaricwas practically ruler of the Visigothsby the time Theodosius died in 395; Fritigern had died in 380.Fact|date=February 2007
Return to hostilities
Alaric soon resumed hostilities against the Eastern Empire after Theodosius died.
Flavius Stilicho, the Eastern Empire's top general, and later the Western Empire's top general, soon chased him into Italy, and then through Italy.
Fearing the Visigoths, the
Western Roman Empiremoved its capital from Mediolanumto Ravenna, which was strategically located so as to be easily defended. In the meantime, Alaric made several attempts at invading Italy, but was halted by Stilicho and decisively defeated at the Battle of Pollentiaand later in the Battle of Verona. In time, he became an ally of Stilicho, agreeing to help reclaim Illyricum for the Western Empire. However, when the Vandals and Sueves crossed the Rhine and invaded Gaul, the invasion was called off and Alaric was left with the expense of preparations for the campaign. Stilicho persuaded the Roman Senateto reimburse Alaric, but the fiasco had sown resentment in both the Romans and in Alaric's Goths.
In 408, Emperor Arcadius died, and Honorius wanted to journey East to settle the succession of the Eastern Empire. Stilicho forbade it and suggested that he go instead. Rumor spread that Stilicho wanted to place his son on the Eastern throne. Soon after, a mutiny of the army was staged by Olympius, a Roman bureaucrat, wherein most of Stilicho's appointees were killed. Having persuaded Honorius that Stilicho was an "enemy of the state", Olympius was appointed Magister Officium. Stilicho, who was taking refuge in a church, was arrested and executed. These events were followed by more violence on the part of the Roman army, this time aimed at the barbarian soldiers and slaves in Italy, many of them captured by Stilicho in his many wars. Around 30,000 escaped Italy and fled to Alaric's banner, giving him a massive army with which to force a deal out of the Romans.
The angry Visigoths soon invaded Italy and headed straight for
Rome, laying siege to the city in late 408. Starvation and disease spread in Rome. The situation became so bleak that Pope Innocentassented to several pagan priests who wanted to try to use magic to ward off the besiegers, though the plan was abandoned when no one in the senate could be found to take part in the ceremony. The senate was forced to make a deal with Alaric, giving him 5,000 pounds of gold, 30,000 pounds of silver, along with silkand pepper in exchange for lifting the siege.
The Senate sent several envoys, including the Pope, to Ravenna to encourage the Emperor to make a deal with the Goths. Alaric went to Ariminum where he discussed such a deal with Honorius' diplomats. He wanted the provinces of
Rhaetiaand Noricumas a home for the Visigoths, and a generalship in the Roman army. However, Honorius refused to grant Alaric the title of Magister Militium, and insulted Alaric in a letter. In addition, Honorius tried to sneak a force of Illyrian soldiers into Rome. The army was intercepted by Alaric and, outraged by the insults, Alaric besieged Rome a second time, this time destroying the granaries at Portus. Faced with the return of starvation, the Senate surrendered again, this time, under pressure from Alaric, appointing Priscus Attalusas a rival Emperor. Alaric was made Magister Utriusque Militium and his brother-in-law Ataulf, who had arrived with reinforcements, Comes Domesticorum Equitum. They marched toward Ravenna to depose Honorius, and Honorius was ready to surrender when an army from the Eastern Empire arrived to defend Ravenna. In addition, Heraclian, who governed Africa, cut off Rome's grain supply, threatening the city with another famine. Alaric wanted to send Gothic soldiers to invade Africa and secure food for Rome, but Attalus refused, supposedly because he feared that the Goths would seize Africa for themselves. In response, Alaric had Attalus ceremonially deposed and reopened negotiations with Honorius.
Third siege and sack
Alaric was on the verge of an agreement with Honorius when his forces were attacked by Sarus, a fellow Gothic commander who was allied to Honorius and who had a blood feud with Ataulf. Alaric returned to Rome and laid siege to it a third time. On August 24, 410, slaves opened
Rome's Salarian Gateand the Visigoths poured in and looted for three days. Because the barbarians had joined a sect called the Arian Christians it was not a particularly violent looting with relatively little rape or murderPeter Heather, "The Fall of the Roman Empire. A new History" (London, 2005), pp. 227-229] , it had a profound effect on the city. This was the first time the city had been sacked in 800 years, and its citizens were devastated.
Tens of thousands of Romans fled the economically ruined city into the countryside,Fact|date=June 2007 with many of them seeking refuge in Africa.
After the sack, Alaric and his forces journeyed south, where they expected to take ships to Africa. However, the ships were destroyed in a storm and Alaric died around the same time. Ataulf took command of the Goths, leading them north, into Gaul, where they settled in Aquitaine.
The City of God
* [http://www.mmdtkw.org/VAlaric.html "The Histories"] of Olympiodorus of Thebes
* "Historia Nova", by the Greek Historian Zosimus
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