- Beagle 2
Name = Beagle 2
Caption = Beagle 2 as it would have looked on Mars
Mission_Type = Lander
December 25, 2003
June 2 2003
Launch_Vehicle = Soyuz/
NSSDC_ID = 2003-022C
Webpage = [http://beagle2.open.ac.uk/index.htm Beagle2 official site]
Mass = 33.2 kg
"Beagle 2" was an unsuccessful British landing spacecraft that formed part of the
European Space Agency's 2003 " Mars Express" mission. It is not known for certain whether the lander reached the Martian surface; all contact with it was lost upon its separation from the Mars Express six days before its scheduled entry into the atmosphere. It may have missed Mars altogether, skipped off the atmosphere and entered an orbit around the sun, or burned up during its descent. If it reached the surface, it may have hit too hard or just simply failed to contact Earth due to a minor fault.
"Beagle 2" was conceived by a group of British academics headed by Professor
Colin Pillingerof the Open University, in collaboration with the University of Leicester. Its purpose was to search for signs of Martian life, past or present, and its name reflected this goal, as Professor Pillinger explained:
:"HMS "Beagle" was the ship that took Darwin on his voyage around the world in the 1830s and led to our knowledge about life on Earth making a real
quantum leap. We hope "Beagle 2" will do the same thing for life on Mars."
A point at 10.6°N, 270°W in
Isidis Planitia, a large flat sedimentary basinthat overlies the boundary between the ancient highlands and the northern plains of Mars, was chosen as the landing site. The lander was expected to operate for about 180 days and an extended mission of up to one Martian year (687 Earthdays) was thought possible. The "Beagle 2" lander objectives were to characterize the landing site geology, mineralogy, geochemistryand oxidation state, the physical properties of the atmosphere and surface layers, collect data on Martian meteorologyand climatology, and search for possible signatures of life.
Pillinger set up a consortium to design and build "Beagle 2". The principal members and their initial responsibilities were:
Open University- Consortium leader & scientific experiments
*University of Leicester - Project management, Mission management, Flight Operations Team, instrument management, and scientific experiments
Astrium- Main industrial partner
Martin-Baker- Entry, descent and landing system
Logica- Cruise, entry, descent and landing software
SciSys- Ground segment and lander software
University of Wales, Aberystwyth- Robotic arm
In 2000, when the main development phase started, Astrium took over responsibility for program management, and Leicester assumed responsibility for mission management which involved the preparations for the operations post launch and the operations control center.
In an effort to publicize the project and gain financial support, its designers sought and received the endorsement and participation of British artists. The mission's call-sign was composed by the band Blur, and the 'test card' (Calibration Target Plate) intended for calibrating "Beagle 2"'s cameras and spectrometers after landing was painted by
The Lander Operations Control Centre (LOCC) was located at the
National Space Centrein Leicester, from which the spacecraftwas being controlled, and was visible to the public visiting the center. The control center included operational systems for controlling the "Beagle 2", analysis tools for processing engineering and scientific telemetry, virtual reality tools for preparing activity sequences, communications systems, and the Ground Test Model (GTM). The GTM was composed of various builds of the "Beagle 2" systems, collected together to provide a full set of lander electronics. The GTM was used nearly continuously to validate the engineering and science commands, to rehearse the landing sequence, and to validate the onboard software.
pacecraft and subsystems
"Beagle 2" had a robotic arm known as the Payload Adjustable Workbench (PAW), designed to be extended after landing. The PAW contained a pair of stereo cameras, a
microscope(with a 6 micrometreresolution), a Mössbauer spectrometer, an X-ray spectrometer, a drill for collecting rock samples and a spotlamp. Rock samples were to be passed by the PAW into a mass spectrometerand gas chromatograph in the body of the lander - the GAP (Gas Analysis Package), to measure the relative proportions of different isotopes of carbon. Since carbon is thought to be the basis of all life, these readings could have revealed whether the samples contained the remnants of living organisms.
In addition, "Beagle 2" was equipped with a small "mole" (Planetary Undersurface Tool, or PLUTO), to be deployed by the arm. PLUTO had a compressed spring mechanism designed to enable it to move across the surface at a rate of about 1 cm every 5 seconds and to burrow into the ground and collect a subsurface sample in a cavity in its tip. The mole was attached to the lander by a power cable which could be used as a winch to bring the sample back to the lander.
The lander had the shape of a shallow bowl with a diameter of 1m and a depth of 0.25 m. The cover of the lander was hinged and folded open to reveal the interior of the craft which holds a UHF antenna, the 0.75 m long
robotarm, and the scientific equipment. The main body also contained the battery, telecommunications, electronics, and central processor, heaters, and additional payload items (radiation and oxidation sensors). The lid itself further unfolded to expose four disk-shaped solar arrays. The lander package had a mass of 69 kg at launch but the actual lander would have been only 33.2 kg at touchdown.
The ground segment itself was derived from the European Space Agency software kernel known as SCOS2000. In keeping with the low cost theme of the mission, the control software was the first of its type deployed on a laptop.
"Mars Express" launched from
Baikonurat 17:45 UTC (18:45 British S 2003. The "Beagle 2" was a Mars lander initially mounted on the top deck of the " Mars Express Orbiter". It was released from the "Orbiter" on a ballistic trajectory towards Mars on 19 December 2003at 8:31 UT. "Beagle 2" coasted for six days after release and was scheduled to enter the Martian atmosphere, at over 20,000 km/h, on the morning of 25 December. The lander was protected from the heat of entry by a heatshield coated with NORCOAT, an ablating material made by EADS. Compression of the martian atmosphere and radiation from the hot gas are estimated to have led to a peak heating rate of around 100 W/cm², comparable to the heat flux experienced by Mars Pathfinder.
After deceleration in the Martian atmosphere,
parachutes were to be deployed and about 1 km above the surface large airbags were to inflate around the lander and protect it when it hit the surface. Landing was expected to occur at about 02:45 UT on 25 December (9:45 p.m. EST 24 December). After landing the bags were supposed to deflate and the top of the lander was to open. A signal was supposed to be sent to "Mars Express" after landing and another the next (local) morning to confirm that "Beagle 2" survived the landing and the first night on Mars. A panoramic image of the landing area was then supposed to be taken using the stereo camera and a pop-up mirror, after which the lander arm would have been released. The lander arm was to dig up samples to be deposited in the various instruments for study, and the "mole" would have been deployed, crawling across the surface to a distance of about 3 meters from the lander and burrowing under rocks to collect soil samples for analysis.
The British government spent more than £22 million (US$40 million) on "Beagle 2", with the remainder of the total £44 million (US$80 million) coming from the private sector. [http://www.space.com/news/beagle_update_040524.html]
Although the "Beagle 2" craft successfully deployed from the "Mars Express" "mother ship", confirmation of a successful landing was not forthcoming. Confirmation should have come on
25 December 2003, when the "Beagle 2" should have contacted NASA's " Mars Odyssey" spacecraft that was already in orbit. In the following days, the Lovell Telescope at Jodrell Bankalso failed to pick up a signal from "Beagle 2". The team said they were "still hopeful" of finding a successful return signal.
Attempts were made throughout January and February of
2004to contact "Beagle 2" using "Mars Express". The first of these occurred on January 7, 2004, but ended in failure. Although regular calls were made, particular hope was placed on communication occurring on January 12, when "Beagle 2" was pre-programmed to expect the "Mars Express" probe to fly overhead, and on February 2, when the probe was supposed to resort to the last communication back-up mode: Autotransmit. However, no communication was ever established with "Beagle 2".
December 31, 2003, it was reported that a crater was photographed in the center of the target landing site. It was originally believed that this could have been the final resting place of "Beagle 2", the craft unable to transmit from the shadow of the crater walls; however, higher-resolution imagery later disproved this theory.
"Beagle 2" was declared lost on
February 6, 2004, by the "Beagle 2" Management Board. On February 11, ESA announced an inquiry would be held into the failure of "Beagle 2".
Failures in missions to Mars are common. As of 2006, of 37 launch attempts to reach the planet, only 18 have succeeded. See the so-called Mars Curse for details.
earch for a possible crash site
December 20 2005, Professor Pillinger released specially-processed images [ [http://www.esa.int/esaMI/Mars_Express/SEMAPB8A9HE_1.html ESA - Mars Express - Possible evidence found for "Beagle 2" location ] ] from the Mars Global Surveyorwhich suggested that "Beagle 2" came down in a crater at the landing site on Isidis Planitia. It was claimed that the blurry images show the primary impact site as a dark patch, and, a short distance away, "Beagle 2" surrounded by the deflated airbags and with its solar panels extended. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4542174.stm BBC analysis] . Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's HiRISE camera observed the area in February 2007, revealing that the crater was empty [ [http://hiroc.lpl.arizona.edu/images/PSP/diafotizo.php?ID=PSP_002347_1915 HiRISE | Portion of "Beagle 2" Landing Ellipse in Isidis Planitia (PSP_002347_1915) ] ] .
ESA/UK Inquiry report
In May, 2004, the report from the [http://www.bnsc.gov.uk/assets/channels/resources/press/report.pdf Commission of Inquiry on "Beagle 2"] was submitted to ESA and the UK's science minister Lord Sainsbury. Initially the full report was not published on the grounds of confidentiality, but a list of 19 recommendations was announced to the public. Professor
David Southwood, ESA's director of science, provided the following scenarios on how the landing might have failed:
*"Beagle" entered an atmosphere that was not predicted by scientists and could have burnt up. It may even have "bounced off into space". The amount of dust in the atmosphere often varies widely, changing its density and temperature characteristics.
*The probe's parachute or cushioning airbags failed to deploy or deployed at the wrong time;
*"Beagle"'s backshell tangled with the parachute preventing it from opening properly;
*"Beagle" became wrapped up in its airbags or parachute on the surface and could not open.
In February 2005, following comments from the House of Commons Select Committee on Science and Technology, the report was made public, and Leicester University independently published a detailed mission report, including possible
failure modes, and a "lessons learned" pamphlet.
In 2004, Colin Pillinger announced plans to launch an improved successor, provisionally entitled "", in 2009.
In 2007, the Johnson Space Center and Colin Pillinger announced plans to launch a updated version of "Beagle 2" attached to a moon lander mission. [cite journal
doi = 10.1038/news070312-10
title = Reprieve for "Beagle"? Instruments from doomed Mars mission seek a second chance on the Moon.
author = Katharine Sanderson
journal = Science
year = 2007] [http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2007/pdf/1306.pdf]
"Beagle 2" in fiction
The concept for the "Beagle 2" mission appears in the "Transformers" motion picture released in 2007, which inaccurately depicts the "Beagle 2" as a
NASA-launched rover. The mission's failure is attributed to the rover's destruction by a Decepticon. In the movie, "Beagle 2" reportedly functioned for 13 seconds, before being destroyed by the Decepticons. A picture of the extraterrestrial being was taken and the incident was kept secret from the public. "Beagle 2" is incorrectly portrayed in the film as a wheeled rover, rather than a stationary probe. Director Michael Bayhad always wanted to incorporate the incident into one of his films. [ Michael Bay, DVD audio commentary, 2007]
In the novel "Sunstorm" by
Arthur C. Clarkeand Stephen Baxtera Mars rover is named for "Beagle 2".
Exploration of Mars
Unmanned space missions
* [http://www.beagle2.com "Beagle 2"'s Official Site]
* [http://spdext.estec.esa.nl/content/doc/8f/27791_.htm "Mars Express"]
* [http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?MCode=Beagle_02 "Beagle 2" Mission Profile] by [http://solarsystem.nasa.gov NASA's Solar System Exploration]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/spl/hi/sci_nat/03/race_to_mars/mission_guide/html/beagle_2.stm BBC guide to "Beagle 2"]
* [http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/database/MasterCatalog?sc=2003-022C NSSDC page on "Beagle 2"]
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4542174.stm "Beagle 2" probe 'spotted' on Mars] (BBC News Online
December 20 2005)
* [http://www.newscientist.com/news/news.jsp?id=ns99994752 "Beagle 2" may have sped to its death] ("New Scientist",
8 March 2004)
* [http://www.bnsc.gov.uk/assets/channels/resources/press/report.pdf ESA/UK Commission of Inquiry report. (PDF file)]
* [http://www.src.le.ac.uk/projects/beagle2/report/ University of Leicester "Mission Report" and "Lessons Learned"]
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